Aberdeen

Aberdeen

Overview
Aberdeen is Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

's third most populous city
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 25th most populous city, with an official population estimate of .

Nicknames include the Granite City, the Grey City and the Silver City with the Golden Sands. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, whose mica
Mica
The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition...

 deposits sparkle like silver.
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Encyclopedia
Aberdeen is Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

's third most populous city
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 25th most populous city, with an official population estimate of .

Nicknames include the Granite City, the Grey City and the Silver City with the Golden Sands. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, whose mica
Mica
The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition...

 deposits sparkle like silver. The city has a long, sandy coast
Coast
A coastline or seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean. A precise line that can be called a coastline cannot be determined due to the dynamic nature of tides. The term "coastal zone" can be used instead, which is a spatial zone where interaction of the sea and land processes occurs...

line. Since the discovery of North Sea oil
North Sea oil
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid oil and natural gas, produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea.In the oil industry, the term "North Sea" often includes areas such as the Norwegian Sea and the area known as "West of Shetland", "the Atlantic Frontier" or "the...

 in the 1970s, other nicknames have been the Oil Capital of Europe or the Energy Capital of Europe.
The area around Aberdeen has been settled since at least 8,000 years ago, when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee
River Dee, Aberdeenshire
The River Dee is a river in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It rises in the Cairngorms and flows through Strathdee to reach the North Sea at Aberdeen...

 and Don
River Don, Aberdeenshire
The River Don is a river in north-east Scotland. It rises in the Grampians and flows eastwards, through Aberdeenshire, to the North Sea at Aberdeen. The Don passes through Alford, Kemnay, Inverurie, Kintore, and Dyce...

.

Aberdeen received Royal Burgh
Royal burgh
A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh which had been founded by, or subsequently granted, a royal charter. Although abolished in 1975, the term is still used in many of the former burghs....

 status from King David I (1124–53), transforming the city economically. The city's two universities, the University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

, founded in 1495, and the Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University is located in Aberdeen, Scotland. Building on over 250 years involvement in education, it was granted university status in 1992. Robert Gordon University currently has approximately 16,407 students at its two campuses at Garthdee and the City Centre, studying on over 145...

, which was awarded university status in 1992, make Aberdeen the educational centre of the north-east. The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making, shipbuilding, and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry
Petroleum industry
The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting , and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline...

 and Aberdeen's seaport
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliport
Heliport
A heliport is a small airport suitable only for use by helicopters. Heliports typically contain one or more helipads and may have limited facilities such as fuel, lighting, a windsock, or even hangars...

s in the world and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland.

In January 2011 Aberdeen was named one of five cities which could help the UK climb its way out of the recession because of its high levels of employment, abundance of skilled workers, and an increase in the average weekly earnings. Aberdeen City and Shire was dubbed in the report by officials as the "one to watch" with its rapid growing economy, size and oil reserves.

Aberdeen has won the Britain in Bloom
Britain in Bloom
RHS Britain in Bloom, supported by Anglian Home Improvements, is the largest horticultural campaign in the United Kingdom. It was first held in 1963, initiated by the British Tourist Board based on the example set by Fleurissement de France. It has been organised by the Royal Horticultural Society ...

 competition a record-breaking ten times, and hosts the Aberdeen International Youth Festival
Aberdeen International Youth Festival
Aberdeen International Youth Festival is a leading Festival of Youth Arts, and one of Scotland's major international cultural events.Every year Aberdeen International Youth Festival attracts over 1000 of the most talented young people in performing arts companies and music groups from across the...

, a major international event which attracts up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies.

History





The Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years. The city began as two separate burgh
Burgh
A burgh was an autonomous corporate entity in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town. This type of administrative division existed from the 12th century, when King David I created the first royal burghs. Burgh status was broadly analogous to borough status, found in the rest of the United...

s: Old Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen is part of the city of Aberdeen in Scotland. Old Aberdeen was originally a separate burgh, which was erected into a burgh of barony on 26 December 1489. It was incorporated into adjacent Aberdeen by Act of Parliament in 1891...

 at the mouth of the river Don; and New Aberdeen, a fishing and trading settlement, where the Denburn waterway entered the river Dee estuary. The earliest charter
Charter
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified...

 was granted by William the Lion
William I of Scotland
William the Lion , sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough", reigned as King of the Scots from 1165 to 1214...

 in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I
David I of Scotland
David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians and later King of the Scots...

. In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce
Robert I of Scotland
Robert I , popularly known as Robert the Bruce , was King of Scots from March 25, 1306, until his death in 1329.His paternal ancestors were of Scoto-Norman heritage , and...

 transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocket, whose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund
Common Good Fund (Aberdeen)
Aberdeen's Common Good Fund is a fund to benefit the people of Aberdeen, Scotland. It was created as a result of Robert the Bruce granting the cities Great Charter in 1319, after they sheltered him during his days of outlaw...

 which still benefits Aberdonians.
During the Wars of Scottish Independence
Wars of Scottish Independence
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the independent Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries....

, Aberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce
Robert I of Scotland
Robert I , popularly known as Robert the Bruce , was King of Scots from March 25, 1306, until his death in 1329.His paternal ancestors were of Scoto-Norman heritage , and...

 laid siege to Aberdeen Castle
Aberdeen Castle
Aberdeen Castle was a late Middle Ages fortification, in Aberdeen, Scotland. It was situated on Castle Hill, a site today known as the Castlegate, where a block of flats are currently located....

 before destroying it in 1308 followed by the massacring of the English garrison and the retaking of Aberdeen for the townspeople. The city was burned by Edward III of England
Edward III of England
Edward III was King of England from 1327 until his death and is noted for his military success. Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II, Edward III went on to transform the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe...

 in 1336, but was rebuilt and extended, and called New Aberdeen. The city was strongly fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644-1647 the city was impartially plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen
Battle of Aberdeen
The Battle of Aberdeen was an engagement in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms which took place between Royalist and Covenanter forces outside the city of Aberdeen on 13 September 1644....

. In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague
Bubonic plague
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death...

 killed a quarter of the population.

In the eighteenth century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary
Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
Aberdeen Royal Infirmary or ARI is a teaching hospital on the Foresterhill site in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is run by NHS Grampian and has around 900 beds. ARI is a tertiary referral hospital serving a population of over 600,000 across the North of Scotland...

 at Woolmanhill
Woolmanhill Hospital
-History:Opened in 1749, it was the original Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, before this was moved to the Foresterhill site.-Current Use:There are now no in-patient beds in Woolmanhill....

 in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779. The council began major road improvements at the end of the century with the main thoroughfares of George Street
George Street, Aberdeen
George Street is a street in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.At its northern end it meets the area of Kittybrewster. Running south and slightly east, George Street heads towards the city centre...

, King Street
King Street, Aberdeen
King Street is one of the main streets in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.Its southern end is in the city centre and is also near the prestigious shopping street, Union Street...

 and Union Street
Union Street, Aberdeen
Union Street is a major street and shopping thoroughfare in Aberdeen, Scotland.It was built, along with the adjoining King Street, in the beginning of the 19th Century under plans suggested by Charles Abercrombie to provide an impressive entrance way into the city, and nearly bankrupted the city...

 all completed at the start of the next century.

A century later, the increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the existing harbour with Victoria Dock, the South Breakwater, and the extension to the North Pier. The expensive infrastructure program had repercussions, and in 1817 the city was bankrupt. However, a recovery was made in the general prosperity which followed the Napoleonic wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865.

The city was first incorporated
Municipal corporation
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which...

 in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen still has a separate charter and history, it and New Aberdeen are no longer truly distinct. They are both part of the city, along with Woodside and the Royal Burgh
Royal burgh
A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh which had been founded by, or subsequently granted, a royal charter. Although abolished in 1975, the term is still used in many of the former burghs....

 of Torry
Torry
-Setting and historical development:Torry, lying on the south bank of the River Dee, was once a Royal Burgh in its own right, having been erected a burgh of barony in 1495. It was incorporated into Aberdeen in 1891, after the construction of the Victoria Bridge, itself made possible by the 1871...

 to the south of the River Dee.

Toponymy



Old Aberdeen is the approximate location of Aberdon the first settlement of Aberdeen; this literally means "at the confluence of the Don [ie. with the sea]" in relation to the local river. The modern name Aberdeen literally means between the Dee (the other local river) and Don. The Celtic
Celtic languages
The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family...

 prefix; "Aber-" means "the confluence of" in relation to the rivers.

Some scholars believe the name came from the Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic language
Scottish Gaelic is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish, and thus descends ultimately from Primitive Irish....

 prefix Aber- and da-aevi (variation;Da-abhuin, Da-awin) - which means "the mouth of two rivers". In Gaelic the name is Obar Dheathain (variation; Obairreadhain) and in Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

, the Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 referred to it as Devana. Mediaeval (or ecclesiastical) Latin has it as Aberdonia.

Governance


Aberdeen is locally governed by Aberdeen City Council, which comprises forty-three councillors who represent the city's wards and is headed by the Lord Provost who is currently Provost Peter Stephen.

From May 2003 until May 2007 the council was run by a Liberal Democrat
Liberal Democrats
The Liberal Democrats are a social liberal political party in the United Kingdom which supports constitutional and electoral reform, progressive taxation, wealth taxation, human rights laws, cultural liberalism, banking reform and civil liberties .The party was formed in 1988 by a merger of the...

 and Conservatives
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom that adheres to the philosophies of conservatism and British unionism. It is the largest political party in the UK, and is currently the largest single party in the House...

 coalition. Following the May 2007 elections the Liberal Democrats formed a new coalition with the Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
The Scottish National Party is a social-democratic political party in Scotland which campaigns for Scottish independence from the United Kingdom....

. In May 2007 the council consisted of: 15 Liberal Democrat, 13 SNP, 10 Labour
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

, 4 Conservative councillors and a single independent councillor. After a SNP by election gain from the Conservatives on 16 August 2007, the Lib Dem/SNP coalition held 28 of the 43 seats). In August 2009 a councillor resigned from the Liberal Democrats and became an independent. The Conservative Group split in August 2010 with two councillors forming the Aberdeen Conservatives. All four Conservatives remain recognised as Conservatives by the party nationally.

Aberdeen is represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories, located in London...

 by three constituencies: Aberdeen North
Aberdeen North (UK Parliament constituency)
Aberdeen North is a burgh constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and it elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election...

, Aberdeen South
Aberdeen South (UK Parliament constituency)
Aberdeen South is a burgh constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and it elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election...

 and Gordon
Gordon (UK Parliament constituency)
Gordon is a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom , which elects one member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election...

, of which the first two are wholly within the Aberdeen City council area while the latter also encompasses a large swathe of Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire is one of the 32 unitary council areas in Scotland and a lieutenancy area.The present day Aberdeenshire council area does not include the City of Aberdeen, now a separate council area, from which its name derives. Together, the modern council area and the city formed historic...

.

In the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
The Scottish Parliament is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland, located in the Holyrood area of the capital, Edinburgh. The Parliament, informally referred to as "Holyrood", is a democratically elected body comprising 129 members known as Members of the Scottish Parliament...

 the city is represented again by three constituencies: Aberdeen Donside
Aberdeen Donside (Scottish Parliament constituency)
Aberdeen Donside is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It will elect one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the first past the post method of election...

, Aberdeen Central
Aberdeen Central (Scottish Parliament constituency)
Aberdeen Central is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the first past the post method of election and is one of nine constituencies in the North East Scotland electoral region...

 and Aberdeen South and North Kincardine
Aberdeen South and North Kincardine (Scottish Parliament constituency)
Aberdeen South and North Kincardine is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the first past the post method of election...

, the first two are again wholly within the Aberdeen City council area, and the latter encompasses the North Kincardine
Kincardine
Kincardine or Kincardine-on-Forth is a small town located on the north shore of the Firth of Forth, in Fife, Scotland. The town was given the status of a Burgh of barony in 1663. It was at one time a reasonably prosperous minor port...

 ward of Aberdeenshire Council. A further seven MSPs are elected as part of the North East Scotland
North East Scotland (Scottish Parliament electoral region)
North East Scotland is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament which were created in 1999. Nine of the parliament's 73 first past the post constituencies are sub-divisions of the region and it elects seven of the 56 additional-member Members of the Scottish Parliament...

 electoral region.

In the European Parliament
European Parliament
The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union . Together with the Council of the European Union and the Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU and it has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world...

 the city is represented by six MEPs
Member of the European Parliament
A Member of the European Parliament is a person who has been elected to the European Parliament. The name of MEPs differ in different languages, with terms such as europarliamentarian or eurodeputy being common in Romance language-speaking areas.When the European Parliament was first established,...

 as part of the all-inclusive Scotland constituency.

Heraldry


Symbols of the city typically show three castles, such as in the case of the flag and coat of arms. The image has been around since the time of Robert the Bruce and represents the buildings that stood on the three hills of Aberdeen; Aberdeen Castle on Castle Hill (today's castlegate
Castlegate, Aberdeen
The Castlegate is a small area of Aberdeen, Scotland, located centrally at the east-end of the city's main thoroughfare Union Street. Generally speaking, locals would consider it to encompas the square at the end of Union Street where the Mercat Cross and the Gallowgate are located.At the upper end...

); an unknown building on Windmill Hill and a church on St. Catherine's Hill (now levelled).

