Alpha Kappa Psi
ΑΚΨ is the oldest and largest professional
Professional fraternity
Professional fraternities, in the North American fraternity system, are organizations whose primary purpose is to promote the interests of a particular profession and whose membership is restricted to students in that particular field of professional education or study...

 business fraternity
Fraternities and sororities
Fraternities and sororities are fraternal social organizations for undergraduate students. In Latin, the term refers mainly to such organizations at colleges and universities in the United States, although it is also applied to analogous European groups also known as corporations...

. The Alpha Kappa Psi Fraternity was founded on October 5, 1904 at New York University
New York University
New York University is a private, nonsectarian research university based in New York City. NYU's main campus is situated in the Greenwich Village section of Manhattan...

, and was incorporated on May 20, 1905. It is currently headquartered in Indianapolis
Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana, and the county seat of Marion County, Indiana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population is 839,489. It is by far Indiana's largest city and, as of the 2010 U.S...

, Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...



During the winter months of the 1903-1904 academic year at New York University, the idea of starting a business fraternity was first brought up. Howard M. Jefferson, one of the founding members, later suggested that it was Fredrick R. Leach who first developed the idea. Leach and Jefferson, along with Nathan Lane, Jr. and George L. Bergen, came to be known as the "Brooklyn Four." These four men grew to be close friends while attending night classes, and they walked home together each night over the Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
The Brooklyn Bridge is one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States. Completed in 1883, it connects the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn by spanning the East River...

. As the spirit of brotherhood grew strong in the hearts and in the minds of the men from Brooklyn, they decided to suggest to the other members of their class that something be done to perpetuate it. They received hearty support from the men approached regarding their idea, and by the latter part of April 1904 things were beginning to take definite shape. Before the academic term came to a close, a date was set for a meeting to take place at the Hotel Saint Denis, in which a plan for the organization would be outlined.

On June 9,1904, The Brooklyn Four were joined at the Hotel Saint Dennis by Robert S. Douglas, Irving L. Camp, Daniel V. Duff, Morris S. Rachmil, and Herbert M. Wright. William O. Tremaine was to be invited, but he was not in attendance at the meeting, as he later stated that the invitation had never reached him. The nine men in attendance were all strongly in favor of forming a fraternity, and many points worthy of being incorporated into a constitution were suggested. The Brooklyn Four were appointed to draft a constitution and present it the next time all of the men met. On July 16, 1904, a group of them traveled by steamer to Sea Cliff, Long Island
Sea Cliff, New York
The Village of Sea Cliff is a village located within the Town of Oyster Bay in Nassau County, New York. As of the United States 2010 Census, the village population was 4,995...

, and at this meeting the draft of the constitution was presented. The social aspect of the fraternity was emphasized early on, as Jefferson later recounted, "The greater part of the day, however, was spent in having summer fun, and although the party did no real work on the constitution, yet the friendships were strengthened."

After school resumed in the fall, a meeting was held on October 5, 1904 in the Assembly room at 32 Waverly Place. All ten men, including Tremaine, were present at the October 5 meeting, and the decision was made to officially organize the fraternity along the lines of the constitution that had been presented by the Brooklyn Four. On written ballots, Robert Douglas was elected president, Howard Jefferson was elected secretary, and Nathan Lane, Jr. was elected treasurer.

In the spring of 1905, formal application was made to the State of New York for a charter of incorporation for Alpha Kappa Psi. The application was approved and the charter of incorporation for our Alpha chapter was officially issued in the name of Alpha Kappa Psi on May 20, 1905.

International expansion into Canada

Alpha Kappa Psi became an international fraternity on Saturday, April 18, 1931 when the Beta Kappa Chapter was installed at the University of Western Ontario
University of Western Ontario
The University of Western Ontario is a public research university located in London, Ontario, Canada. The university's main campus covers of land, with the Thames River cutting through the eastern portion of the main campus. Western administers its programs through 12 different faculties and...

 in London, Ontario
London, Ontario
London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, situated along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. The city has a population of 352,395, and the metropolitan area has a population of 457,720, according to the 2006 Canadian census; the metro population in 2009 was estimated at 489,274. The city...

. The ceremony was held at the Hotel London, and it was conducted by Grand President O. Arthur Kirkman, Grand Secretary-Treasurer J.D. Sparks, District Councilor J.R. Gabell, and members of from Phi Chapter of the University of Michigan, Beta Theta Chapter of Detroit College, and Beta Iota Chapter of Buffalo.

