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Bottlebrush

Bottlebrush

Overview
Callistemon is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of 34 species of shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s in the family Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae
The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of dicotyledon plants, placed within the order Myrtales. Myrtle, clove, guava, feijoa, allspice, and eucalyptus belong here. All species are woody, with essential oils, and flower parts in multiples of four or five...

, all of which are endemic to Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. It is sometimes considered a synonym of Melaleuca
Melaleuca
Melaleuca is a genus of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae known for its natural soothing and cleansing properties. There are well over 200 recognised species, most of which are endemic to Australia...

, and four Callistemon species from New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, east of Australia and about from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of...

 were moved to that genus by Lyndley Craven
Lyndley Craven
Lyndley Alan Craven is a botanist. He is the Principal Research Scientist of the Australian National Herbarium.-Published works:*"Physiological, anatomical and biochemical characterisation of photosynthetic types in genus Cleome ". Functional Plant Biology. Volume 34, Number 4. 2007.*"Callistemon...

 and John Dawson in 1998. Callistemon species are commonly referred to as bottlebrushes because of their cylindrical, brush like flowers resembling a traditional bottle
Bottle
A bottle is a rigid container with a neck that is narrower than the body and a "mouth". By contrast, a jar has a relatively large mouth or opening. Bottles are often made of glass, clay, plastic, aluminum or other impervious materials, and typically used to store liquids such as water, milk, soft...

 brush
Brush
A brush is a tool with bristles, wire or other filaments, used for cleaning, grooming hair, make up, painting, surface finishing and for many other purposes. It is one of the most basic and versatile tools known to mankind, and the average household may contain several dozen varieties...

.
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Encyclopedia
Callistemon is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of 34 species of shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s in the family Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae
The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of dicotyledon plants, placed within the order Myrtales. Myrtle, clove, guava, feijoa, allspice, and eucalyptus belong here. All species are woody, with essential oils, and flower parts in multiples of four or five...

, all of which are endemic to Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. It is sometimes considered a synonym of Melaleuca
Melaleuca
Melaleuca is a genus of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae known for its natural soothing and cleansing properties. There are well over 200 recognised species, most of which are endemic to Australia...

, and four Callistemon species from New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, east of Australia and about from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of...

 were moved to that genus by Lyndley Craven
Lyndley Craven
Lyndley Alan Craven is a botanist. He is the Principal Research Scientist of the Australian National Herbarium.-Published works:*"Physiological, anatomical and biochemical characterisation of photosynthetic types in genus Cleome ". Functional Plant Biology. Volume 34, Number 4. 2007.*"Callistemon...

 and John Dawson in 1998. Callistemon species are commonly referred to as bottlebrushes because of their cylindrical, brush like flowers resembling a traditional bottle
Bottle
A bottle is a rigid container with a neck that is narrower than the body and a "mouth". By contrast, a jar has a relatively large mouth or opening. Bottles are often made of glass, clay, plastic, aluminum or other impervious materials, and typically used to store liquids such as water, milk, soft...

 brush
Brush
A brush is a tool with bristles, wire or other filaments, used for cleaning, grooming hair, make up, painting, surface finishing and for many other purposes. It is one of the most basic and versatile tools known to mankind, and the average household may contain several dozen varieties...

. They are found in the more temperate
Temperate
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold...

 regions of Australia, mostly along the east coast and south-west, and typically favour moist conditions so when planted in gardens thrive on regular watering. However, at least some of the species are drought
Drought
A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region...

-resistant.


Callistemons can be propagated either by cuttings (some species more easily than others), or from the rounded seeds
SEEDS
SEEDS is a voluntary organisation registered under the Societies Act of India....

. Flowering is normally in spring
Spring (season)
Spring is one of the four temperate seasons, the transition period between winter and summer. Spring and "springtime" refer to the season, and broadly to ideas of rebirth, renewal and regrowth. The specific definition of the exact timing of "spring" varies according to local climate, cultures and...

 and early summer
Summer
Summer is the warmest of the four temperate seasons, between spring and autumn. At the summer solstice, the days are longest and the nights are shortest, with day-length decreasing as the season progresses after the solstice...

 (October–December), but conditions may cause flowering at other times of the year. The obvious parts of the flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

 masses are stamen
Stamen
The stamen is the pollen producing reproductive organ of a flower...

s, with the pollen
Pollen
Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes . Pollen grains have a hard coat that protects the sperm cells during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants or from the male cone to the...

 at the tip of the filament; the petal
Petal
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They often are brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals lying...

s are inconspicuous (see picture). Flower heads vary in colour with species; most are red, but some are yellow, green, orange or white. Each flower head produces a profusion of triple-celled seed capsules around a stem (see picture) which remain on the plant with the seeds enclosed until stimulated to open when the plant dies or fire
Wildfire
A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, squirrel fire, vegetation fire, veldfire, and wilkjjofire may be used to describe the same...

 causes the release of the seeds. (A few species release the seeds annually.)