"Bon Accord" is the motto
Motto
A motto is a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. A motto may be in any language, but Latin is the most used. The local language is usual in the mottoes of governments...

 of the city and is French literally for "Good Agreement". Legend tells that its use dates from the fourteenth century password used by Robert the Bruce during the Wars of Scottish Independence
Wars of Scottish Independence
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the independent Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries....

, when he and his men laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308.

The leopard
Leopard
The leopard , Panthera pardus, is a member of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four "big cats" in the genus Panthera, the other three being the tiger, lion, and jaguar. The leopard was once distributed across eastern and southern Asia and Africa, from Siberia to South Africa, but its...

 has traditionally been associated with the city and its emblem can be seen on the city crest. The local magazine is called the "Leopard" and, when Union Bridge was constructed in the nineteenth century, small statues of the creature in a sitting position were cast and placed on top of the railing posts (known locally as Kelly's Cats).

The city's toast is "Happy to meet, sorry to part, happy to meet again"; this has been commonly misinterpreted as the translation of Bon Accord.

Geography



Being sited between two river mouths, the city has little natural exposure of bedrock. This leaves local geologists in a slight quandary : despite the high concentration of geoscientists in the area (courtesy of the oil industry), there is only a vague understanding of what underlays the city. To the south side of the city, coastal cliffs expose high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Grampian Group; to the south-west and west are extensive granites intruded into similar high-grade schists; to the north the metamorphics are intruded by gabbroic complexes instead. And under the city itself? The small amount of geophysics done, and occasional building-related exposures, combined with small exposures in the banks of the River Don, suggest that it's actually sited on an inlier of Devonian "Old Red" sandstones and silts. The outskirts of the city spread beyond the (inferred) limits of the outlier onto the surrounding metamorphic/ igneous complexes formed during the Dalradian
Dalradian
Dalradian in geology describes a series of metamorphic rocks, typically developed in the high ground which lies southeast of the Great Glen of Scotland...

 period (approximately 480-600 million years ago) with sporadic areas of igneous
Igneous rock
Igneous rock is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic rock. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava...

 Diorite
Diorite
Diorite is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar , biotite, hornblende, and/or pyroxene. It may contain small amounts of quartz, microcline and olivine. Zircon, apatite, sphene, magnetite, ilmenite and sulfides occur as accessory...

 granites to be found, such as that at the Rubislaw quarry
Rubislaw quarry
Rubislaw Quarry was opened in 1740 and is located at the Hill of Rubislaw in the west end of the Scottish city of Aberdeen. In 1778, Aberdeen city council sold it to a businessman, as it was not thought to be a source of good building material...

 which was used to build much of the Victorian
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 parts of the city.

On the coast, Aberdeen has a long sand beach between the two rivers, the Dee
River Dee, Aberdeenshire
The River Dee is a river in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It rises in the Cairngorms and flows through Strathdee to reach the North Sea at Aberdeen...

 and the Don
River Don, Aberdeenshire
The River Don is a river in north-east Scotland. It rises in the Grampians and flows eastwards, through Aberdeenshire, to the North Sea at Aberdeen. The Don passes through Alford, Kemnay, Inverurie, Kintore, and Dyce...

, which turns into high sand dunes north of the Don stretching as far as Fraserburgh
Fraserburgh
Fraserburgh is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland with a population recorded in the 2001 Census at 12,454 and estimated at 12,630 in 2006. It lies at the extreme northeast corner of Aberdeenshire, around north of Aberdeen, and north of Peterhead...

; to the south of the Dee are steep rocky cliff faces with only minor pebble and shingle beaches in deep inlets. A number of granite outcrops along the south coast have been quarried in the past, making for spectacular scenery and good rock-climbing.

The city extends to 184.46 km² (71.22 sq mi), and includes the former burghs of Old Aberdeen, New Aberdeen, Woodside
Woodside, Aberdeen
Woodside is a part of the city of Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom.The area used to be separate from the city but was incorporated in 1891....

 and the Royal Burgh
Royal burgh
A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh which had been founded by, or subsequently granted, a royal charter. Although abolished in 1975, the term is still used in many of the former burghs....

 of Torry
Torry
-Setting and historical development:Torry, lying on the south bank of the River Dee, was once a Royal Burgh in its own right, having been erected a burgh of barony in 1495. It was incorporated into Aberdeen in 1891, after the construction of the Victoria Bridge, itself made possible by the 1871...

 to the south of River Dee
River Dee, Aberdeenshire
The River Dee is a river in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It rises in the Cairngorms and flows through Strathdee to reach the North Sea at Aberdeen...

. In this gave the city a population density of . The city is built on many hills, with the original beginnings of the city growing from Castle Hill, St. Catherine's Hill and Windmill Hill.

Location



Climate


Aberdeen features an oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfb). Aberdeen is far milder than one might expect for its northern location. During the winter, especially throughout December, the length of the day is very short, averaging 6 hours and 40 minutes between sunrise and sunset at winter solstice. As winter progresses, the length of the day grows fairly quickly, to 8 hours and 20 minutes by the end of January. Around summer solstice, the days will be around 18 hours long, having 17 hours and 57 minutes between sunrise and sunset, with nautical twilight lasting the entire night. Temperatures at this time of year will be typically hovering around 17 °C (62.6 °F) during the day in most of the urban area, though nearer 16 °C (60.8 °F) right in the coast, and around 18 °C (64.4 °F) to 19 °C (66.2 °F) in the Westernmost suburbs, illustrating the cooling effect of the North Sea during summer.

Two weather stations collect climate data for the area, Aberdeen Dyce airport, and Craibstone. Both are about 4.5 miles to the North West of the city centre, and given that they are in close proximity to each other, not surprisingly exhibit very similar climatic regime's. Dyce tends to have marginally warmer daytime temperature's year round owing to its slightly lower elevation, though is more susceptible to harsh frosts. The coldest temperature to occur in recent years was -16.8 C during december 2010.

Demography


In 1396 the population was about 3,000. By 1801 it had become 26,992; (1901) 153,503; (1941) 182,467. In 2001 the UK census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 records the Aberdeen City Council
Aberdeen City Council
Aberdeen City Council represents the Aberdeen City council area of Scotland.The council area was created in 1996, under the Local Government etc. Act 1994...

 area's population at 212,125, but the Aberdeen locality's population at 184,788. The latest official population estimate, for , is . Data from the Aberdeen specific locality of the 2001 UK census shows that the demographics include a median male age of 35 and female age of 38, which are younger than Scotland's average and a 49% to 51% male-to-female ratio.

The census showed that there are fewer young people in Aberdeen, with 16.4% under 16, opposed to the national average of 19.2%. Ethnically, 15.7% were born outside of Scotland, higher than the national average of 12.9%. Of this population 8.4% were born in England. 3% of Aberdonians stated to be from an ethnic minority (non-white) in the 2001 census, with 0.7% from the Indian-subcontinent and 0.6% Asian; in comparison, Scotland's overall population of non-white origin is 2%. This is a lower percentage than any of Scotland's other three main cities, Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

, and Dundee
Dundee
Dundee is the fourth-largest city in Scotland and the 39th most populous settlement in the United Kingdom. It lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea...

. The most multicultural part of the city is George Street, which has many ethnic restaurants, supermarkets and hairdressers.

In the household, there were 97,013 individual dwellings recorded in the city of which 61% were privately owned, 9% privately rented and 23% rented from the council. The most popular type of dwellings are apartments which comprise 49% of residences followed by semi-detached at just below 22%.
The median income of a household in the city is £16,813 (the mean income is £20,292) (2005) which places approximately 18% households in the city below the poverty line (defined as 60% of the mean income). Conversely, an Aberdeen postcode has the second highest number of millionaires of any postcode in the UK.

Religion




Traditionally Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

, Aberdeen's largest denominations are the Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
The Church of Scotland, known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is a Presbyterian church, decisively shaped by the Scottish Reformation....

 (through the Presbytery of Aberdeen
Presbytery of Aberdeen
The Presbytery of Aberdeen is one of the forty-six presbyteries of the Church of Scotland, being the local presbytery for the city of Aberdeen. The current moderator is the Rev John M Watson, who is minister of St Mark's Church. The presbytery represents and supervises forty-four Church of Scotland...

) and the Catholic Church. The last census revealed that Aberdeen is the least religious city in Scotland, with nearly 43 % of people claiming to have no religion and several former churches in the city have been converted into bars and restaurants.

In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, the Kirk of St Nicholas
Kirk of St Nicholas, Aberdeen
The Kirk of St Nicholas is a historic church located in the city centre of Aberdeen, Scotland. It is now officially known as the "Kirk of St Nicholas " as it is membership of both of the Church of Scotland and the United Reformed Church...

 was the only burgh kirk and one of Scotland's largest parish churches. Like a number of other Scottish kirks, it was subdivided after the Reformation
Scottish Reformation
The Scottish Reformation was Scotland's formal break with the Papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. It was part of the wider European Protestant Reformation; and in Scotland's case culminated ecclesiastically in the re-establishment of the church along Reformed lines, and politically in...

, in this case into the East and West churches. At this time, the city also was home to houses of the Carmelites
Carmelites
The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites is a Catholic religious order perhaps founded in the 12th century on Mount Carmel, hence its name. However, historical records about its origin remain uncertain...

 (Whitefriars) and Franciscans (Greyfriars), the latter of which surviving in modified form as the chapel of Marischal College as late as the early twentieth Century.

St Machar's Cathedral was formed twenty years after David I
David I of Scotland
David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians and later King of the Scots...

 (1124–53) transferred the pre-Reformation Diocese
Diocese
A diocese is the district or see under the supervision of a bishop. It is divided into parishes.An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or had importance due to size or historical significance...

 from Mortlach in Banffshire
Banffshire
The County of Banff is a registration county for property, and Banffshire is a Lieutenancy area of Scotland.The County of Banff, also known as Banffshire, was a local government county of Scotland with its own county council between 1890 and 1975. The county town was Banff although the largest...

 to Old Aberdeen in 1137. With the exception of the episcopate of William Elphinstone
William Elphinstone
William Elphinstone was a Scottish statesman, Bishop of Aberdeen and founder of the University of Aberdeen.He was born in Glasgow, and educated at the University of Glasgow, taking the degree of M.A. in 1452. After practising for a short time as a lawyer in the church courts, he was ordained a...

 (1484–1511), building progressed slowly. Gavin Dunbar, who followed him in 1518, completed the structure by adding the two western spires and the southern transept.

St. Mary's Cathedral is a Roman Catholic Cathedral in Gothic style, erected in 1859.

St. Andrew's Cathedral is the Scottish Episcopal
Scottish Episcopal Church
The Scottish Episcopal Church is a Christian church in Scotland, consisting of seven dioceses. Since the 17th century, it has had an identity distinct from the presbyterian Church of Scotland....

 Cathedral, constructed in 1817 as Archibald Simpson's first commission. It is notable for having consecrated the first bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America.

The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church known for its thrift stores and charity work. It is an international movement that currently works in over a hundred countries....

 citadel dominates the east end of Union Street.

There is a Unitarian Church, established in 1833 and currently located in Skene Terrace, close to the city centre by Union Terrace.

Christadelphians
Christadelphians
Christadelphians is a Christian group that developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century...

 have been present in Aberdeen since at least 1844. Over the years, they have rented space to meet at a number of locations: the West Room of the Music Hall (for over 120 years); the Cowdry Club; the YWCA in Bon Accord Crescent. Today they meet in the Inchgarth Community Centre in Garthdee.

There are two meetinghouses of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

There is also an Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

ic Mosque in Old Aberdeen and an Orthodox Jewish Synagogue established in 1945. There are no formal Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 or Hindu
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 buildings. The University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

 has a small Bahá'í
Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

 society.

There is also a Quaker meetinghouse on Crown street, the only purpose built Quaker House in Scotland that is still in use today.

Economy







Traditionally, Aberdeen was home to fishing, textile mills, shipbuilding and paper making. These industries have been largely replaced. High technology developments in the electronics design and development industry, research in agriculture and fishing and the oil industry, which has been largely responsible for Aberdeen's economic boom in the last three decades, are now major parts of Aberdeen's economy.

Until the 1970s, most of Aberdeen's leading industries dated from the eighteenth Century; mainly these were textiles, foundry work, shipbuilding and paper
Paper
Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets....

-making, the oldest industry in the city, with paper having been first made there in 1694. Paper-making has reduced in importance since the closures of Donside Paper Mill in 2001 and the Davidson Mill in 2005 leaving the Stoneywood Paper Mill
Paper mills of Aberdeen
This is an article about the 3 main paper mills in Aberdeen, Scotland .- Donside Paper Mill :The Donside Paper Mill was paper mill in Aberdeen, shortly to the north of Old Aberdeen and the Tillydrone area, by the River Don...

 with a workforce of approximately 500. Textile production ended in 2004 when Richards of Aberdeen
Richards of Aberdeen
Richards of Aberdeen was a textile company based in the Hutcheon Street area of Aberdeen, Scotland.-History:Founded more than 200 years ago, Richards operated what was to become the oldest iron-frame mill in Scotland and the last remaining textile mill in the 'Granite City'...

 closed.