Restrictive membership clause

Membership in Alpha Kappa Psi was originally restricted to men who were "of the Christian faith and Caucasian race." By 1950, the restrictive clause in the fraternity's constitution was beginning to stir controversy on some college campuses. At the 1950 Alpha Kappa Psi Convention in Minnesota, delegates voted 66-44 in favor of dropping the restrictive membership clause from the national constitution.

Women in AKΨ

In June 1972, Title IX of the "Education Amendments Act of 1972" was passed, and it brought the beginning of the most significant change in the history of Alpha Kappa Psi. Title IX prohibited sex discrimination in federally assisted educational programs and amended parts of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. While social fraternities and sororities were exempt from the provisions of Title IX, professional fraternities were included in Title IX. Around this time, the brothers of the Delta Chi Chapter at Clarkson University introduced legislation to amend Alpha Kappa Psi's Constitution to include women as brothers. While this move did that the support of a few other chapters, the proposed amendments were easily defeated. In the fall of 1973, the Delta Chi chapter admitted four women into their Chapter and soon granted females full rights and privileges, including participation in ritual. Delta Chi went on to elect a female president and attempted to send her to the 1974 national convention as their voting delegate. As a result, Alpha Kappa Psi revoked the charter of the Delta Chi Chapter. During the same year, the Alpha Kappa Chapter at the University of Idaho also admitted women to membership. As a result, Alpha Kappa Psi also moved forward with disciplinary action against the Alpha Kappa Chapter. Upon having their charter revoked, the former Alpha Kappa Chapter continued on as an independent organization known as Pi Beta Sigma, and the organization's advisor remarked "My sentiments are that if we are being excommunicated from the national because we failed to discriminate against women, then it's a pleasure to get kicked out of that organization.

In December 1973, a complaint was filed with the Office of Civil Rights of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare against thirteen colleges and universities which recognized professional business fraternity chapters. In March 1973, representatives of several organizations formed to push for legislation that would exempt the groups from Title IX as it applied to professional fraternities. Out of these meetings, the Fraternal Alliance for Inalienable Rights (FAIR) was formed, which included Alpha Kappa Psi. FAIR was an interfraterity organization designed to seek legislative relief from Title IX. In October 1975, Alpha Kappa Psi initiated a fund drive to combat Title IX. A write-in campaign was also started as an attempt to sway legislators. At the national convention, the Committee on Female Membership moved that the fraternity should bar women, advocating a continuance of the struggle to secure legislation. Such legislation was eventually introduced in 1976, when Senator James McClure
James McClure
James McClure may refer to:*James H. McClure, British crime author and journalist, born in South Africa*James A. McClure, former U.S. Senator from Idaho*James McClure , current local councillor and former regional assembly member...

 sponsored an amendment to S. 2657 of the Education Amendments of 1976 that would have limited the meaning of "education program or activity" to "the curriculum or graduation requirements of the institutions." Senator Birch Bayh
Birch Bayh
Birch Evans Bayh II is a former United States Senator from Indiana, having served from 1963 to 1981. He was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for president in the 1976 election, but lost to Jimmy Carter. He is the father of former Indiana Governor and former U.S. Senator Evan Bayh.-Life...

 led an opposition that defeated the amendment. The 1975 convention voted the Board of Directors the authority to change Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution by deletion of the words "must be men and," if no legislative recourse could be achieved. When it became apparent that legislation would not be approved, the Board of Directors voted, August 7, 1976, to admit women into the fraternity.

International expansion into the United Kingdom

In March 2000, the Board of Directors of AKPsi approved expansion of the Fraternity into the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. As a result, in 2001, new chapters were installed at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Manchester University and Manchester Metropolitan University
Manchester Metropolitan University
Manchester Metropolitan University is a university in North West England. Its headquarters and central campus is in the city of Manchester, but there are outlying facilities in the county of Cheshire. It is the third largest university in the United Kingdom in terms of student numbers, behind the...

. The installations were led by National President M.C. Moore, Chairman of the Board David P. Wendroff, Foundation Vice President R.K. Lee, CEO Gary L. Epperson, and five other brothers. This expansion prompted the creation of the 14th region of the Fraternity. In 2004, UMIST merged with Manchester University, and around the same time, the chapter at Manchester Metropolitan closed, leaving only one college chapter remaining in the UK. As a result, the United Kingdom Region was dissolved and the remaining chapter was moved under the authority of the Mideast Region.

Volunteer structure

Alpha Kappa Psi is managed by a cadre of Fraternity volunteers, all of which are un-paid and provide their time, talent, and treasure for the Fraternity.