They are relatively slow growing though in time the larger species can grow up to 15 m (49.2 ft). Some are ground-hugging, and grow to only 0.5 m (1.6 ft). The leaves are linear
Leaf shape
In botany, leaf shape is characterised with the following terms :* Acicular : Slender and pointed, needle-like* Acuminate : Tapering to a long point...

 to lanceolate
Leaf shape
In botany, leaf shape is characterised with the following terms :* Acicular : Slender and pointed, needle-like* Acuminate : Tapering to a long point...

 and they are not deciduous
Deciduous
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe...

.

They have been grown in Europe since a specimen of C. citrinus
Callistemon citrinus
Callistemon citrinus, also known as Crimson Bottlebrush is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria in Australia, occurring in the vicinity of rocky streams and near-coastal swamps....

was introduced to Kew Gardens in London by Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, GCB, PRS was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of the natural sciences. He took part in Captain James Cook's first great voyage . Banks is credited with the introduction to the Western world of eucalyptus, acacia, mimosa and the genus named after him,...

 in 1789.

In Australia, Callistemon species are sometimes used as food plants by the larva
Larva
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

e of hepialid
Hepialidae
The Hepialidae is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order. Moths of this family are often referred to as swift moths or ghost moths.-Taxonomy and systematics:...

 moth
Moth
A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly, both being of the order Lepidoptera. Moths form the majority of this order; there are thought to be 150,000 to 250,000 different species of moth , with thousands of species yet to be described...

s of the genus Aenetus
Aenetus
Aenetus is a genus of moths of the family Hepialidae. There are 24 described species found in Indonesia, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Australia and New Zealand. Most species have green or blue forewings and reddish hindwings but some are predominantly brown or white...

including A. ligniveren. These burrow horizontally into the trunk then vertically down.

In India, bottlebrush plants/trees are grown in gardens. Their leaves have a lovely fragrance which gets released on crushing the leaves with hands.

Species





  • Callistemon acuminatus Cheel – Tapering-leaved Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon brachyandrus
    Callistemon brachyandrus
    Callistemon brachyandrus is a shrub species in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria in Australia....

    Lindl. – Prickly Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon chisholmii Cheel
  • Callistemon citrinus
    Callistemon citrinus
    Callistemon citrinus, also known as Crimson Bottlebrush is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria in Australia, occurring in the vicinity of rocky streams and near-coastal swamps....

    (Curtis) Skeels – Crimson Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon coccineus F.Muell.
  • Callistemon comboynensis
    Callistemon comboynensis
    Callistemon comboynensis, also known as Cliff Bottlebrush, is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia....

    Cheel – Cliff Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon flavovirens (Cheel) Cheel – Green Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon formosus S.T.Blake
  • Callistemon forresterae Molyneux
  • Callistemon genofluvialis Molyneux
  • Callistemon glaucus
    Callistemon glaucus
    Callistemon glaucus is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. The species is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia.It grows up to between 1 and 3 metres in height and has a slender, erect habit. Red flower spikes are produced between September and December in the species native range...

    (Bonpl.) Sweet
  • Callistemon kenmorrisonii
    Callistemon kenmorrisonii
    Callistemon kenmorrisonii is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is endemic to the state of Victoria in Australia.-Description:...

    Molyneux – Betka Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon linearifolius
    Callistemon linearifolius
    Callistemon linearifolius is a shrub or small tree in the family Myrtaceae. It is endemic to the state of New South Wales in Australia.The species grows to about 3 or 4 metres in height...

    (Link) DC.
  • Callistemon linearis
    Callistemon linearis
    Callistemon linearis is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of New South Wales and Queensland in Australia.It grows up to around 3 metres in height and has a stiff appearance. The leaves are 40 to 100 mm long and 1 to 3 mm wide. These are channeled or flat...

    Sweet
  • Callistemon montanus
    Callistemon montanus
    Callistemon montanus, commonly known as the mountain bottlebrush, is an erect shrub which grows to around 2-4m high by 1-2m wide. It has squat red flowers of the bottlebrush type, 3-5cm long by 4-6cm wide, which appear in spring. There may also be sporadic flushes depending on the location and...

    C.T.White ex S.T.Blake – Mountain Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon nervosus Lindl.
  • Callistemon nyallingensis Molyneux
  • Callistemon pachyphyllus
    Callistemon pachyphyllus
    Callistemon pachyphyllus is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of New South Wales and Queensland in Australia....