Grey granite was quarried
Quarry
A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. Quarries are generally used for extracting building materials, such as dimension stone, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, and gravel. They are often collocated with concrete and asphalt plants due to the requirement...

 at Rubislaw quarry
Rubislaw quarry
Rubislaw Quarry was opened in 1740 and is located at the Hill of Rubislaw in the west end of the Scottish city of Aberdeen. In 1778, Aberdeen city council sold it to a businessman, as it was not thought to be a source of good building material...

 for more than 300 years, and used for paving setts, kerb and building stones, and monumental and other ornamental pieces. Aberdeen granite was used to build the terraces of the Houses of Parliament and Waterloo Bridge
Waterloo Bridge
Waterloo Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge crossing the River Thames in London, England between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge. The name of the bridge is in memory of the British victory at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815...

 in London. Quarrying finally ceased in 1971.

Fishing was once the predominant industry, but was surpassed by deep-sea fisheries, which derived a great impetus from improved technologies throughout the twentieth Century. Catches have fallen due to overfishing and the use of the harbour by oil support vessels, and so although still an important fishing port it is now eclipsed by the more northerly ports of Peterhead
Peterhead
Peterhead is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It is Aberdeenshire's biggest settlement , with a population of 17,947 at the 2001 Census and estimated to have fallen to 17,330 by 2006....

 and Fraserburgh. The Fisheries Research Services
Fisheries Research Services
Fisheries Research Services was an Executive Agency of the Scottish Government. FRS was responsible for scientific and technical research into the marine and freshwater fisheries and aquaculture, and the protection of the aquatic environment in Scotland. For these purposes, the agency had two...

 are headquartered in Aberdeen, and there is a marine research lab in Torry.

Aberdeen is well regarded for the agricultural and soil research carried out at The Macaulay Institute, which has close links to the city's two universities. The Rowett Research Institute
Rowett Research Institute
The Rowett Research Institute is a research centre for studies into food and nutrition located in Aberdeen, Scotland.-History:The institute was founded in 1913 when the University of Aberdeen and the North of Scotland College of Agriculture agreed that an "Institute for Research into Animal...

 is a world-renowned research centre for studies into food and nutrition located in Aberdeen. It has produced three Nobel laureates and there is a high concentration of life scientists working in the city.

There is also a dynamic and fast growing electronics design and development industry.

With the discovery of significant oil deposit
North Sea oil
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid oil and natural gas, produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea.In the oil industry, the term "North Sea" often includes areas such as the Norwegian Sea and the area known as "West of Shetland", "the Atlantic Frontier" or "the...

s in the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 during the late twentieth century, Aberdeen became the centre of Europe's petroleum
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 industry. With the second largest heliport in the world and an important service ship harbour port serving oil rig
Oil platform
An oil platform, also referred to as an offshore platform or, somewhat incorrectly, oil rig, is a lаrge structure with facilities to drill wells, to extract and process oil and natural gas, and to temporarily store product until it can be brought to shore for refining and marketing...

s off-shore, Aberdeen is often called the Oil Capital of Europe.

There is now a concerted effort to transform Aberdeen's reputation as the Oil Capital of Europe into the Energy Capital of Europe as oil supplies may start to dwindle in coming years, and there is considerable interest in the development of new energy sources; and technology transfer from oil into renewable energy and other industries is under way. The "Energetica" initiative led by Scottish Enterprise has been designed to accelerate this process.

The city ranks third in Scotland for shopping. The traditional shopping streets are Union Street
Union Street, Aberdeen
Union Street is a major street and shopping thoroughfare in Aberdeen, Scotland.It was built, along with the adjoining King Street, in the beginning of the 19th Century under plans suggested by Charles Abercrombie to provide an impressive entrance way into the city, and nearly bankrupted the city...

 and George Street
George Street, Aberdeen
George Street is a street in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.At its northern end it meets the area of Kittybrewster. Running south and slightly east, George Street heads towards the city centre...

, now complemented by shopping centres, notably the St Nicholas & Bon Accord and the Trinity Shopping Centre. A new retail £190 million development, Union Square, reached completion in late September/early October 2009. Major retail park
Retail park
In the United Kingdom, a retail park is a grouping of many retail warehouses and superstores with associated car parking. Its North American equivalent is a power centre. Retail parks are found on the fringes of most large towns and cities in highly accessible locations and are aimed at households...

s away from the city centre include the Berryden Retail Park, the Kittybrewster Retail Park and the Beach Boulevard Retail Park.

In March 2004, Aberdeen was awarded Fairtrade City status by the Fairtrade Foundation. Along with Dundee, it shares the distinction of being the first city in Scotland to receive this accolade.

Landmarks


Aberdeen's architecture
Architecture
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art...

 is known for its principal use during the Victorian era of granite
Granite
Granite is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock. Granite usually has a medium- to coarse-grained texture. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a porphyritic...

, which has led to its local nickname
Nickname
A nickname is "a usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place, as a supposedly appropriate replacement for or addition to the proper name.", or a name similar in origin and pronunciation from the original name....

 of the Granite City or more romantically the less commonly used name the Silver City, since the Mica
Mica
The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition...

 in the stone sparkles in the sun. The hard grey stone is one of the most durable materials available and helps to explain why the city's buildings look brand-new when they have been newly cleaned and the cement has been pointed. Unlike other Scottish cities where sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

 has been used, the buildings are not weathering and need very little structural maintenance on their masonry.

Amongst the notable buildings in the city's main street, Union Street
Union Street, Aberdeen
Union Street is a major street and shopping thoroughfare in Aberdeen, Scotland.It was built, along with the adjoining King Street, in the beginning of the 19th Century under plans suggested by Charles Abercrombie to provide an impressive entrance way into the city, and nearly bankrupted the city...

, are the Town and County Bank, the Music Hall
The Music Hall (Aberdeen)
The Music Hall is a concert hall in Aberdeen, Scotland, formerly the city's Assembly Rooms, located on Union Street in the city centre. It was designed by architect Archibald Simpson, costing £11,500 when it was originally constructed in 1822, opened to the public as a concert hall in 1859, and was...

, the Trinity Hall of the incorporated trades (originating between 1398 and 1527), now a shopping mall; the former office of the Northern Assurance Company, and the National Bank of Scotland
National Bank of Scotland
The National Bank of Scotland Ltd. was a Scottish commercial bank. It was founded in 1825, and obtained a royal charter in 1831. It became the first Scottish bank to open a London office, in 1864...

. In Castle Street, a continuation eastwards of Union Street, is the new Town House, a very prominent landmark in Aberdeen, built between 1868 and 1873 to a design by Peddie and Kinnear.

Alexander Marshall Mackenzie
Alexander Marshall Mackenzie
Alexander Marshall Mackenzie was a Scottish architect responsible for prestigious projects including the Isle of Man Banking Company in Douglas, and Australia House and the Waldorf Hotel in London....

's extension to Marischal College
Marischal College
Marischal College is a building and former university in the centre of the city of Aberdeen in north-east Scotland. The building is owned by the University of Aberdeen and used for ceremonial events...

 on Broad Street, opened by King Edward VII
Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910...

 in 1906, created the second largest granite building in the world (after the Escorial, Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

).

In addition to the many fine landmark buildings, Aberdeen has many prominent public statues, three of the most notable being William Wallace
William Wallace
Sir William Wallace was a Scottish knight and landowner who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence....

 at the junction between Union Terrace and Rosemount Viaduct, Robert Burns
Robert Burns
Robert Burns was a Scottish poet and a lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland, and is celebrated worldwide...

 on Union Terrace; above Union Terrace Gardens
Union Terrace Gardens
Union Terrace Gardens is a public park and gardens, and important landmark situated on Union Terrace at the heart of Aberdeen, Scotland.- The gardens :The sunken gardens opened to the public in 1879, and cover approximately two and a half acres...

, and Robert the Bruce holding aloft the charter he issued to the city in 1319 on Broad Street, outside Marischal College
Marischal College
Marischal College is a building and former university in the centre of the city of Aberdeen in north-east Scotland. The building is owned by the University of Aberdeen and used for ceremonial events...

.

Parks, Gardens and Open spaces





Aberdeen has long been famous for its 45 outstanding park
Park
A park is a protected area, in its natural or semi-natural state, or planted, and set aside for human recreation and enjoyment, or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of rocks, soil, water, flora and fauna and grass areas. Many parks are legally protected by...

s and garden
Garden
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials. The most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has...

s, and citywide floral displays which include two million roses, eleven million daffodils and three million crocuses. The city has won the Royal Horticultural Society
Royal Horticultural Society
The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in 1804 in London, England as the Horticultural Society of London, and gained its present name in a Royal Charter granted in 1861 by Prince Albert...

's Britain in Bloom
Britain in Bloom
RHS Britain in Bloom, supported by Anglian Home Improvements, is the largest horticultural campaign in the United Kingdom. It was first held in 1963, initiated by the British Tourist Board based on the example set by Fleurissement de France. It has been organised by the Royal Horticultural Society ...

 'Best City' award ten times, the overall Scotland in Bloom competition twenty times and the large city category every year since 1968. However, despite recent spurious reports, Aberdeen has never been banned from the Britain in Bloom competition. The city won the 2006 Scotland in Bloom "Best City" award along with the International Cities in Bloom award. The suburb of Dyce also won the Small Towns award.

Duthie Park
Duthie Park
Duthie park, situated in Aberdeen, Scotland, by the banks of the River Dee, comprises of land gifted to the council in 1881 by Lady Elizabeth Duthie of Ruthrieston, in memory of her uncle and of her brother...

 opened in 1899 on the north bank of the River Dee
River Dee, Aberdeenshire
The River Dee is a river in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It rises in the Cairngorms and flows through Strathdee to reach the North Sea at Aberdeen...

. It was named after and gifted to the city by Miss Elizabeth Crombie Duthie of Ruthrieston in 1881. It has extensive gardens, a rose hill, boating pond, bandstand, and play area as well as Europe's second largest enclosed gardens the David Welch Winter Gardens. Hazlehead Park
Hazlehead Park
Hazlehead Park is a large public park in the Hazlehead area of Aberdeen, Scotland. 180 hectares in size, it was opened to the public in 1920, having formerly been the estate of Hazlehead House, home of William Rose, shipbuilder....

, is large and forested, located on the outskirts of the city, it is popular with walkers in the forests, sports enthusiasts, naturalists and picnickers. There are football pitches, two golf courses, a pitch and putt course and a horse riding school.

Aberdeen's success in the Britain in Bloom competitions is often attributed to Johnston Gardens
Johnston Gardens
Johnston Gardens is a small public garden in Aberdeen, Scotland. The garden has won the Britain in Bloom competition many times ....

, a small park of one hectare in the west end of the city containing many different flowers and plants which have been renowned for their beauty. The garden was in 2002, named the best garden in the British Islands
British Islands
British Islands is a term within the law of the United Kingdom which since 1889 has referred collectively to the following four states:*the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ;...

.

Seaton Park
Seaton Park
Seaton Park is located in Aberdeen, Scotland and is one of the city's biggest parks. It was bought by the city for use as a public park in 1947 from Major Hay.The River Don passes along the edge of the park...

, formerly the grounds of a private house, is on the edge of the grounds of St Machar's Cathedral. The Cathedral Walk is maintained in a formal style with a great variety of plants providing a popular display. The park includes several other areas with contrasting styles to this.

Union Terrace Gardens
Union Terrace Gardens
Union Terrace Gardens is a public park and gardens, and important landmark situated on Union Terrace at the heart of Aberdeen, Scotland.- The gardens :The sunken gardens opened to the public in 1879, and cover approximately two and a half acres...

 opened in 1879 and is situated in the centre of the city. It covers 2.5 acres (10,117.2 m²) in the centre of Aberdeen bordered on three sides by Union Street, Union Terrace and Rosemount Viaduct. The park forms a natural amphitheatre located in the Denburn Valley and is an oasis of peace and calm in the city centre. A recent proposal to build a three storey concrete and steel superstructure in place of the gardens, part of which will provide a commercial concourse, has proved highly controversial.

Situated next to each other, Victoria Park
Victoria Park, Aberdeen
Victoria Park is a small park in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.The park has an area of five hectares and opened to the public in 1871. It is named after Queen Victoria. As well as numerous flower beds there is a conservatory and a greenhouse which is open during the summer months...

 and Westburn Park
Westburn Park
Westburn Park is located in Aberdeen, Scotland and is a large Aberdeen City Council owned public park. It is a 10 hectare site and one of the cities biggest parks.It does not have flowerbeds or gardens and is mainly grass with some trees...

 cover 26 acres (105,218.4 m²) between them. Victoria Park
Victoria Park, Aberdeen
Victoria Park is a small park in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.The park has an area of five hectares and opened to the public in 1871. It is named after Queen Victoria. As well as numerous flower beds there is a conservatory and a greenhouse which is open during the summer months...

 opened in 1871. There is a conservatory used as a seating area and a fountain made of fourteen different granites, presented to the people by the granite polishers and master builders of Aberdeen. Opposite to the north is Westburn Park
Westburn Park
Westburn Park is located in Aberdeen, Scotland and is a large Aberdeen City Council owned public park. It is a 10 hectare site and one of the cities biggest parks.It does not have flowerbeds or gardens and is mainly grass with some trees...

 opened in 1901. With large grass pitches it is widely used for field sports. There is large tennis centre with indoor and outdoor courts, a children's cycle track, play area and a grass boules lawn.

Theatres and Concert Halls


Aberdeen has been the host of a few theatres through history. Some of them has been converted or destroyed over the years. The most
famous ones includes:
  • His Majesty's Theatre
    His Majesty's Theatre
    His Majesty's Theatre in Aberdeen is the largest theatre in north-east Scotland, seating more than 1400. The theatre is sited on Rosemount Viaduct, opposite the city's Union Terrace Gardens. It was designed by Frank Matcham and opened in 1906...

