is a Canadian
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...
government-supported non-profit corporation, founded in 1993, which maintains a set of leased wide area network
A wide area network is a telecommunication network that covers a broad area . Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various geographical locations...
links for the transfer of very large data files. The core network consists of 19000 km of fibre optic cable capable of speeds as high as 100 Gbps but generally operated at 10 Gbps. It was, in 2008, the second fastest national network in the world, behind the United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...
. The network is used primarily by for education and research bodies across Canada, with links to similar networks at the provincial level or in other countries. The network was originally called CA*Net
, and the company name was originally an acronym for Canadian Network for the Advancement of Research, Industry and Education
The original CAnet was created in 1990 with support from the National Research Council. CANARIE was involved in its operations as network had been upgraded to 56 kbit
The kilobit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage. The prefix kilo is defined in the International System of Units as a multiplier of 103 , and therefore,...
links in 1993, to 10 Mbit/s in 1995, and then later to 20 Mbit/s. It had 100 Mbit/s aggregate capacity in 1996, and the same year the National Test Network (NTN) project introduced ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a standard switching technique designed to unify telecommunication and computer networks. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing, and it encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells. This differs from approaches such as the Internet Protocol or Ethernet that...
In 1997, the company Bell Advanced Communications (later Bell Nexxia, now part of Bell Canada
Bell Canada is a major Canadian telecommunications company. Including its subsidiaries such as Bell Aliant, Northwestel, Télébec, and NorthernTel, it is the incumbent local exchange carrier for telephone and DSL Internet services in most of Canada east of Manitoba and in the northern territories,...
) was given operating control over the network operations. The CAnet II was launched based on NTN links and capacities, OC-3 (155 Mbit/s) at the core. At exactly the same time, Sympatico "DSL" service started, and appeared to use the same links.
In 1998, CANARIE deployed CA*Net 3, the world's first national optical Internet research and education network. The planned capacity of the network was 40 Gbit/s. In 2002, the Government of Canada committed $110 million to CANARIE to build and operate CAnet 4. CAnet 4, yields a total initial network capacity of between 160 Gbit/s and 320 Gbit/s, or four and eight times its predecessor. CAnet 4 is based on OC-192 optical circuits.
CANARIE also funds research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...
projects on a competitive basis; these projects must be carried out by Canadian companies in Canada. One of the technologies CANARIE is developing is User Controlled Light Path (UCLP) switching.
Headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario, CANARIE maintains and modifies a set of leased wide area network links for educational and research organizations of Canada. CANARIE network is 19,000 km long and goes across Canada with links north as far as the Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceanic divisions...
. Satellite links are used to reach remote communities on the islands of the arctic. CANARIE partners with several companies in areas from the networking and technology industries. As of November 2010, CANARIE transferred an average of 6.6 petabytes of data per quarter.
CANARIE is used for long-haul only, the "last mile
The "last mile" or "last kilometer" is the final leg of delivering connectivity from a communications provider to a customer. The phrase is therefore often used by the telecommunications and cable television industries. The actual distance of this leg may be considerably more than a mile,...
" is provided by its users, typically universities or research labs. More than one million researchers, scientists and student have access to the CANARIE Network, through 89 universities, 103 colleges, 47 Cegeps, 84 provincial and federal government labs and research parks, 58 hospitals and health networks, 31 cultural institutions, and thousands of K-12 schools across the country. It is also connected to 10 regional and 2 territorial research networks in Canada (refer to "Regional Partners" below) and to 100 international peer networks in 80 countries. 95% of Canada’s "big science" initiatives use the CANARIE Network, and 98% of the top 50 Canadian R&D universities are now connected.
As of 2003, the user list included::
- 89 universities, 101 colleges, and 47 CEGEPS
- 86 provincial and federal government labs and research parks
- 60 hospitals and health networks
- 32 cultural institutions
- thousands of K-12 schools
- 12 provincial and territorial optical network partners
- 100+ international peer networks in 80 countries and other partners in Canada's innovation system.
CANARIE works with similar high-speed fibre-optic networks in Canada's provinces and territories to provide connectivity across the country. Those networks are referred to as ORANs, Optical Regional Advanced Networks, and include the following:
- Yukon: Yukon College
Yukon College is a community college in the Canadian territory of Yukon. Its main campus is in Whitehorse, Yukon. The college was founded in 1983, replacing the Yukon Vocational and Technical Training Centre, which had been in operation since the 1960s...
- Northwest Territories: Aurora College
Aurora College, formerly Arctic College, is a college in the Northwest Territories, Canada with campuses in Inuvik, Fort Smith and Yellowknife. They have learning centres in 23 communities in the NWT. The head office for Aurora College is located in Fort Smith.-Mission:*Aurora College is dedicated...
- Nunavut: No network as of December 2010
- British Columbia: BCNET
- Alberta: Cybera
- Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan Research Network (SRnet)
- Manitoba: Manitoba Research Network (MRnet)
- Ontario: Ontario Research and Innovation Optical Network (ORION)
- Quebec: Réseau d'informations scientifiques du Québec (RISQ)
- New Brunswick: University of New Brunswick
The University of New Brunswick is a Canadian university located in the province of New Brunswick. UNB is the oldest English language university in Canada and among the first public universities in North America. The university has two main campuses: the original campus founded in 1785 in...
- Prince Edward Island: University of Prince Edward Island
The University of Prince Edward Island is a public liberal arts university in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, and the sole university in the province. Founded in 1969, it traces its roots back to its two earlier predecessor organizations, St. Dunstan's University and Prince of Wales...
- Nova Scotia: Atlantic Canada Organization of Research Networks (ACORN-NS
ACORN-NS operates an ORAN in Nova Scotia, Canada....
- Newfoundland and Labrador: Atlantic Organization of Research Networks (ACORN-NL)
CANARIE receives funding in five-year blocks, so the current Government of Canada spending estimates for 2011-2012 in budget legislation tabled in the House of Commons on June 6, 2011. indicate that CANARIE’s funding is to be retired. What this means is that this five-year funding block expires this year (i.e., March 2012). CANARIE will apply for another five-year funding block, which will be included in the March 2012 budget.
This item was reported on CBC Radio News as having been passed on June 13, 2011.
Aside from government funding, the only other revenues in 2009-2010 were less than $500,000 obtained from membership fees and royalties.
The amount of funding removed from the Estimates in the new (2011–2012) budget is $31 million. In the latest report to the Minister of Industry Canada the grant amounted to approximately $27.5 million. The same information is published in the CANARIE web site version of the CANARIE Annual Report - 2010.