Alauddin Riayat Shah II of Johor
Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II was the first Sultan of Johor
Sultan of Johor
Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and the nominal ruler of the Malaysian state of Johor. In the past, the sultan held absolute power over the state and was advised by a bendahara...

. He ruled Johor from 1528 to 1564. He founded the Johor Sultanate
Johor Sultanate
The Sultanate of Johor was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528. Johor was part of the Malaccan Sultanate before the Portuguese conquered Malacca's capital in 1511...

 following the fall of Malacca
Malacca Sultanate
Established by the Malay ruler Parameswara, the Sultanate of Malacca was first a Hindu kingdom in 1402 and later became Muslim following the marriage of the princess of Pasai in 1409. Centered in the modern town of Malacca, the sultanate bordered the Ayutthaya Kingdom of Siam in the north to...

 to the Portuguese
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 in 1511. He was the second son of Mahmud Shah of Malacca. Thus, Johor
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri...

 was a successor state of Malacca and Johor's sultan
Sultan is a title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", and "dictatorship", derived from the masdar سلطة , meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who...

s follow the numbering system of Malacca. Throughout his reign, he faced constant threats from the Portuguese as well as the emerging Aceh Sultanate
Aceh Sultanate
The Sultanate of Aceh, officially the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam was a sultanate centered in the modern area of Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, which was a major regional power in the 16th and 17th centuries, before experiencing a long period of decline...


Founding of Johor and Portuguese threats

In 1529, Alauddin Riayat founded his first capital in Hujung Tanah, known as Pekan Tua, 11 km upriver from Kota Tinggi
Kota Tinggi
Kota Tinggi is a town in the state of Johor of Malaysia, located around 42 kilometers north-east of Johor Bahru, on the road to Mersing. Hometown of Azizul Hanipah. Kota Tinggi can also be reached by ferry from Changi terminal in Singapore where tourists need to pass through the immigration check...

, following the death of his father. A river fort, Kota Kara was also founded down the river. In 1535, about 400 Portuguese troops led by Estavao da Gama invaded Johor. Kota Kara was bombarded but the Malays withstood the attack. After a few days, Portuguese troops landed and bombarded the fort but they also had to retreat. Their morale boosted by this initial success, the Malays left their fort and launched a counter-attack on the Portuguese. However, the Malays were scattered by the crossfire of the Portuguese which resulted in the capturing of the fort and its burning by the Portuguese.

Alauddin Riayat retreated upstream the Johor River
Johor River
Johor River is the main river in the Malaysian state of Johor. The river is 122.7km long and flows in a roughly north-south direction, originating from Mount Gemuruh and then empties into the Strait of Johor. Its major tributaries are Sayong, Linggui, Tiram and Lebam Rivers. Its banks are also...

 to Sayong Pinang. His official, Seri Nara Diraja, died in Sayong Pinang. Alauddin Riayat returned to Pekan Tua after a short period and rebuilt it. Pekan Tua was attacked by 400 Portuguese troops under Estavao da Gamma again because his brother, Paulo da Gamma, and about 30 other Portuguese troops were killed by Malays
Malay people
Malays are an ethnic group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, including the southernmost parts of Thailand, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and the smaller islands which lie between these locations...

. Following this attack, a peace treaty was signed between Johor and the Portuguese.

In 1540, Alauddin Riayat Shah moved his capital to Johor Lama
Johor Lama
Johor Lama is a principal historical place of interest and ancient capital of Johor. It is situated in modern Kota Tinggi district....

, which is closer to the estuary of Johor River.

Acehnese threats

Johor was also threatened by Aceh , on the northern tip of Sumatra. In 1539, Aru
Aru and ARU may refer to:Aru* Name of Lady in India* Aru Islands, a group of islands in the Moluccas* Sultanate of Deli , an early Islamic polity in northeast Sumatra* Aru, Democratic Republic of Congo, a town in Ituri province...

, Johor's vassal state on the east coast of Sumatra, was attacked by a fleet of 160 ships with 12,000 soldiers, being Acehnese, Malaccan Malays,| Malabaris, Gujeratis, and Turkish. Alauddin Riayat gathered a fleet with aid from his allies, Perak and Siak, and attacked Aru in 1540. He reconquered Aru, leaving only 14 Acehnese ships afloat and thousands of Acehnese troops dead. The battle was called, Battle of Sungai Paneh, which was the most glorious Malay victory since they were defeated in Malacca. In 1564, the Sultan of Aceh, Alauddin al-Qahar, defeated Aru and expulsed the Johoreans from Aru. The sultan of Aceh, then, launched an attack on Johor Lama from Aru. The fort and town was leveled and Alauddin Riayat was captured and brought back to Aceh. He was later killed and was given the posthumous title, Marhum Syahid di Acheh. He was succeeded by his son, Muzaffar Shah II
Muzaffar II of Johor
Sultan Muzaffar Shah II was the second Sultan of Johor. He was known as Raja Muda Perdana before he succeeded the throne. He was installed to the throne of Johor in 1564 by the Acehnese upon the death of his father, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II, who died shortly after he was captured and brought...


Personal life

He married Princess Kesuma Dewi of Pahang
Pahang is the third largest state in Malaysia, after Sarawak and Sabah, occupying the huge Pahang River river basin. It is bordered to the north by Kelantan, to the west by Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, to the south by Johor and to the east by Terengganu and the South China Sea.Its state...

, the daughter of Mansur Shah of Pahang.

External links

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