     (HMT), on Rosemount Viaduct
  • The Tivoli
    Tivoli Theatre, Aberdeen
    The Tivoli Theatre, Guild Street, in Aberdeen, Scotland, opened in 1872 as Her Majesty's Theatre and was built by the Aberdeen Theatre and Opera House Company Ltd, under architects James Matthews of Aberdeen and C.B. Phipps, a London-based architect brought in to consult...

    , on Guild Street
  • Capitol Theatre, on Union Street
  • The Palace Theatre, on Bridge Street


The most renown concert hall is the Music Hall on Union Street, built in 1822.

Transport


Aberdeen Airport
Aberdeen Airport
Aberdeen Airport is an international airport, located at Dyce, a suburb of Aberdeen, Scotland, approximately northwest of Aberdeen city centre. 2.76 million passengers used Aberdeen Airport in 2010, a reduction of 7.4% compared with 2009, making it the 15th busiest airport in the UK...

 (ABZ), at Dyce in the north of the city, serves a number of domestic and international destinations including France, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Ireland and Scandinavian countries. The heliport which serves the oil industry and rescue services is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world.

Aberdeen railway station
Aberdeen railway station
Aberdeen railway station is the main railway station in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is the busiest railway station in Scotland north of the major cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh.- History :...

 is on the main UK rail network and has frequent direct trains to major cities such as Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

, Glasgow and London, including the overnight Caledonian Sleeper
Caledonian Sleeper
The Caledonian Sleeper is a sleeper train service operated by First ScotRail and one of only two remaining sleeper services running on the railways of Great Britain, the other being the Night Riviera....

 train. The station is currently being updated to bring it into the modern age. In 2007 additions were made and a new ticket office was built in the building.

Until 2007, a 1950s-style concrete bus station at Guild Street served out-of-the-city locations; it has since transferred to a new and well-presented bus station just 100 metres to the east off Market Street as part of the Union Square development.

There are six major roads in and out of the city. The A90 is the main arterial route into the city from the north and south, linking Aberdeen to Edinburgh, Dundee
Dundee
Dundee is the fourth-largest city in Scotland and the 39th most populous settlement in the United Kingdom. It lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea...

, Brechin
Brechin
Brechin is a former royal burgh in Angus, Scotland. Traditionally Brechin is often described as a city because of its cathedral and its status as the seat of a pre-Reformation Roman Catholic diocese , but that status has not been officially recognised in the modern era...

 and Perth
Perth, Scotland
Perth is a town and former city and royal burgh in central Scotland. Located on the banks of the River Tay, it is the administrative centre of Perth and Kinross council area and the historic county town of Perthshire...

 in the south and Ellon
Ellon, Aberdeenshire
Ellon is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, approximately north of Aberdeen, lying on the River Ythan which has one of the few undeveloped river estuaries on the Eastern coast of Scotland. It is in the ancient region of Formartine...

, Peterhead
Peterhead
Peterhead is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It is Aberdeenshire's biggest settlement , with a population of 17,947 at the 2001 Census and estimated to have fallen to 17,330 by 2006....

 and Fraserburgh in the north. The A96 links to Elgin
Elgin, Moray
Elgin is a former cathedral city and Royal Burgh in Moray, Scotland. It is the administrative and commercial centre for Moray. The town originated to the south of the River Lossie on the higher ground above the flood plain. Elgin is first documented in the Cartulary of Moray in 1190...

 and Inverness
Inverness
Inverness is a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the administrative centre for the Highland council area, and is regarded as the capital of the Highlands of Scotland...

 and the north west. The A93 is the main route to the west, heading towards Royal Deeside and the Cairngorms
Cairngorms
The Cairngorms are a mountain range in the eastern Highlands of Scotland closely associated with the mountain of the same name - Cairn Gorm.-Name:...

. After Braemar
Braemar
Braemar is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, around west of Aberdeen in the Highlands. It is the closest significantly-sized settlement to the upper course of the River Dee sitting at an altitude of ....

, it turns south, providing an alternative tourist route to Perth. The A944 also heads west, through Westhill and on to Alford
Alford, Aberdeenshire
Alford is a large village in Aberdeenshire, north-east Scotland, lying just south of the River Don. It lies within the Howe of Alford which occupies the middle reaches of the River Don....

. The A92 was the original southerly road to Aberdeen prior to the building of the A90, and is now used as a tourist route, connecting the towns of Montrose
Montrose, Angus
Montrose is a coastal resort town and former royal burgh in Angus, Scotland. It is situated 38 miles north of Dundee between the mouths of the North and South Esk rivers...

 and Arbroath
Arbroath
Arbroath or Aberbrothock is a former royal burgh and the largest town in the council area of Angus in Scotland, and has a population of 22,785...

 and on the east coast. The A947 exits the city at Dyce and goes on to Newmachar
Newmachar
Newmachar is a village in the north-east of Scotland located within the Aberdeenshire local authority. Situated 10 miles to the north-west of Aberdeen, the settlement has an estimated population of 2,400.-Overview:...

, Oldmeldrum
Oldmeldrum
Oldmeldrum is a village and parish in the Formartine area of Aberdeenshire, not far from Inverurie in North East Scotland. With a growing population of over 2000, Oldmeldrum falls within Scotland's top 300 centres of population. The A947 road from Aberdeen to Banff runs through the centre of the...

 and Turriff
Turriff
Turriff is a town and civil parish in Aberdeenshire in Scotland. It is approximately above sea level, and has a population of 5,708.Turriff is known locally as Turra in the Doric dialect of Scots...

 finally ending at Banff
Banff, Aberdeenshire
Banff is a town in the Banff and Buchan area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Banff is situated on Banff Bay and faces the town of Macduff across the estuary of the River Deveron...

 and Macduff
Macduff, Aberdeenshire
Macduff is a town in the Banff and Buchan area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Macduff is situated on Banff Bay and faces the town of Banff across the estuary of the River Deveron...

.

Aberdeen Harbour is important as the largest in the north of Scotland and as a ferry route to Orkney and Shetland. Established in 1136, it has been referred to as the oldest business in Britain.

FirstGroup operates the city buses under the name First Aberdeen
First Aberdeen
First Aberdeen Ltd is the main bus company serving Aberdeen, Scotland and is part of FirstGroup. It was renamed First Aberdeen Ltd in 1998, having previously operated buses in Aberdeen as Aberdeen Corporation, Grampian Regional Transport and First Grampian.-Aberdeen Corporation:Aberdeen Corporation...

, as the successor of Grampian Regional Transport (GRT) and Aberdeen Corporation Tramways. Aberdeen is the global headquarters of FirstGroup plc, having grown from the GRT Group
GRT Group
GRT Group plc was a bus operating company in the United Kingdom. Created in 1989 as a holding company to effect the buyout of Grampian Regional Transport , it grew by acquisition and in 1995 merged with Badgerline to create FirstBus plc, forerunner to worldwide transport company FirstGroup...

. First is still based at the former Aberdeen Tramways depot on King Street, soon to be redeveloped into a new Global Headquarters and Aberdeen bus depot.

Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group plc is an international transport group operating buses, trains, trams, express coaches and ferries. The group was founded in 1980 by the current chairman, Sir Brian Souter, his sister, Ann Gloag, and her former husband Robin...

 also run buses in Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire, under the Stagecoach Bluebird brand. Other bus companies (e.g. Megabus
Megabus (United Kingdom)
Megabus is a UK coach service operated by Stagecoach Group. It started in 2003 and as of February 2010 operated 19 UK coach routes serving 41 destinations in England, Scotland and Wales. Some services link with Megatrain services which are also operated by Stagecoach...

) run buses from the bus station to places north and south of the city.

Aberdeen is connected to the UK National Cycle Network
National Cycle Network
The National Cycle Network is a network of cycle routes in the United Kingdom.The National Cycle Network was created by the charity Sustrans , and aided by a £42.5 million National Lottery grant. In 2005 it was used for over 230 million trips.Many routes hope to minimise contact with motor...

, and has a track to the south connecting to cities such as Dundee and Edinburgh and one to the north that forks about 10 miles from the city into two different tracks heading to Inverness and Fraserburgh respectively. Two particularly popular footpaths along old railway tracks are the Deeside Way
Deeside Way
The Deeside Way , is a pathway that travels along the bed of the now removed Deeside Railway, along the north bank of the River Dee in Aberdeenshire.While in operation, the railway was used by the British Royal Family during travel to their Scottish retreat at Balmoral,...

 to Banchory
Banchory
Banchory is a burgh or town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, lying approximately 18 miles west of Aberdeen, near where the Feugh River meets the River Dee.- Overview :...

 (which will eventually connect to Ballater) and the Formartine and Buchan Way
Formartine and Buchan Way
The Formartine and Buchan Way is a long-distance footpath in Scotland, extending from Dyce north to Peterhead and Fraserburgh. It follows the track of a former railway line, the Formartine and Buchan Railway, and is open to walkers and cyclists. Horse riders are also welcome on parts of the track...

 to Ellon, both used by a mixture of cyclists, walkers and occasionally horses. Four park-and-ride sites serve the city: Stonehaven and Ellon (approx 12–17 miles out from the city centre) and Kingswells and Bridge of Don (approx 3–4 miles out).

Education





Universities and colleges


Aberdeen has two universities, the University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

 and The Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University is located in Aberdeen, Scotland. Building on over 250 years involvement in education, it was granted university status in 1992. Robert Gordon University currently has approximately 16,407 students at its two campuses at Garthdee and the City Centre, studying on over 145...

. Aberdeen's student rate of 11.5% is higher than the national average of 7%.

The University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

 began as King's College, Aberdeen
King's College, Aberdeen
King's College in Old Aberdeen, Scotland is a formerly independent university founded in 1495 and an integral part of the University of Aberdeen...

, which was founded in 1495 by William Elphinstone
William Elphinstone
William Elphinstone was a Scottish statesman, Bishop of Aberdeen and founder of the University of Aberdeen.He was born in Glasgow, and educated at the University of Glasgow, taking the degree of M.A. in 1452. After practising for a short time as a lawyer in the church courts, he was ordained a...

 (1431–1514), Bishop of Aberdeen
Bishop of Aberdeen
The Bishop of Aberdeen was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Aberdeen, one of Scotland's 13 medieval bishoprics, whose first recorded bishop is an early 12th century cleric named Nechtan...

 and Chancellor of Scotland. Marischal College
Marischal College
Marischal College is a building and former university in the centre of the city of Aberdeen in north-east Scotland. The building is owned by the University of Aberdeen and used for ceremonial events...

, a separate institution, was founded in "New" Aberdeen by George Keith, fifth Earl Marischal of Scotland in 1593. These institutions were amalgamated to form the present University of Aberdeen in 1860. The university is the fifth oldest in the English speaking world.

Robert Gordon's College
Robert Gordon's College
Robert Gordon's College is a private co-educational day school in Aberdeen, Scotland. The school caters for pupils from Nursery-S6.-History:...

 (originally Robert Gordon's Hospital) was founded in 1729 by the merchant Robert Gordon, grandson of the map maker Robert Gordon of Straloch, and was further endowed in 1816 by Alexander Simpson of Collyhill. Originally devoted to the instruction and maintenance of the sons of poor burgesses of guild and trade in the city, it was reorganised in 1881 as a day and night school for secondary and technical education. In 1903, the vocational education component of the college was designated a Central Institution
Central Institution
A central institution was a type of higher education institute in 20th and 21st century Scotland responsible for providing degree-level education but emphasising teaching rather than research. Some had a range of courses similar to polytechnics elsewhere in the United Kingdom while others were...

 and was renamed as the Robert Gordon Institute of Technology in 1965. In 1992, university status was gained and it became the Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University is located in Aberdeen, Scotland. Building on over 250 years involvement in education, it was granted university status in 1992. Robert Gordon University currently has approximately 16,407 students at its two campuses at Garthdee and the City Centre, studying on over 145...

. The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times is a British Sunday newspaper.The Sunday Times may also refer to:*The Sunday Times *The Sunday Times *The Sunday Times *The Sunday Times...

 named Robert Gordon University their Scottish University of the Year 2011 and first in Scotland for graduate-level jobs. It said: "With a graduate unemployment rate that is lower than the most famous universities, including Oxford and Cambridge, plus a flourishing reputation for research, high student satisfaction rates and ambitious plans for its picturesque campus, Robert Gordon University is The Sunday Times Scottish University of the Year".

Aberdeen is also home to two artistic schools: Gray's School of Art
Gray's School of Art
Gray's School of Art is an integral part of the Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen that is one of the oldest established fine art institutions in Scotland...

, founded in 1886, which is one of the oldest established colleges of art in the UK, and is now incorporated into Robert Gordon University; and The Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and The Built Environment
The Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and The Built Environment
The Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and Built Environment is situated on the Garthdee Campus of the Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen, Scotland.-Description:The School has a long and distinguished history, its course in architecture being one of the...

, which is situated on the Garthdee Campus of the Robert Gordon University, next to Gray's School of Art.

Aberdeen College
Aberdeen College
Aberdeen College is the largest further education college in Scotland. It was formed from the amalgamation of the former Aberdeen Technical College, Aberdeen College of Commerce and Clinterty Agricultural College....

 has several campuses in the city and offers a wide variety of part-time and full-time courses leading to several different qualifications in science. It is the largest further education institution in Scotland.

