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Adverbial case

Adverbial case

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The adverb
An adverb is a part of speech that modifies verbs or any part of speech other than a noun . Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives , clauses, sentences, and other adverbs....

ial case
(abbreviated ) is a noun case in the Abkhaz language
Abkhaz language
Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken mainly by the Abkhaz people. It is the official language of Abkhazia where around 100,000 people speak it. Furthermore, it is spoken by thousands of members of the Abkhazian diaspora in Turkey, Georgia's autonomous republic of Adjara, Syria, Jordan...

 and Georgian language
Georgian language
Georgian is the native language of the Georgians and the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus.Georgian is the primary language of about 4 million people in Georgia itself, and of another 500,000 abroad...

  that has a function similar to the translative
Translative case
The translative case is a grammatical case that indicates a change in state of a noun, with the general sense of "becoming X" or "change to X"....

 and essive
Essive case
The essive or similaris case carries the meaning of a temporary location or state of being, often equivalent to the English "as a ".In the Finnish language, this case is marked by adding "-na/-nä" to the stem of the noun....

 cases in Finnic languages
Finnic languages
The term Finnic languages often means the Baltic-Finnic languages, an undisputed branch of the Uralic languages. However, it is also commonly used to mean the Finno-Permic languages, a hypothetical intermediate branch that includes Baltic Finnic, or the more disputed Finno-Volgaic languages....

. It is also featured in the Udmurt language
Udmurt language
Udmurt is an Uralic language, part of the Permic subgroup, spoken by the Udmurt natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is coofficial with Russian. It is written in the Cyrillic script with five additional characters. Together with Komi and Komi-Permyak languages, it...

. The term is sometimes used to refer to the ablative case
Ablative case
In linguistics, ablative case is a name given to cases in various languages whose common characteristic is that they mark motion away from something, though the details in each language may differ...

in other languages.


In Georgian, the adverbial case has several functions. Its most common usage is to derive adverbs from adjectives, just as in English:
Pianinoze kargad ukravs ("He/she plays the piano well")

The adverbial case suffix is -ad.

The adverbial case also acts as the essive case, as in:
Masc'avleblad mushaobs ("He works as a teacher")

The adverbial case is also employed when stating the name of a language:
Inglisurad lap'arakobs ("(S)he speaks English")
Germanulad gadatargmna ("(S)he translated it to German")

With the passive future participle in sa-, the adverbial case often is used to form purposive or infinitival-like constructions:
Usatuod shevecdebi biletebi vishovo mag p'iesis sanaxavad
Without a doubt I will try to get tickets to see this play. (Aronson, p. 402)