    Cheel – Wallum Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon pallidus
    Callistemon pallidus
    Callistemon pallidus, also known as Lemon Bottlebrush, is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania in Australia....

    (Bonpl.) DC. – Lemon Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon pauciflorus
    Callistemon pauciflorus
    Callistemon pauciflorus is a species of flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae. It is a tall shrub that is endemic to the Northern Territory where it occurs near waterholes in the MacDonnell Ranges and Central Ranges....

    R.D.Spencer & Lumley
  • Callistemon pearsonii
    Callistemon pearsonii
    Callistemon pearsonii is a shrub species in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the state of Queensland in Australia. The species was first formally described by Roger David Spencer and Peter Lumley in 1986 in Muelleria, based on plant material collected from Blackdown Tableland...

    R.D.Spencer & Lumley
  • Callistemon phoeniceus
    Callistemon phoeniceus
    Callistemon phoeniceus is a shrub or small tree in the family Myrtaceae. It is endemic to Western Australia.It grows up to between 1 and 6 metres in height. Red flower spikes are produced between September and January in the species native range...

    Lindl. – Lesser Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon pinifolius
    Callistemon pinifolius
    Callistemon pinifolius is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the state of New South Wales in Australia....

    (Wendl.) Sweet – Pine-leaved Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon pityoides
    Callistemon pityoides
    Callistemon pityoides is a shrub species in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria in Australia....

    F.Muell. – Alpine Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon polandii F.M.Bailey
  • Callistemon pungens
    Callistemon pungens
    Callistemon pungens is a shrub or small tree in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of New South Wales and Queensland in Australia....

    Lumley & R.D.Spencer
  • Callistemon recurvus
    Callistemon recurvus
    Callistemon recurvus is a shrub or small tree species in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the state of Queensland in Australia.The species was first formally described by Roger Spencer and Peter Lumley in 1990 in Muelleria...

    R.D.Spencer & Lumley
  • Callistemon rigidus
    Callistemon rigidus
    Callistemon rigidus is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is endemic to the state of New South Wales in Australia....

    R.Br. – Stiff Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon rugulosus
    Callistemon rugulosus
    Callistemon rugulosus, also known as Scarlet Bottlebrush is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of South Australia and Victoria in Australia.-Description:...

    (Schltdl. ex Link) DC. – Scarlet Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon salignus
    Callistemon salignus
    Callistemon salignus, commonly known as Willow Bottlebrush and White Bottlebrush, is an endemic Australian shrub or tree in the family Myrtaceae. The species occurs in New South Wales and Queensland.-Description:...

    (Sm.) Sweet – Willow Bottlebrush, White Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon shiressii Blakely
  • Callistemon sieberi
    Callistemon sieberi
    Callistemon sieberi is a shrub or small tree in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to Australia.The leaves are 20 to 50 mm long and 2 to 5 mm wide with pointed tips...

    DC.
  • Callistemon subulatus
    Callistemon subulatus
    Callistemon subulatus is a shrub in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of New South Wales and Victoria in Australia.It grows up to 1 metre in height and has a spreading habit. The leaves are 20 to 40 mm long and 2 to 3 mm wide. These are crowded together on the branchlets and are...

    Cheel
  • Callistemon teretifolius
    Callistemon teretifolius
    Callistemon teretifolius is a species of flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae. It is endemic to the east of South Australia....

    F.Muell. – Needle Bottlebrush, Flinders Ranges Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon viminalis
    Callistemon viminalis
    Callistemon viminalis, also known as Weeping Bottlebrush, is a shrub or small tree in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to the states of New South Wales and Queensland in Australia where it often occurs along watercourses....

    (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G.Don – Weeping Bottlebrush
  • Callistemon viridiflorus (Sims) Sweet

Formerly placed here

  • Melaleuca brevisepala (J.W. Dawson) Craven & J.W.Dawson (as C. brevisepalus J.W.Dawson)
  • Melaleuca buseana (Guillaumin) Craven & J.W.Dawson (as C. buseanus Guillaumin)
  • Melaleuca dawsonii Craven (as C. suberosum Pancher ex Brongn. & Gris)
  • Melaleuca pancheri
    Melaleuca pancheri
    Melaleuca pancheri is a shrub or small tree species which is endemic to New Caledonia. It grows up to 10 metres high, has a rounded canopy and develops a thick, papery bark. Younger branchlets are covered with dense hairs. The leaves have short petioles, rounded tips and tapering bases. They are 40...

    (Brongn. & Gris) Craven & J.W.Dawson (as C. pancheri Brongn. & Gris)
  • Melaleuca sphaerodendra Craven & J.W.Dawson (as C. gnidioides (Brongn. & Gris) Guillaumin)

External links