The Scottish Agricultural College
Scottish Agricultural College
The Scottish Agricultural College exists to support the development of land-based industries and communities through Higher Education and training, specialist research and development and advisory and consultancy services....

 is based just outside Aberdeen, on the Craibstone Estate. This is situated beside the roundabout for Aberdeen Airport on the A96. The college provides three services - Learning, Research and Consultancy. The college features many land based courses such as Agriculture, Countryside Management, Sustainable Environmental Management and Rural Business Management. There are a variety of courses from diplomas through to masters degrees.

Schools


There are currently 12 secondary schools and 54 primary schools which are run by the city council. The most notable are Aberdeen Grammar School
Aberdeen Grammar School
Aberdeen Grammar School, known to students as The Grammar is a state secondary school in the City of Aberdeen, Scotland. It is one of twelve secondary schools run by the Aberdeen City Council educational department...

 (founded in 1257), Harlaw Academy
Harlaw Academy
Harlaw Academy is a six year comprehensive secondary school situated some 200 yards from the junction of Union Street and Holburn Street in the centre of the city of Aberdeen, Scotland. It is directly adjacent to Aberdeen Grammar School...

, Cults Academy
Cults Academy
Cults Academy is an Aberdeen City Council secondary school in Cults, Aberdeen, Scotland. It is the recipient of The Sunday Times Scottish State Secondary School of the Year Award 2008 due to its outstanding exam results in the past year , having been rated 3rd in 2005...

, and Oldmachar Academy
Oldmachar Academy
Oldmachar Academy is situated to the north of the city of Aberdeen in an area of private housing. It is a six-year comprehensive, non-denominational school which opened to pupils in August 1982...

 which were all rated in the top 50 Scottish secondary schools league tables published by The Times
The Times
The Times is a British daily national newspaper, first published in London in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register . The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary since 1981 of News International...

 in 2005. Harlaw Academy was taken down from the list after a short time but is still a popular school.

There are a number of private schools in Aberdeen; Robert Gordon's College
Robert Gordon's College
Robert Gordon's College is a private co-educational day school in Aberdeen, Scotland. The school caters for pupils from Nursery-S6.-History:...

, Albyn School
Albyn School
The Albyn School is a private, independent educational establishment, founded in 1867 in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is located on Queens Road and Forest Road. Albyn was originally an all-girls school before becoming co-educational in 2005...

 for Girls (co-educational as of 2005), St Margaret's School for Girls
St Margaret's School for Girls
St Margaret's School for Girls is a girl's school in Aberdeen, Scotland.-History:Since August 2005, St Margaret's is the only remaining school in the North of Scotland that caters exclusively to girls' education in primary and secondary departments for girls aged 5–18...

, the Hamilton School
Hamilton School
The Hamilton is an Independent Day School in Aberdeen, Scotland presently offering Care and Education to pupils from three months to twelve years. The Hamilton School is Scotland’s only privately owned independent day school...

 (a Montessori school), the Total
Total S.A.
Total S.A. is a French multinational oil company and one of the six "Supermajor" oil companies in the world.Its businesses cover the entire oil and gas chain, from crude oil and natural gas exploration and production to power generation, transportation, refining, petroleum product marketing, and...

 French School (for French oil industry families), the International School of Aberdeen
International School of Aberdeen
The International School of Aberdeen is a school in Pitfodels, Cults, Aberdeen, Scotland. It takes in students that come from other countries besides the UK, although often British students are allowed to attend the school. It was formerly known as the American School in Aberdeen.It is one of...

 and a Waldorf/Steiner School.

Primary schools in Aberdeen include Airyhall Primary School, Albyn School
Albyn School
The Albyn School is a private, independent educational establishment, founded in 1867 in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is located on Queens Road and Forest Road. Albyn was originally an all-girls school before becoming co-educational in 2005...

, Ashley Road Primary School, Cornhill Primary School (the city's largest), Culter Primary School, Cults Primary School, Danestone Primary School,Fernielea Primary school, Ferryhill Primary School, Gilcomstoun Primary School
Gilcomstoun Primary School
Gilcomstoun Primary School is an Aberdeen City Council owned and run educational establishment in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is one of Aberdeen Grammar School's feeder schools....

, Glashieburn Primary School, Hamilton School
Hamilton School
The Hamilton is an Independent Day School in Aberdeen, Scotland presently offering Care and Education to pupils from three months to twelve years. The Hamilton School is Scotland’s only privately owned independent day school...

, Kingsford Primary School, Mile-End School
Mile-End School
Mile-End School is a primary school and nursery in Aberdeen, Scotland. It has approximately 500 pupils. The primary school was originally housed in a large Victorian gray granite building on Midstocket Road, while the nursery was on Raeden Park Road, about 10 minutes walk away at the site of the...

, Robert Gordon's College
Robert Gordon's College
Robert Gordon's College is a private co-educational day school in Aberdeen, Scotland. The school caters for pupils from Nursery-S6.-History:...

, Skene Square Primary School
Skene Square Primary School
Skene Square Primary School is an Aberdeen City Council owned and run educational establishment in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is one of the main feeder schools to Aberdeen Grammar School....

, St. Joseph’s Primary School and St Margaret's School for Girls
St Margaret's School for Girls
St Margaret's School for Girls is a girl's school in Aberdeen, Scotland.-History:Since August 2005, St Margaret's is the only remaining school in the North of Scotland that caters exclusively to girls' education in primary and secondary departments for girls aged 5–18...

.

Culture






The city has a wide range of cultural activities, amenities and museums. The city is regularly visited by Scotland's National Arts Companies
Scotland's national arts companies
Scotland's national arts companies are directly funded by the Scottish Government. In Scottish performing arts circles, they are often referred to as "the Big Five".* Scottish Ballet* Scottish Opera* Royal Scottish National Orchestra...

. The Aberdeen Art Gallery
Aberdeen Art Gallery
Aberdeen Art Gallery is the main visual arts exhibition space in the city of Aberdeen in Scotland. It opened in 1885, in a building designed by Alexander Marshall Mackenzie....

 houses a collection of Impressionist, Victorian, Scottish and twentieth Century British paintings as well as collections of silver and glass. It also includes The Alexander Macdonald Bequest, a collection of late nineteenth century works donated by the museum's first benefactor and a constantly changing collection of contemporary work and regular visiting exhibitions.

Museums and galleries


The Aberdeen Maritime Museum
Aberdeen Maritime Museum
Aberdeen Maritime Museum is a maritime museum in Aberdeen, Scotland.The museum is situated on the historic Shiprow in the heart of the city, near the harbour. It makes use of a range of buildings including a former church and Provost Ross' House, one of the oldest domestic buildings in the city.The...

, located in Shiprow, tells the story of Aberdeen's links with the sea from the days of sail and clipper ships
Clipper ships
At the 'crest of the clipper wave' year of 1852, there were 200 clippers rounding Cape Horn.Notable examples of the clipper ship include:* Archibald Russell, 1905, a steel-hulled 4-masted barque, 291.3 ft. x 43 ft. x 24 ft., built by Scott Shipbuilding and Engineering Co of Greenock...

 to the latest oil and gas exploration technology. It includes an 8.5 m (28 feet) high model of the Murchison oil production platform and a nineteenth century assembly taken from Rattray Head
Rattray Head
Rattray Head is a headland in Buchan, Aberdeenshire, on the north east coast Scotland. To north lies Strathbeg Bay and Rattray Bay is to its south...

lighthouse.

Provost Ross' House
Provost John Ross
Provost John Ross was Lord Provost in Aberdeen, Scotland from 1710–1712. Today he is most famous for the house he occupied in the 18th century from 1702.-Provost Ross's House:...

 is the second oldest dwelling house in the city. It was built in 1593 and became the residence of Provost John Ross
Provost John Ross
Provost John Ross was Lord Provost in Aberdeen, Scotland from 1710–1712. Today he is most famous for the house he occupied in the 18th century from 1702.-Provost Ross's House:...

 of Arnage in 1702. The house retains some original medieval features, including a kitchen, fire places and beam-and-board ceilings. The Gordon Highlanders Museum
Gordon Highlanders Museum
The Gordon Highlanders Museum is based in Aberdeen, Scotland and celebrates the story of the Gordon Highlanders which were active from 1794 to 1994. It is a 5 star Scottish Tourist Board attraction....

 tells the story of one of Scotland's best known regiments.

Marischal Museum
Marischal Museum
The Marischal Museum is the main museum in the city centre of Aberdeen, Scotland. It was established in 1786 and is situated in the architecturally notable Marischal College building, part of the University of Aberdeen....

 holds the principal collections of the University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

, comprising some 80,000 items in the areas of fine art, Scottish history and archaeology, and European, Mediterranean & Near Eastern archaeology. The permanent displays and reference collections are augmented by regular temporary exhibitions.

Festivals and Performing arts


Aberdeen is home to a host of events and festivals including the Aberdeen International Youth Festival
Aberdeen International Youth Festival
Aberdeen International Youth Festival is a leading Festival of Youth Arts, and one of Scotland's major international cultural events.Every year Aberdeen International Youth Festival attracts over 1000 of the most talented young people in performing arts companies and music groups from across the...

 (the world's largest arts festival for young performers), Aberdeen Jazz Festival, Rootin' Aboot (folk and roots music event based at the Lemon Tree), Triptych, and the University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

's literature festival Word.

The Aberdeen Student Show
Aberdeen Student Show
Aberdeen Student Show is a musical and theatrical show, usually with a strong comedy element, staged every year in Aberdeen, Scotland. Its purpose is to raise money for charity, as part of the Aberdeen Students' Charities Campaign....

, performed annually without interruption since 1921, under the auspices of the Aberdeen Students' Charities Campaign, is the longest-running of its kind in the United Kingdom. It is written, produced and performed by students and graduates of Aberdeen's institutes of tertiary education, and since 1929 - other than on a handful of occasions - has been staged at His Majesty's Theatre
His Majesty's Theatre
His Majesty's Theatre in Aberdeen is the largest theatre in north-east Scotland, seating more than 1400. The theatre is sited on Rosemount Viaduct, opposite the city's Union Terrace Gardens. It was designed by Frank Matcham and opened in 1906...

. The Student Show traditionally combines comedy and music, inspired by the North-East's Doric dialect
Doric dialect
Doric dialect can refer to:*The Doric dialect of Greek*The Doric dialect of Scots...

 and humour.

In March 2012, the University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

 will host the Inter Varsity Folk Dance Festival
Inter Varsity Folk Dance Festival
The Inter Varsity Folk Dance Festival is the longest running folk festival in the United Kingdom.It differs from most other festivals in two respects: it moves location every year, and it is hosted and organised by student folk societies...

, the longest running folk festival in the United Kingdom. IVFDF is a university-run festival, every year by a different university.

Music and film


Aberdeen's music scene includes a variety of live music venues including pubs, clubs, and church choirs. The bars of Belmont Street
Belmont Street (Aberdeen)
Belmont Street is a north-south street in the centre of Aberdeen, Scotland that runs perpendicular to Union Street.Belmont Street originated with the late 18th century expansion of the town. It was part of an expansion out of the town into suburbs to the west by the towns richer denizens...

 are particularly known for featuring live music. Cèilidh
Céilidh
In modern usage, a céilidh or ceilidh is a traditional Gaelic social gathering, which usually involves playing Gaelic folk music and dancing. It originated in Ireland, but is now common throughout the Irish and Scottish diasporas...

s are also common in the city's halls. The many popular venues include The Moorings, The Lemon Tree, Drummonds, Moshulu (now owned by Barfly), Snafu, The Tunnels, the Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre, and Aberdeen Music Hall
The Music Hall (Aberdeen)
The Music Hall is a concert hall in Aberdeen, Scotland, formerly the city's Assembly Rooms, located on Union Street in the city centre. It was designed by architect Archibald Simpson, costing £11,500 when it was originally constructed in 1822, opened to the public as a concert hall in 1859, and was...

.

More modern musicians to come out of Aberdeen have been heavily influenced by the local prodigy, vocalist, and bass player Mike Parker, who moved to Aberdeen only a few years earlier. His heavy blues and jazz influence quickly spread throughout the scene and his style has had a permanent effect on nearly all music to come out of the region since.

Notable Aberdonian musicians include cult band Pallas
Pallas (band)
Pallas are a progressive rock band based in the UK. They were one of the bands at the vanguard of what was termed neo-progressive during progressive rock's second-wave revival in the early 1980s...

 and contemporary composer John McLeod
John McLeod (composer)
John McLeod is a contemporary composer based in Edinburgh, who writes music in many media including film and television...

.

The first and only Doric speaking feature film by Stirton Productions and Canny Films was released in 2008. 'One Day Removals' starring Patrick Wight and Scott Ironside tells the tale of two unlucky removal men whose day goes from bad to worse. Filmed on location in Aberdeenshire for a budget of £60,000, it is a black comedy/adult drama.

Cultural cinema, educational work and local film events are provided by The Belmont Picturehouse
on Belmont Street
Belmont Street (Aberdeen)
Belmont Street is a north-south street in the centre of Aberdeen, Scotland that runs perpendicular to Union Street.Belmont Street originated with the late 18th century expansion of the town. It was part of an expansion out of the town into suburbs to the west by the towns richer denizens...

, Peacock Visual Arts and The Foyer.