Board of Directors

The Board of Directors
Board of directors
A board of directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a company or organization. Other names include board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, and board of visitors...

 is the supreme legislative, judicial, and oversight body of the Fraternity outside of meetings of the Chapter Congress (held every 2 years at the Convention). The Board was originally known as the Grand Council, and it was made up of the President, Vice Presidents, and Regional Directors. In 1959 the term "Board of Directors" replaced "Grand Council." In 1995 the present-day structure of the Board was formed, and the President, Vice President, and Regional Director positions were moved out of the Board and over to the National Management Team. The Board of Directors is now made up of 9 alumni, elected for 3-year terms, staggering 3 elected each year. BOD officers are the Board Chairman, Vice Chairman, the Secretary, and the Treasurer. The Executive Committee is responsible for supervising the CEO and Heritage Center staff. The current Chairman of the Board is Charles Steffens. The Chairman of the Board position is now the highest-ranking officer position of Alpha Kappa Psi, equivalent to the former National President position prior to 1995 and Grand President position prior to 1959.

Management Team

The Management Team is made up of the elected executive-level leadership of the Fraternity. This body was previously known as the Grand Council until 1959 when it became known as the Board of Directors. In 1995, a separate Board of Directors was formed, so the President, Vice Presidents, Regional Directors then became known as the National Management Team. Recently, "National" was dropped from the title to reflect the Fraternity's international scope, even though the Fraternity has actually been international since 1931. Members of the current Management Team include the Fraternity President, Executive Vice President, and the 13 Regional Directors. The head of the Management Team is the Fraternity President.
  • Fraternity President. The Fraternity President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     is the presiding officer at all meetings of the Chapter Congress and the Management Team and has general supervision, direction, and control of the business and affairs of the Fraternity subject to the direction of the Board of Directors. The current Fraternity President is Alexander Sultan.

  • Executive Vice President. Position established in 2005; the Executive Vice President (EVP) assists the President and have such other duties as the President may direct. In the absence of the President, the EVP shall serve as President of the Fraternity until such time the President can resume his or her duties until the term of the President's office has expired if the President is permanently unable to resume his or her duties. The current Fraternity EVP is Stephanie Potter.

  • Regional Director. Appointed jointly by the Fraternity President and the CEO, with approval by the Board of Directors, for a term of 2 years. Leads all business of each of the 13 regions, serves as a member of the Management Team, and leads their respective Regional Management Teams (RMT). Prior to the 2011 Convention, the Regional Directors had been elected by a vote of the chapters every two years in their Regional Meetings.

Regional Management Team

  • Regional Director. The Regional Director serves as both a member of the Fraternity Management Team and as the head of the Regional Management Team for his or her respective region of the Fraternity.

  • Section Director. Supervises particular parts of a region, appointed by the Regional Director. Acts as an Assistant Regional Director, in lieu of the Regional Director when it is logistically prudent (usually due to geography or time constraints).

  • Regional Manager. Assists the Regional Director in areas they designate, including recruitment, technology, risk management, and operations. Appointed by the Regional Director.

  • Chapter Advisor. Responsible for the proper conduct of the College Chapter in all local, regional and Fraternity matters, and is accountable to the Regional Director. In that advisory and representative capacity, it is the Chapter Advisor's duty to report to the Regional Director any violations of the laws or policies of the Fraternity within the College Chapter. The Chapter Advisor is the front-line and most important position in AKPsi, as it has been proved that chapters with a long-term and involved advisor succeed more.

  • Chapter Advisory Board. Similar to the regional managers, but focuses(ed) on one chapter. Appointed by the Chapter Advisor.

Foundation Board of Directors

The Foundation Board of Directors (FBOD) manages the Alpha Kappa Psi Foundation. The Alpha Kappa Psi Foundation was established in 1951 as a public, charitable and educational foundation. Its mission is "Providing resources for enhancing the educational experience of future business leaders." Currently, the Foundation distributes more than 30 grants and scholarships to undergraduate and graduate students. It also supports educational programs that develop leadership and professional development skills. The Foundation also publishes The Diary of Alpha Kappa Psi. The current Chairman of the Foundation Board is David Wendroff.

Heritage Center and staff

In 1923, Alpha Kappa Psi became the first professional fraternity to have a headquarters facility, and since then, has moved from location to location as the Fraternity grew. Today, AKPsi occupies a 9400 square feet (873.3 m²) building on Indianapolis' northeast side that serves as the headquarters for both the Alpha Kappa Psi Fraternity and Alpha Kappa Psi Foundation. The two corporations have been operating from the Heritage Center since April 2005 and dedicated the facility in June 2005. The members of the professional staff of Alpha Kappa Psi are the Fraternity's only full time paid employees. Working collaboratively with the members of the Fraternity Management Team, the Fraternity Office staff serves as a source of input, advice and feedback to the board of directors; and implements programs in the areas of education, marketing, membership growth, and general Fraternal development for students, alumni and volunteers. Gary Epperson has led the staff, serving as Executive Director and then CEO, since 1992.

