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The 37mm Gun M1
was an anti-aircraft
NATO defines air defence as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action." They include ground and air based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures. It may be to protect naval, ground and air forces...
An autocannon or automatic cannon is a rapid-fire projectile weapon firing a shell as opposed to the bullet fired by a machine gun. Autocannons often have a larger caliber than a machine gun . Usually, autocannons are smaller than a field gun or other artillery, and are mechanically loaded for a...
developed in the United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...
. It was used by the US Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...
in World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...
In addition to the towed variant, the gun was mounted, with two M2 machine guns, on the M2
The M-2 Half Track was an armored vehicle used by the United States during World War II.-History:The half-track design had been evaluated by the US Ordnance department using Citroën-Kégresse vehicles...
The Carrier, Personnel Half-track M3 was an armored vehicle used by the United States, the British Empire and the other Allies during World War II and the Cold War. Nearly 43,000 were produced, and supplied to the U.S...
A half-track is a civilian or military vehicle with regular wheels on the front for steering, and caterpillar tracks on the back to propel the vehicle and carry most of the load. The purpose of this combination is to produce a vehicle with the cross-country capabilities of a tank and the handling...
, resulting in the T28/T28E1/M15/M15A1 series of multiple gun motor carriages.
Two gun units were coupled to the M5 gun director
A director, also called an auxiliary predictor, is a mechanical or electronic computer that continuously calculates trigonometric firing solutions for use against a moving target, and transmits targeting data to direct the weapon firing crew....
using the M1 remote control system. The system was powered by the M5 generating unit. If the remote system was inoperative the M5 sighting system was used.
The M1 utilized fixed ammunition
Ammunition is a generic term derived from the French language la munition which embraced all material used for war , but which in time came to refer specifically to gunpowder and artillery. The collective term for all types of ammunition is munitions...
. Projectiles were fitted with a 37×223mmSR cartridge
A cartridge, also called a round, packages the bullet, gunpowder and primer into a single metallic case precisely made to fit the firing chamber of a firearm. The primer is a small charge of impact-sensitive chemical that may be located at the center of the case head or at its rim . Electrically...
| Available ammunition
|| Muzzle velocity
|| Range horizontal/vertical
|| APC-T M59A1 Shot
|| 1.44/0.87 kg
|| 625 m/s
| 5,290/3,660 m
|| HE-T SD M54 Shell
|| 1.21/0.61 kg
|| 792 m/s
| 8,275/5,760 m
| Armor penetration table
| Ammunition / Distance
|| 457 m
| 914 m
| 1,371 m
| 1,828 m
| APC-T M59A1 Shot (homogeneous armor, meet angle 30°)
|| 23 mm
| 18 mm
| 15 mm
| 13 mm
| APC-T M59A1 Shot (face-hardened armor, meet angle 30°)
|| 25 mm
| 18 mm
| 15 mm
| 13 mm
| Different methods of armor penetration measurement were used in different countries / periods. Therefore, direct comparison is often impossible.
- List of U.S. Army weapons by supply catalog designation
Rangekeepers were electromechanical fire control computers used primarily during the early part of the 20th century. They were sophisticated analog computers whose development reached its zenith following World War II, specifically the Computer Mk 47 in the Mk 68 Gun Fire Control system. During...
- Gun Data Computer
The gun data computer is a series of artillery computers used by the U.S. Army, for coastal artillery, field artillery, and antiaircraft artillery applications...
- Fire-control system
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. It performs the same task as a human gunner firing a weapon, but attempts to do so faster and more...
- Kerrison Predictor
The Kerrison Predictor was one of the first fully automated anti-aircraft fire-control systems. The predictor could aim a gun at an aircraft based on simple inputs like the observed speed and the angle to the target...