Dialect


Listen to recordings of a speaker of Scots from Aberdeen
The local dialect of Lowland Scots
Scots language
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster . It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language variety spoken in most of the western Highlands and in the Hebrides.Since there are no universally accepted...

 is often known as Doric, and is spoken not just in the city, but across the north-east of Scotland. It differs somewhat from other Scots dialects most noticeable are the pronunciation f for what is normally written wh and ee for what in standard English would usually be written oo (Scots ui). Every year the annual Doric Festival takes place in Aberdeenshire to celebrate the history of the north-east's language. As with all Scots dialects in urban areas, it is not spoken as widely as it used to be in Aberdeen.

Media



Aberdeen is home to Scotland's oldest newspaper the Press and Journal
Press and Journal (Scotland)
The Press and Journal, often called the P&J, is a daily regional newspaper serving the northern counties of Scotland including the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness...

, first published in 1747. The Press and Journal and its sister paper the Evening Express
Evening Express (Scotland)
The Evening Express is a daily local newspaper serving the city of Aberdeen in Scotland. It was first published in November 1879.It was a tabloid during the 1930s to the 1950s until it resumed a broadsheet in November 1958, six days a week. By September 1989, The Saturday edition returned to a...

 are printed six days a week by Aberdeen Journals
Aberdeen Journals
Aberdeen Journals Ltd. is a newspaper publisher based in Aberdeen, Scotland.The company publishes the Press and Journal, the Evening Express, the Aberdeen Citizen and ScotADs newspapers. It was owned by Northcliffe Newspapers Group, which is owned by Daily Mail & General Trust from 1995 until...

. There are two free newspapers: Aberdeen Record PM and Aberdeen Citizen
Aberdeen Citizen
The Aberdeen Citizen is the highest distributed free newspaper in Aberdeen. It is a weekly newspaper. Launched in 1989, as the Aberdeen Herald & Post, it was re-launched as its current title in 2002. It provides a round-up of the week's community news, sport and events to over 75,000 households in...

.

BBC Scotland
BBC Scotland
BBC Scotland is a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly-funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It is, in effect, the national broadcaster for Scotland, having a considerable amount of autonomy from the BBC's London headquarters, and is run by the BBC Trust, who...

 has a network studio production base in Aberdeen's Beechgrove area, and BBC Aberdeen produces The Beechgrove Potting Shed for radio and Tern Television produces the Beechgrove Garden
The Beechgrove Garden
The Beechgrove Garden is a television programme broadcast on BBC Two Scotland since 1978, but since 10 April 2007 now broadcast on BBC One Scotland. It is a gardening programme. The original plot of land used was the small area of garden attached to the BBC studios in Aberdeen, located in the...

 television programme. The city is also home to STV North (formerly Grampian Television), which produces the nightly regional news programme, STV News at Six
STV News at Six
STV News at Six is a Scottish regional news programme, covering the two STV franchise areas of Northern and Central Scotland, produced by STV Central in the Central region and STV North in the Northern region.The programmes were launched on Monday 23 March 2009, replacing Scotland Today in...

, as well as local commercials. The station, based at Craigshaw Business Park in Tullos
Tullos
Tullos is an area of Torry, a suburb of Aberdeen, Scotland. The area takes its name from the Vale of Tullos which lies between Tullos Hill and Torry Hill. Tullos derived its name from a corruption of the Gaelic ‘Tulach’ meaning a hill....

, was based at larger studios in Queens Cross
Queens Cross
Queen's Cross is area in the west-end of Aberdeen, Scotland. It is located just west from the main Union Street and about from the geographical town centre at Mercat Cross....

 from September 1961 until June 2003.

There are three commercial radio stations operating within the city, Northsound Radio
Northsound Radio
Northsound Radio was the name for the original Northsound Radio station, broadcast from Aberdeen, Scotland to the north-east of Scotland. In 1995, the station split to become two commercial local radio stations.- History :...

, which runs Northsound One and Northsound Two, and independent station Original 106
Original 106 (Aberdeen)
Original 106fm is an independent radio station broadcasting to Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire. It was awarded its broadcast licence in January 2007 and the station launched on October 28, 2007 at 1:06 pm. The first record played was "Revolution" by The Beatles...

. Other radio stations include NECR FM (North-East Community Radio FM) DAB
Digital audio broadcasting
Digital Audio Broadcasting is a digital radio technology for broadcasting radio stations, used in several countries, particularly in Europe. As of 2006, approximately 1,000 stations worldwide broadcast in the DAB format....

 station, and shmu FM managed by Station House Media Unit which supports community members to run Aberdeen's first (and only) full-time community radio station, broadcasting on 99.8 MHz FM.

Sport




Football


The Scottish Premier League
Scottish Premier League
The Scottish Premier League , also known as the SPL , is a professional league competition for association football clubs in Scotland...

 football club, Aberdeen F.C. play at Pittodrie Stadium
Pittodrie Stadium
Pittodrie Stadium is an all-seated football stadium situated in the Scottish city of Aberdeen. It was first used in 1899 and from 1903 has been the home of Aberdeen Football Club...

. The club won the European Cup Winners Cup and the European Super Cup
European Super Cup
The UEFA Super Cup is an annual football game between the reigning champions of the two cup competitions organized by UEFA: the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League...

 in 1983 and the Scottish Premier League
Scottish Premier League
The Scottish Premier League , also known as the SPL , is a professional league competition for association football clubs in Scotland...

 Championship four times (1955, 1980, 1984 and 1985), the Scottish Cup
Scottish Cup
The Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup,, commonly known as the Scottish Cup or the William Hill Scottish Cup for sponsorship purposes, is the main national cup competition in Scottish football. It is a knockout cup competition run by and named after the Scottish Football Association.The...

 seven times (1947, 1970, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1990). Under Sir Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
Sir Alexander Chapman "Alex" Ferguson, CBE is a Scottish association football manager and former player, currently managing Manchester United, where he has been in charge since 1986...

, they were a major force in British football during the 1980s. As of the 2011 season, the club is now managed by ex-Scotland boss Craig Brown and captained by Richard Foster
Richard Foster (footballer)
Richard Martyn "Ricky" Foster is a Scottish footballer who currently plays as captain of Scottish Premier League club Aberdeen. Foster has spent most of his career playing as a right winger, but has more recently been deployed at both right and left full back...

. There are plans to build a new stadium for the club
New Aberdeen Stadium
The New Aberdeen Stadium is a proposed stadium in Aberdeen, Scotland. It would be the home stadium of Scottish Premier League football club Aberdeen...

 in the near future.

The other senior team is Cove Rangers F.C.
Cove Rangers F.C.
Cove Rangers are a senior Scottish football club currently playing in the Press & Journal Highland Football League. They are based in Cove Bay, a suburb of Aberdeen and play their football at Allan Park.The current managers are Kevin Tindal and Colin Milne....

 of the Highland Football League
Highland Football League
The Press & Journal Highland Football League is a league of football clubs operating not just in the Scottish Highlands, as the name may suggest, but also in the north-east lowlands...

 (HFL), who play at Allan Park
Allan Park, Aberdeen
Allan Park is a football ground located in Cove, a suburb of Aberdeen. It is home to Cove Rangers F.C., who currently play in the Highland Football League. The ground has a capacity of 2300 spectators, with 200 on seats or benches....

 in the suburb of Cove Bay
Cove Bay
Cove Bay is a suburb on the south-east edge of Aberdeen, Scotland. The 2001 Census showed the population as 7,157 .Today Cove is a popular residential location owing to its village-like status and the nearby Altens and Tullos Industrial Estates, affording ample employment opportunities...

, although they will be moving to Calder Park once it is built to boost their chances of getting into the Scottish Football League
Scottish Football League
The Scottish Football League is a league of football teams in Scotland, comprising theScottish First Division, Scottish Second Division and Scottish Third Division. From the league's foundation in 1890 until the breakaway Scottish Premier League was formed in 1998, the Scottish Football League...

. Cove won the HFL championship in 2001 and 2008.

There was also a historic senior team Bon Accord F.C.
Bon Accord F.C.
Bon Accord were a football team from Aberdeen, Scotland who suffered the worst defeat in any British senior football match, losing 36–0 to Arbroath on 12 September 1885 in a first round match of the Scottish Cup...

 who no longer play. Local junior teams include Banks O' Dee F.C.
Banks O' Dee F.C.
Banks O' Dee F.C. are a Scottish football club from the city of Aberdeen. Members of the Scottish Junior Football Association, they currently play in the SJFA North Superleague. Their home ground is Spain Park, by the banks of the River Dee. In 2009, Banks O' Dee were among four clubs to apply for...

, Culter F.C.
Culter F.C.
Culter F.C. are a Scottish football club from the village of Peterculter near Aberdeen. Members of the Scottish Junior Football Association, they currently play in the SJFA North Superleague...

, F.C. Stoneywood, Glentanar F.C.
Glentanar F.C.
Glentanar F.C. are a Scottish football club based in Woodside, an area of the city of Aberdeen. Members of the Scottish Junior Football Association since 1998, they currently play in the SJFA North Division One. The club are based at Woodside Sports Complex and their colours are all white.They also...

 and Hermes F.C.
Hermes F.C.
Hermes F.C. are a Scottish football club from Bridge of Don, an area of the city of Aberdeen. Members of the Scottish Junior Football Association since 1993, they currently play in the SJFA North Superleague...

.

Rugby Union


Aberdeen hosted Caledonia Reds
Caledonia Reds
Caledonia Reds were a Scottish rugby union district team who participated in the precursor to the Celtic League and in two seasons of the Heineken Cup. They represented one of four districts of Scotland, covering the North and Midlands Caledonia Reds were a Scottish rugby union district team who...

 a Scottish rugby team, before they merged with the Glasgow Warriors
Glasgow Warriors
The Glasgow Warriors, formerly Glasgow Rugby, are one of two professional rugby union teams in Scotland, Edinburgh being the other. They play in the RaboDirect Pro12 and their home ground is Firhill Stadium, also the home of Partick Thistle Football Club.-History:Glasgow Rugby were created to...

 in 1998. The city is also home to the Scottish Premiership Division One rugby club Aberdeen GSFP RFC
Aberdeen GSFP RFC
Aberdeen Grammar School Former Pupils Rugby Football Club is a rugby union club based in Aberdeen, Scotland. They play in the Scottish Premiership division 1.-Notable players:William Dallas Allardice* John Robert Stephen Innes, in 1939 and 1946....

 who play at Rubislaw Playing Fields
Rubislaw Playing Fields
Rubislaw Playing Fields in Aberdeen, Scotland is an sports field for Aberdeen Grammar School and for the Scottish Premiership rugby union team Aberdeen GSFP RFC. Of course other sports are played here such as Hockey - at National league Level by , football and cricket.An extension to the existing...

, and Aberdeenshire RFC which was founded in 1875 and runs Junior, Senior Mens, Senior Ladies and Touch sections from the Woodside Sports Complex and also Aberdeen Wanderers RFC. Former Wanderers' player Jason White
Jason White (rugby player)
Jason Phillip Randall White is a Scottish rugby union footballer. He is a utility forward who can play any position in the second or back row of the scrum—lock, flanker, or number eight. White plays at club level for French Top 14 side ASM Clermont Auvergne and also plays for Scotland.He is...

 was captain of the Scotland national rugby union team
Scotland national rugby union team
The Scotland national rugby union team represent Scotland in international rugby union. Rugby union in Scotland is administered by the Scottish Rugby Union. The Scotland rugby union team is currently ranked eighth in the IRB World Rankings as of 19 September 2011...

.

In 2005 the President of the SRU
Scottish Rugby Union
The Scottish Rugby Union is the governing body of rugby union in Scotland. It is the second oldest Rugby Union, having been founded in 1873, as the Scottish Football Union.-History:...

 said it was hoped eventually to establish a professional team in Aberdeen. In November 2008 the city hosted a rugby international at Pittodrie
Pittodrie Stadium
Pittodrie Stadium is an all-seated football stadium situated in the Scottish city of Aberdeen. It was first used in 1899 and from 1903 has been the home of Aberdeen Football Club...

 between Scotland
Scotland national rugby union team
The Scotland national rugby union team represent Scotland in international rugby union. Rugby union in Scotland is administered by the Scottish Rugby Union. The Scotland rugby union team is currently ranked eighth in the IRB World Rankings as of 19 September 2011...

 and Canada
Canada national rugby union team
The Canada national rugby union team represents Canada in international rugby union. They are governed by Rugby Canada, and play in red and black. Canada is classified by the International Rugby Board as a tier two rugby nation. There are ten tier one nations, and seven tier two nations, the...

, with Scotland winning 41-0.
In November 2010 the city once again hosted a rugby international at Pittodrie
Pittodrie Stadium
Pittodrie Stadium is an all-seated football stadium situated in the Scottish city of Aberdeen. It was first used in 1899 and from 1903 has been the home of Aberdeen Football Club...

 between Scotland
Scotland national rugby union team
The Scotland national rugby union team represent Scotland in international rugby union. Rugby union in Scotland is administered by the Scottish Rugby Union. The Scotland rugby union team is currently ranked eighth in the IRB World Rankings as of 19 September 2011...

 and Samoa
Samoa national rugby union team
The Manu Samoa is the men's representative side of the Samoa Rugby Union in both the 15's and the 7's for international competitions. The Samoa Rugby Union is owned by the affiliated rugby unions of Samoa. In Samoa, Manu Samoa is in honour of a famous Samoan warrior. From 1924 to 1997 Samoa was...