Principled Business Leadership Institute

The Principled Business Leadership Institute (PBLII) is an annual weekend program held each February in five cities across the United States. PBLI offers several curriculum tracks, facilitated by a mix of Alpha Kappa Psi alumni and successful business leaders, focusing on the values of principles business leadership. In addition to the educational leadership development tracks, the Fraternity's Case Competition also takes place during PBLI. PBLI debuted in 2009 as a retooled and updated version of the Fraternity's similar Success Institute, which was originally introduced in 1996.

Case Competition

Alpha Kappa Psi began holding the annual Case Competition at the 2008 Success Institutes. Case Competition is sponsored by the Alpha Kappa Psi Foundation, and it awards $1,500, $750 and $500 scholarships respectively to the top three teams in each of the five cites where the annual competition takes place. Case Competition is designed to introduce students to the realities of decision making and give them first-hand experience in analyzing business situations to prepare them for future managerial decision making.

College of Leadership

The College of Leadership is held every two years in conjunction with the Fraternity's Convention. The College of Leadership is a two day series of sessions focusing on personal development, professional development, and chapter leadership. Facilitators include Fraternity staff and volunteer leaders, successful alumni members, and special guests from the business community.

The Academy

The Academy is an all expense paid leadership conference sponsored by the Alpha Kappa Psi Foundation. The Academy is held each summer at the Waycross Conference and Retreat Center in Morgantown, Indiana
Morgantown, Indiana
Morgantown is a town in Jackson Township, Morgan County, Indiana, United States. The population was 986 at the 2010 census.-History:Colonel John Vawter moved to Morgantown, Indiana in 1849. He became the founder and first pastor of the Baptist Church...

, and attendance is limited to 20 exceptional student leaders who demonstrate qualities of future business leaders. The Academy was first held in 2001.


  • Initiates in 2005-06: 5,697
  • Initiates in 2006-07: 6,001
  • Initiates in 2007-08: 5,988
  • Initiates since 1904: more than 252,853
  • Number of current student members: 11,912
  • 2005 Convention attendance (Las Vegas): 805
  • 2007 Success Institute attendance: 2,351
  • 2007 Convention registrations (Washington, D.C.): 825
  • 2008 Success Institute attendance: 3,077


  1. To further the individual welfare of its members;
  2. To foster scientific research in the fields of commerce, accounts, and finance;
  3. To educate the public to appreciate and demand higher ideals therein; and
  4. To promote and advance, in institutions of college rank, courses leading to degrees in business administration.

The Diary of Alpha Kappa Psi

The official magazine of the Fraternity first appeared on January 1, 1908, as The Alpha Diary. Howard M. Jefferson chaired the editorial committee that published the original four page monthly pamphlet of the Alpha Chapter. The name was changed in 1913 to The Diary of Alpha Kappa Psi Fraternity to reflect its new fraternity-wide scope. The format remained the same, although increasing in number of pages, until it became a full fledged magazine, 6 x 9 inches (228.6 mm) in size, in 1917. The title was also changed that year to The Alpha Kappa Psi Diary. John D. Sparks was appointed editor in 1928, and page size of The Diary was increased to 8½ x 11 inches (279.4 mm) with two and three column pages and a different two-color cover for each issue. In 1929 under Sparks, the magazine also adopted its current name, The Diary of Alpha Kappa Psi.

The Diary is currently published three times a year in October, February, and June by the Alpha Kappa Psi Foundation. It features information on Fraternity and Foundation news, as well as educational articles focusing on professional development. In recent years, the magazine has earned several College Fraternity Editors Association (CFEA) awards.
  • 3rd place Web Site (2008)
  • 2nd place Logo Design (2008)
  • 3rd place Total Communications (2008)
  • 3rd place Fred F. Yoder Award for Overall Excellence (2008)
  • 2nd place Content and Design award for Annual Report (2006)
  • 3rd place Design Award for Two-Page or Less Layout (2006)
  • 1st place Design Award for Two-Page or Less Layout (2005)
  • 3rd place Design Award for Cover Design (2005)
  • 3rd place Fred F. Yoder Award for Overall Excellence (2005)
  • 2nd place Fred F. Yoder Award for Overall Excellence (2004)
  • 2nd place Banta Total Communications Award (2004)
  • 2nd place Design Award for Critic's Choice Cover (2004)
  • 2nd place Design Award for Logo Design (2004)
  • 3rd place Design Award for Two-Page or Less Layout (2004)