, with Scotland winning 19-16.

Rugby League


Aberdeen Warriors
Aberdeen Warriors
The Aberdeen Warriors are a Scottish rugby league team currently playing in the Scotland Rugby League Conference Division One.-History:The club was founded in 2011 by Craig Parslow , Tom Lee and Ray Hall . In the 2011 season, the Warriors won the Rugby League Conference Divisional 1...

 rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 team play in the Scotland Rugby League Conference Division One. The Warriors also run Under 15's and 17's teams. Aberdeen Grammar School
Aberdeen Grammar School
Aberdeen Grammar School, known to students as The Grammar is a state secondary school in the City of Aberdeen, Scotland. It is one of twelve secondary schools run by the Aberdeen City Council educational department...

 won the Saltire Schools Cup in 2011.

Golf


The Royal Aberdeen Golf Club
Royal Aberdeen Golf Club
Royal Aberdeen Golf Club in Aberdeen, Scotland, was founded in 1780 and claims to be the sixth oldest golf club in the world. It was founded as the Society of Golfers at Aberdeen, and became the Aberdeen Golf Club in 1815....

, founded in 1780 and the oldest golf club in Aberdeen, hosted the Senior British Open in 2005, and the amateur team event the Walker Cup
Walker Cup
The Walker Cup is a golf trophy contested biennially in odd numbered years between teams comprising the leading amateur golfers of the United States and Great Britain and Ireland...

 in 2011. The club has a second course, and there are public golf courses at Auchmill, Balnagask
Balnagask
Balnagask is an area of Torry, a burgh of Aberdeen in Scotland. Balnagask is said to mean "the village in the hollow" in Gaelic....

, Hazlehead
Hazlehead Park
Hazlehead Park is a large public park in the Hazlehead area of Aberdeen, Scotland. 180 hectares in size, it was opened to the public in 1920, having formerly been the estate of Hazlehead House, home of William Rose, shipbuilder....

 and King's Links. The 1999 winner of The Open Championship
The Open Championship
The Open Championship, or simply The Open , is the oldest of the four major championships in professional golf. It is the only "major" held outside the USA and is administered by The R&A, which is the governing body of golf outside the USA and Mexico...

, Paul Lawrie
Paul Lawrie
Paul Stewart Lawrie MBE is a Scottish professional golfer who is best known for winning The Open Championship in 1999.-Life and career:...

, hails from the city.

There are new courses planned for the area, including world class facilities with major financial backing, the city and shire are set to become a hotbed for golf tourism.

Donald Trump is building his new state of the art golf course out beside Balmedie.

Swimming


The City of Aberdeen Swim Team (COAST) is based in Northfield swimming pool and has been in operation since 1996. The team comprises several smaller swimming clubs, and has enjoyed success throughout Scotland and in international competitions. Three of the team's swimmers qualified for the 2006 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
The Commonwealth Games is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930 and takes place every four years....

.

Rowing


Rowing exists on the River Dee, south of the town centre. Four clubs are located on the banks: Aberdeen Boat Club (ABC), Aberdeen Schools Rowing Association (ASRA), Aberdeen University Boat Club (AUBC) and Robert Gordon University Boat Club (RGUBC).

Cricket


Aberdeen boasts a large cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 community with 4 local leagues operating that comprise of a total of 25 clubs fielding 36 teams. The city has two national league sides, Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire Cricket Club
Aberdeenshire CC is the largest cricket club based in Aberdeen, Scotland. Their ground, Mannofield Park, is located in the Mannofield area of Aberdeen, and was granted One Day International status for the first time in 2008...

, and Stoneywood-Dyce. Local 'Grades' cricket has been played in Aberdeen since 1884. Aberdeenshire recently became the 2009 Scottish National Premier League and Scottish Cup Champions

Floorball


Aberdeen Oilers Floorball Club
Aberdeen Oilers Floorball Club
Aberdeen Oilers is a floorball club based in Aberdeen, Scotland.-History:Aberdeen Oilers were officially founded in January 2007 and became the most northern floorball club in Britain...

 was founded in 2007. The club initially attracted a range of experienced Scandinavian and other European players who were studying in Aberdeen. Since their formation, Aberdeen Oilers have played in the British Floorball Northern League and went on to win the league in the 2008/09 season. The club played a major role in setting up a ladies league in Scotland. The Oiler's ladies team ended up 2nd in the first ladies league season (2008/09).

Ice Skating


Aberdeen Boasts a 56x26 meter ice arena with a café, bar, and meeting rooms. The ice arena was closed in the summer of 2008 and underwent a neccesary refurbishment. This lasted over a year and caused outrage with the skaters. The ice rink re-opened in winter 2009 and hosted the European curling championships. The arena is still opening and functioning well.

Other sports


The city council operates public tennis courts in various parks including an indoor tennis centre at Westburn Park. The Beach Leisure Centre is home to a climbing wall, gymnasium and a swimming pool. There are numerous swimming pools dotted around the city notably the largest, the Bon-Accord Baths which closed down in 2006. Other closed swimming pools include Dyce, Tullos, and Linksfield; and many of the remaining "public" pools are in fact not open to the public for most of the week. Aberdeen has numerous skate parks dotted around the city in Torry, Westburn Park and Transition Extreme. Transition Extreme is an indoor skate park built in 2007 it was designed by Aberdeen skate legend Andy Dobson. Aberdeen City council also have an Outdoor Education service which is now known as adventure aberdeen, that provides abseiling, surfing, white water rafting, gorge walking, kayaking and open canoeing, mountaineering, sailing, mountain biking and rock climbing. They inspire learning through adventure and have many programs for children and adults. In common with many other major towns and cities in the UK, Aberdeen has an active roller derby
Roller derby
Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating in the same direction around a track. Game play consists of a series of short matchups in which both teams designate a scoring player who scores points by lapping members of the opposing team...

 league, Granite City Roller Girls
Granite City Roller Girls
The Granite City Roller Girls is a roller derby league based in Aberdeen, Scotland. Founded in 2007, the league currently has a single team which competes with teams from other leagues.-History:...

.

Public services


The public health service in Scotland,NHS Scotland
NHS Scotland
NHS Scotland is the publicly funded healthcare system of Scotland. Although they are separate bodies the organisational separation between NHS Scotland and the other three healthcare organisations each commonly called the National Health Service in the United Kingdom tends to be hidden from its...

 provides for the people of Aberdeen through the NHS Grampian
NHS Grampian
NHS Grampian is one of the fourteen regions of NHS Scotland. It was formed on 1 April 2004 by the amalgamation of Grampian University Hospitals NHS Trust, Grampian Primary Care NHS Trust and Grampian Health Board. The health board's headquarters are located at Summerfield House in the Mastrick...

 health board. Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
Aberdeen Royal Infirmary or ARI is a teaching hospital on the Foresterhill site in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is run by NHS Grampian and has around 900 beds. ARI is a tertiary referral hospital serving a population of over 600,000 across the North of Scotland...

 is the largest hospital in the city (the location of the city's A&E department), Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital
Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital
The Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital or RACH is a children's hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is situated on the Foresterhill site, with the Aberdeen Royal Infirmary and Aberdeen Maternity Hospital...

, a paediatric hospital, Royal Cornhill Hospital
Royal Cornhill Hospital
The Royal Cornhill Hospital is a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is the main centre for the treatment of people with mental health problems in Grampian.The hospital is situated on Westburn Road, East of the Foresterhill site....

 for mental health, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital
Aberdeen Maternity Hospital
Aberdeen Maternity Hospital or AMH is a specialist maternity hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. The buildings date from the late 1940s but have been updated and modernised since. It is part of the Aberdeen Joint Hospitals Scheme, envisaged by Professor Matthew Hay in the early 20th century. Between...

, an antenatal hospital, Woodend Hospital
Woodend Hospital
Woodend Hospital is a hospital in the Woodend/Summerhill area of Aberdeen, Scotland. Previously a general hospital, it now provides elective orthopaedic surgery, rehabilitation and care of the elderly in conjunction with the other hospitals in NHS Grampian....

, which specialises in rehabilitation and long term illnesses and conditions, and City Hospital & Woolmanhill Hospital
Woolmanhill Hospital
-History:Opened in 1749, it was the original Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, before this was moved to the Foresterhill site.-Current Use:There are now no in-patient beds in Woolmanhill....

, which host several out-patient clinics and offices.

Albyn Hospital
Albyn Hospital
Albyn Hospital is a private hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is situated on Albyn Place, and is run by BMI Healthcare. It provides a comprehensive range of medical and surgical specialities, generally provided by consultants and general practitioners from NHS Grampian.. Prior to being taken over...

 is a private hospital located in the west end of the city.

Aberdeen City Council is responsible for city owned infrastructure which is paid for by a mixture of council tax and income from HM Treasury
HM Treasury
HM Treasury, in full Her Majesty's Treasury, informally The Treasury, is the United Kingdom government department responsible for developing and executing the British government's public finance policy and economic policy...

. Infrastructure and services run by the council include: clearing snow in winter, city wardens, maintaining parks, refuse collection, sewage, street cleaning and street lighting. Infrastructure in private hands includes electricity, gas and telecoms. Water supplies are provided by Scottish Water
Scottish Water
Scottish Water is a statutory corporation in Scotland that provides water and sewerage services. Unlike in England and Wales, water and sewerage provision in Scotland continues as a public corporation accountable to the public through the Scottish Government....

.
  • Police: Policing in Aberdeen is the responsibility of Grampian Police
    Grampian Police
    Grampian Police is the territorial police force of the northeast region of Scotland, covering the council areas of Aberdeenshire, the City of Aberdeen, and Moray . The Force area also covers some of the North Sea, giving Grampian Police the responsibility of policing the oil and gas platforms of...

     (the British Transport Police
    British Transport Police
    The British Transport Police is a special police force that polices those railways and light-rail systems in Great Britain for which it has entered into an agreement to provide such services...

     has responsibility for railways). The Grampian Police headquarters (and Aberdeen divisional headquarters) is located in Queen Street, Aberdeen.

  • Ambulance: The North East divisional headquarters of the Scottish Ambulance Service
    Scottish Ambulance Service
    The Scottish Ambulance Service is part of NHS Scotland, and serves all of Scotland. It is a Special Health Board funded directly by the Scottish Government Health Department....

     is located in Aberdeen.

  • Fire and rescue: This is the responsibility of the Grampian Fire and Rescue Service
    Grampian Fire and Rescue Service
    Grampian Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the area of Grampian, Scotland. The service provides emergency cover for residential areas, as well as providing it for a local Industrial harbour, oil and gas terminals and a commonly used heliport.-FRS area:Grampian...

    ; the service operates distinctive white painted fire engines (other UK fire brigades use red vehicles).

  • Lifeboat: The Royal National Lifeboat Institution
    Royal National Lifeboat Institution
    The Royal National Lifeboat Institution is a charity that saves lives at sea around the coasts of Great Britain, Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, as well as on selected inland waterways....

     operates Aberdeen lifeboat station. It is located at Victoria Dock Entrance in York Place. The current building was opened in 1997.

Twin cities


Aberdeen is twinned with:
  • Regensburg
    Regensburg
    Regensburg is a city in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. To the east lies the Bavarian Forest. Regensburg is the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate...

    , Germany (1955)
  • Clermont-Ferrand
    Clermont-Ferrand
    Clermont-Ferrand is a city and commune of France, in the Auvergne region, with a population of 140,700 . Its metropolitan area had 409,558 inhabitants at the 1999 census. It is the prefecture of the Puy-de-Dôme department...

    , France (1983)
  • Bulawayo
    Bulawayo
    Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe after the capital Harare, with an estimated population in 2010 of 2,000,000. It is located in Matabeleland, 439 km southwest of Harare, and is now treated as a separate provincial area from Matabeleland...

    , Zimbabwe (1986)
  • Stavanger
    Stavanger
    Stavanger is a city and municipality in the county of Rogaland, Norway.Stavanger municipality has a population of 126,469. There are 197,852 people living in the Stavanger conurbation, making Stavanger the fourth largest city, but the third largest urban area, in Norway...

    , Norway (1990)
  • Gomel, Belarus (1990)

Notable people


  • Lord Byron, poet, was raised (ages 2–10) in Aberdeen, though not born there.
  • Paul Lawrie
    Paul Lawrie
    Paul Stewart Lawrie MBE is a Scottish professional golfer who is best known for winning The Open Championship in 1999.-Life and career:...

    , the Open winning golfer
  • Annie Lennox
    Annie Lennox
    Annie Lennox, OBE , born Ann Lennox, is a Scottish singer-songwriter, political activist and philanthropist. After achieving minor success in the late 1970s with The Tourists, with fellow musician David A...

    , musician, is from Ellon
    Ellon, Aberdeenshire
    Ellon is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, approximately north of Aberdeen, lying on the River Ythan which has one of the few undeveloped river estuaries on the Eastern coast of Scotland. It is in the ancient region of Formartine...

    , a nearby town
  • Simon Farquhar
    Simon Farquhar
    Simon Farquhar is a Scottish playwright.During his time at the University of Aberdeen he was an active writer and performer in the university's drama group, Centre Stage. His early one-act plays were staged at the Aberdeen Arts Centre, until a radio script set in Cullen, Candy Floss Kisses, was...

    , writer
  • Mr. and Mrs. Michael and Sarah Parker, noted musical prodigy and Dr. of Psychology, respectively
  • Denis Law
    Denis Law
    Denis Law is a retired Scottish football player, who enjoyed a long and successful career as a striker from the 1950s to the 1970s....

    , football player
  • Nicol Stephen
    Nicol Stephen
    Nicol Ross Stephen, Baron Stephen of Lower Deeside in the City of Aberdeen is a Scottish Liberal Democrat politician. He was the Member of the Scottish Parliament for Aberdeen South, and was leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats from 2005 to 2008...

    , former Scottish Liberal Democrats leader, former Deputy First Minister of Scotland
    Deputy First Minister of Scotland
    The Deputy First Minister of Scotland is the deputy to the First Minister of Scotland.The post is not recognised in statute , and its holder is simply an ordinary member of the Scottish Government...

  • Michael Gove
    Michael Gove
    Michael Andrew Gove, MP is a British politician, who currently serves as the Secretary of State for Education and as the Conservative Party Member of Parliament for the Surrey Heath constituency. He is also a published author and former journalist.Born in Edinburgh, Gove was raised in Aberdeen...

    , cabinet minister
  • Andrew Cruickshank
    Andrew Cruickshank
    Andrew John Maxton Cruickshank was a Scottish supporting actor, most famous for his portrayal of Dr Cameron in the long-running UK BBC television series, Dr Finlay's Casebook, which ran for 191 episodes from 1962 until 1971.-Life and career:Andrew Cruickshank was born to Andrew and Mary...

    , actor famous for his role in Dr Finlay's Casebook
    Dr. Finlay's Casebook (TV & radio)
    Dr. Finlay's Casebook is a television series that was broadcast on the BBC from 1962 until 1971. Based on A. J. Cronin's novella entitled Country Doctor, the storylines centred on a general medical practice in the fictional Scottish town of Tannochbrae during the late 1920s...

  • Thomas Blake Glover
    Thomas Blake Glover
    Thomas Blake Glover, Order of the Rising Sun was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and Meiji period Japan.-Early life :...

  • James Gibbs
    James Gibbs
    James Gibbs was one of Britain's most influential architects. Born in Scotland, he trained as an architect in Rome, and practised mainly in England...

    , 18th century architect
  • George Jamesone, Scotland's first eminent painter
  • Bertie Charles Forbes (from Aberdeenshire), founded Forbes
    Forbes
    Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

  • Stanley Robertson
    Stanley Robertson (folk singer)
    Stanley Robertson was a Scottish storyteller and ballad singer.He was born in Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire in 1940 into a traveller family which had settled there. His family background was rich in tradition, and from his aunt, folk singer Jeannie Robertson, he inherited a huge repertoire of north east...

    , singer and storyteller
  • Archibald Simpson
    Archibald Simpson
    Archibald Simpson was one of the major architects of Aberdeen, .Simpson's buildings have contributed significantly to the architecture of Aberdeen. His first commission was for St...

    , architect, influential in design of Aberdeens's modern centre
  • Scott Booth
    Scott Booth
    Scott Booth is a former Scottish football player. He began his career at Aberdeen as a teenager in 1990, before moving to Germany in 1997 to play for Borussia Dortmund. After a spell in the Netherlands, he returned to Aberdeen in 2003 before retiring a year later...

    , former striker for Aberdeen F.C.
    Aberdeen F.C.
    Aberdeen Football Club are a Scottish professional football club based in Aberdeen...

     and the Scottish national football team
    Scotland national football team
    The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. Scotland are the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside England, whom they played in the world's first international football match in 1872...

  • Professor Sir C. Duncan Rice
    Duncan Rice
    Professor Sir Duncan Rice was Principal of the University of Aberdeen from September 1996 till 1 April 2010. He was previously Dean of the Faculty , and Vice-Chancellor at New York University in the United States.-Early life:...

    , historian and Principal of the University of Aberdeen
    University of Aberdeen
    The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

  • John Rattray
    John Rattray
    John Rattray is a Scottish professional skateboarder. Raised in Aberdeen, Rattray initially turned professional for the British company Blueprint Skateboards. In 2001, he signed with American company Zero Skateboards . He has featured in their videos "Dying to Live" and "New Blood"...

    , professional skateboarder who appeared in the 2007 video game Skate
    Skate (video game)
    Skate is a skateboarding video game developed by EA Black Box for the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3. It was released in North America on September 17, 2007 for the Xbox 360 and September 24, 2007 for the PlayStation 3 and in Europe on September 28, 2007 for the Xbox 360 and October 5, 2007 for the...

  • Calvin Goldspink
    Calvin Goldspink
    Calvin Goldspink is a British actor and former child pop star. He first came to notice as a member of the juvenile manufactured pop group S Club Juniors...

    , actor and singer; former member of S Club Juniors; attended Cults Academy
    Cults Academy
    Cults Academy is an Aberdeen City Council secondary school in Cults, Aberdeen, Scotland. It is the recipient of The Sunday Times Scottish State Secondary School of the Year Award 2008 due to its outstanding exam results in the past year , having been rated 3rd in 2005...

  • Colin Angus, musician and founder of the band The Shamen
    The Shamen
    The Shamen were an experimental electronic music band, from 1985–1999, initially formed in Aberdeen, Scotland, as a psychedelic-influenced indie rock act. The founding members are Colin Angus , Derek McKenzie and Keith McKenzie...

     which had several UK chart hits during the nineties and received international acclaim.
  • John Strachan
    John Strachan
    John Strachan was an influential figure in Upper Canada and the first Anglican Bishop of Toronto.-Early life:Strachan was the youngest of six children born to a quarry worker in Aberdeen, Scotland. He graduated from King's College, Aberdeen in 1797...

    , first Anglican Bishop of Toronto.
  • Henry Cecil
    Henry Cecil
    Sir Henry Richard Amherst Cecil is a successful English horse racing trainer who has had many winners in the Epsom Derby, 1,000 Guineas and 2,000 Guineas, Epsom Oaks and the St. Leger Stakes....

    , One of the most successful horse trainers of all time.

Fictional references

  • Stuart MacBride
    Stuart MacBride
    Stuart MacBride is a Scottish writer, most famous for his crime thrillers set in the "Granite City" of Aberdeen and featuring Detective Sergeant Logan McRae.-Biography:...

    's crime novels, Cold Granite, Dying Light, Broken Skin, Flesh House, Blind Eye and Dark Blood (a series with main protagonist, DS Logan MacRae) are all set in Aberdeen. DS Logan MacRae is a Grampian Police officer and locations found in the books can be found in Aberdeen and the surrounding countryside.
  • A large part of the plot of the World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

     spy thriller Eye of the Needle
    Eye of the Needle
    Eye of the Needle is a spy thriller novel written by British author Ken Follett. It was originally published in 1978 by the Penguin Group titled Storm Island. This novel was Follett's first successful, bestselling effort as a novelist, and it earned him the 1979 Edgar Award for Best Novel from the...

     takes place in wartime Aberdeen, from which a German spy is trying to escape to a submarine waiting offshore.
  • Stewart Home
    Stewart Home
    Stewart Home is an English artist, filmmaker, writer, pamphleteer, art historian, and activist. He is best known for his novels such as the non-narrative 69 Things To Do With A Dead Princess , his re-imagining of the 1960s in Tainted Love , and earlier parodistic pulp fictions Pure Mania, Red...

    's sex and literary obsessed contemporary novel 69 Things to Do with a Dead Princess is set in Aberdeen
  • A portion of Ian Rankin
    Ian Rankin
    Ian Rankin, OBE, DL , is a Scottish crime writer. His best known books are the Inspector Rebus novels. He has also written several pieces of literary criticism.-Background:He attended Beath High School, Cowdenbeath...

    's novel Black and Blue
    Black and Blue (novel)
    Black and Blue is a 1997 crime novel by the Scots author Ian Rankin. The eighth of the Inspector Rebus novels, it was the first to be adapted in the Rebus television series starring John Hannah, airing in 2000....

     (1997) is set in Aberdeen.
  • Sarah Jane Smith
    Sarah Jane Smith
    Sarah Jane Smith is a fictional character played by Elisabeth Sladen in the long-running British BBC Television science-fiction series Doctor Who and its spin-offs K-9 and Company and The Sarah Jane Adventures....

     from the popular sci-fi show Doctor Who
    Doctor Who
    Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The programme depicts the adventures of a time-travelling humanoid alien known as the Doctor who explores the universe in a sentient time machine called the TARDIS that flies through time and space, whose exterior...

     was accidentally returned to Aberdeen instead of her home in South Croydon
    South Croydon
    South Croydon is a locality in Greater London, the area surrounding the valley south of central Croydon about 1 km in radius, centred on the Red Deer public house on the Brighton Road. It is part of the South Croydon post town and in the London Borough of Croydon...

     by the fourth incarnation of the Doctor
    Fourth Doctor
    The Fourth Doctor is the fourth incarnation of the protagonist of the long-running BBC British television science-fiction series Doctor Who....

    .
  • The successful Channel 4 sitcom Peep Show (TV series)
    Peep Show (TV series)
    Peep Show is a British sitcom starring David Mitchell and Robert Webb. The television programme is written by Jesse Armstrong and Sam Bain, with additional material by Mitchell and Webb themselves, amongst others. It has been broadcast on Channel 4 since 2003. The show's seventh series makes it...

     makes occasional reference to Aberdeen, as the employer of one of the main characters has an office in Aberdeen. In one episode Mark Corrigan is desperate to be put on secondment to Aberdeen so as to spend some time with his love interest, Sophie, whilst in another episode, Mark's boss, Alan Johnston, announces that he is "just back from Aberdeen."
  • The fictional character Groundskeeper Willie
    Groundskeeper Willie
    William McDougal, usually referred to as Groundskeeper Willie, is a recurring character on The Simpsons, voiced by Dan Castellaneta. He is head groundskeeper at Springfield Elementary School. Willie is a Scottish immigrant, almost feral in nature and immensely proud of his homeland...

    , a recurring character on the USA TV show "The Simpsons
    The Simpsons
    The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie...

    " is heard cheering "Go Aberdeen" upon waking up from a dream in the episode titled 'Scuse Me While I Miss the Sky
    'Scuse Me While I Miss the Sky
    "Scuse Me While I Miss the Sky" is the sixteenth episode of the fourteenth season of The Simpsons that aired March 30, 2003. The title is a punning reference to the line " 'Scuse me while I kiss the sky" from the song "Purple Haze" by Jimi Hendrix....

    . Also, in an episode when Homer and Mr Burns go to Loch Ness
    Loch Ness
    Loch Ness is a large, deep, freshwater loch in the Scottish Highlands extending for approximately southwest of Inverness. Its surface is above sea level. Loch Ness is best known for the alleged sightings of the cryptozoological Loch Ness Monster, also known affectionately as "Nessie"...

     in search of the Loch Ness Monster
    Loch Ness Monster
    The Loch Ness Monster is a cryptid that is reputed to inhabit Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands. It is similar to other supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere, though its description varies from one account to the next....

    , they discover a fake version of the monster with graffiti which reads 'Stomp Aberdeen'. Homer then goes on to proclaim that 'Aberdeen rules!'. This is in spite of the fact that Groundskeeper Willie does not have an Aberdeen accent
    Doric dialect (Scotland)
    Doric, the popular name for Mid Northern Scots or Northeast Scots, refers to the dialects of Scots spoken in the northeast of Scotland.-Nomenclature:...

    .
  • Star Trek's chief engineer, Mr. Scott, in the episode "Wolf in the Fold", described himself as "an old Aberdeen pub crawler", but he too does not speak with an Aberdeenshire accent.

See also


  • Future Developments in Aberdeen
    Future developments in Aberdeen
    There are a number of future developments in Aberdeen, Scotland that have been proposed or have begun to be constructed or inititated already...

  • Aberdeen Bestiary
    Aberdeen Bestiary
    The Aberdeen Bestiary is a 12th century English illuminated manuscript bestiary that was first listed in 1542 in the inventory of the Old Royal Library at the Palace of Westminster....

  • Etymology of Aberdeen
    Etymology of Aberdeen
    The Etymology of Aberdeen is that of the name first used for the city of Aberdeen, Scotland. It is the original, which then gave its name to other Aberdeens around the world as Aberdonians left Scotland to settle in the New World and other colonies.Aberdeen is in Received Pronunciation, and in...

  • Aberdeen City Youth Council
    Aberdeen City Youth Council
    The Aberdeen City Youth Council is a registered charity that aims to give young people a voice in decision-making at a citywide level in Aberdeen, Scotland.-About:...

  • Aberdeen pictures

  • William Wallace Statue, Aberdeen
    William Wallace Statue, Aberdeen
    The William Wallace Statue is a statue in Aberdeen, Scotland, depicting Sir William Wallace. The statue was created in 1888, and it is positioned opposite His Majesty's Theatre, and across from Union Terrace Gardens.The statue bears this inscription:...

  • William Wallace Statue, Bemersyde
    William Wallace Statue, Bemersyde
    The William Wallace Statue in the grounds of Bemersyde House, near Melrose in the Scottish Borders is a statue commemorating William Wallace. It was commissioned by David Stuart Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan, and it protected as a category B listed building....



  • Aberdonia (disambiguation)
    Aberdonia (disambiguation)
    Aberdonia may refer to* Aberdeen city * Aberdonia * Aberdonia * 5677 Aberdonia an asteroid belt...


External links



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