The Handbook of Alpha Kappa Psi

The Handbook of Alpha Kappa Psi is a comprehensive information source and guide for members and officers of the Fraternity. The publication includes topics such as a detailed history of AKPsi, a directory of notable alumni, organizational structure, awards, emblems, alumni information, chapter administration, finances, public relations, ritual, and a great deal of other useful information. The origin of the handbook is traced to 1926 when Ralph L. Power of Nu Chapter, issued a publication titled Handbook of Alpha Kappa Psi, a Manual for Nu Chapter. The handbook was first published Fraternity-wide in 1934, and it has since been followed by several more comprehensive and revised editions. The last edition published was the seventh edition in 1997, edited by Theodore G. Ehrsam. Ehrsam was also working on the eighth edition before he entered Audit Eternal in July 2004. The eighth edition was to be published in fall 2004 as part of the Fraternity's Centennial Celebration.


Notable alumni

Members of Alpha Kappa Psi have held almost every major political position in the United States, including the presidency and vice-presidency. Many members have gained notable positions on boards of directors and executive management teams of some of the world's most well known companies.


  • Number of active student chapters: 220 active chapters and 10 colonies
  • Number of chapters chartered since founding in 1904: 336
  • Re-charters granted in 2010-11 (to date): Portland State University
    Portland State University
    Portland State University is a public state urban university located in downtown Portland, Oregon, United States. Founded in 1946, it has the largest overall enrollment of any university in the state of Oregon, including undergraduate and graduate students. It is also the only public university in...

    , University of Dayton
    University of Dayton
    The University of Dayton is a private Roman Catholic university operated by the Society of Mary located in Dayton, Ohio...

    , Syracuse University
    Syracuse University
    Syracuse University is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States. Its roots can be traced back to Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded by the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1832, which also later founded Genesee College...

    , George Mason University
    George Mason University
    George Mason University is a public university based in unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, United States, south of and adjacent to the city of Fairfax. Additional campuses are located nearby in Arlington County, Prince William County, and Loudoun County...

    , and California State University, San Bernardino
    California State University, San Bernardino
    California State University, San Bernardino, also known as Cal State San Bernardino or CSUSB is a public research university and one of the twenty three general campuses of the California State University system. The main campus sits on in the suburban University District of , United States, with...

  • Current colonies include Southern Oregon University
    Southern Oregon University
    is a public liberal arts college located in Ashland, Oregon, United States. Founded in 1926, it was formerly known as Southern Oregon College and Southern Oregon State College . SOU offers criminology, natural sciences, including environmental science, Shakespearean studies and theatre arts programs...

    , Temple University
    Temple University
    Temple University is a comprehensive public research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Originally founded in 1884 by Dr. Russell Conwell, Temple University is among the nation's largest providers of professional education and prepares the largest body of professional...

    , Monmouth University
    Monmouth University
    Monmouth University is a private university located in West Long Branch, New Jersey, United States.Founded in 1933 as Monmouth Junior College, it became Monmouth College in 1956, and later Monmouth University in 1995 after receiving its charter....

    , Illinois Wesleyan University
    Illinois Wesleyan University
    Illinois Wesleyan University is an independent undergraduate university located in Bloomington, Illinois. Founded in 1850, the central portion of the present campus was acquired in 1854 with the first building erected in 1856...

    , Roosevelt University
    Roosevelt University
    Roosevelt University is a coeducational, private university with campuses in Chicago, Illinois and Schaumburg, Illinois. Founded in 1945, the university is named in honor of both former President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. The university's curriculum is based on...

    , MIT, Columbia University
    Columbia University
    Columbia University in the City of New York is a private, Ivy League university in Manhattan, New York City. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, the fifth oldest in the United States, and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the...

    , University of North Florida
    University of North Florida
    The University of North Florida is a public university located in Jacksonville, Florida. A member institution of the State University System of Florida, the university is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master’s...

    , University of Idaho
    University of Idaho
    The University of Idaho is the State of Idaho's flagship and oldest public university, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County in the northern portion of the state...

    , Northwest Missouri State University
    Northwest Missouri State University
    Northwest Missouri State University is a state university in Maryville, Missouri. Founded in 1905 as a teachers college, it offers both undergraduate and graduate programs. The campus, based on the design for Forest Park at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, is the official Missouri State Arboretum....

External links

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