1000000000 (number)

1000000000 (number)

Overview

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

; one thousand million or milliard, long scale) is the natural number
Natural number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are the ordinary whole numbers used for counting and ordering . These purposes are related to the linguistic notions of cardinal and ordinal numbers, respectively...

 following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.

In scientific notation
Scientific notation
Scientific notation is a way of writing numbers that are too large or too small to be conveniently written in standard decimal notation. Scientific notation has a number of useful properties and is commonly used in calculators and by scientists, mathematicians, doctors, and engineers.In scientific...

, it is written as 109.

In modern (short scale
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

) English usage, it is usually called a billion (although in long scale
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

 usage in many other languages, a billion means 1,000,000,000,000 – a million millions). The unambiguous term is a thousand million, which has the same meaning in both scales.

In South Asian English, it is known as 100 crore
Crore
A crore is a unit in the Indian number system equal to ten million , or 100 lakhs. It is widely used in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan....

 or 1 arab
Indian numbering system
The South Asian numbering system, used today in the Indian subcontinent , is based on grouping by two decimal places, rather than the three decimal places commonplace in most parts of the world. This system of measurement introduces separators into numbers in places appropriate to the two-digit...

.

The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; this name very often appears in other languages
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

, e.g.
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Encyclopedia
List of numbers – Integers

100000000
100000000 (number)
One hundred million is the natural number following 99999999 and preceding 100000001.In scientific notation, it is written as 108....

 1000000000 10000000000
Cardinal
Cardinal number
In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality of sets. The cardinality of a finite set is a natural number – the number of elements in the set. The transfinite cardinal numbers describe the sizes of infinite...

One billion (short scale
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

)
One thousand million (long scale)
Ordinal
Ordinal number
In set theory, an ordinal number, or just ordinal, is the order type of a well-ordered set. They are usually identified with hereditarily transitive sets. Ordinals are an extension of the natural numbers different from integers and from cardinals...

One billionth (short scale)
Factorization
Factorization
In mathematics, factorization or factoring is the decomposition of an object into a product of other objects, or factors, which when multiplied together give the original...

29 · 59
Binary
Binary numeral system
The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, represents numeric values using two symbols, 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2...

111011100110101100101000000000
Hexadecimal
Hexadecimal
In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F to represent values ten to fifteen...

3B9ACA00

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

; one thousand million or milliard, long scale) is the natural number
Natural number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are the ordinary whole numbers used for counting and ordering . These purposes are related to the linguistic notions of cardinal and ordinal numbers, respectively...

 following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.

In scientific notation
Scientific notation
Scientific notation is a way of writing numbers that are too large or too small to be conveniently written in standard decimal notation. Scientific notation has a number of useful properties and is commonly used in calculators and by scientists, mathematicians, doctors, and engineers.In scientific...

, it is written as 109.

In modern (short scale
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

) English usage, it is usually called a billion (although in long scale
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

 usage in many other languages, a billion means 1,000,000,000,000 – a million millions). The unambiguous term is a thousand million, which has the same meaning in both scales.

In South Asian English, it is known as 100 crore
Crore
A crore is a unit in the Indian number system equal to ten million , or 100 lakhs. It is widely used in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan....

 or 1 arab
Indian numbering system
The South Asian numbering system, used today in the Indian subcontinent , is based on grouping by two decimal places, rather than the three decimal places commonplace in most parts of the world. This system of measurement introduces separators into numbers in places appropriate to the two-digit...

.

The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; this name very often appears in other languages
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

, e.g. Norwegian; milliard Danish: milliard, Swedish: miljard, Dutch: miljard, Hebrew:milliard.

This terminology is rarely used in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 outside of archaic British English
British English
British English, or English , is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere...

. The SI prefix
SI prefix
The International System of Units specifies a set of unit prefixes known as SI prefixes or metric prefixes. An SI prefix is a name that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a decadic multiple or fraction of the unit. Each prefix has a unique symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol...

 giga
Giga
Giga is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of billion . It has the symbol G.Giga is derived from the Greek γίγας, meaning 'giant'...

 indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit.

See Orders of magnitude (numbers)
Orders of magnitude (numbers)
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities. Each number is given a name in the short scale, which is used in English speaking countries, as well as a name in the long scale, which is used in some of the...

 for larger numbers; and long and short scales
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used throughout the world for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries use the short scale...

.

Selected 10-digit numbers (1,000,000,000–9,999,999,999)

  • 1023456789 – smallest pandigital number
    Pandigital number
    In mathematics, a pandigital number is an integer that in a given base has among its significant digits each digit used in the base at least once. For example, 1223334444555567890 is a pandigital number in base 10...

     in base 10
  • 1026753849 – smallest pandigital square
    Square number
    In mathematics, a square number, sometimes also called a perfect square, is an integer that is the square of an integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself...

     that includes 0
  • 1073676287 – 15th Carol number
  • 1073741824 = 230
  • 1073807359 – 14th Kynea number
  • 1129760415 – 23rd Motzkin number
    Motzkin number
    In mathematics, a Motzkin number for a given number n is the number of different ways of drawing non-intersecting chords on a circle between n points. The Motzkin numbers have very diverse applications in geometry, combinatorics and number theory...

  • 1134903170 – 45th Fibonacci number
    Fibonacci number
    In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence:0,\;1,\;1,\;2,\;3,\;5,\;8,\;13,\;21,\;34,\;55,\;89,\;144,\; \ldots\; ....

  • 1162261467 = 319
  • 1220703125 = 513
  • 1234567890 – pandigital number with the digits in order
  • 1311738121 – 25th Pell number
    Pell number
    In mathematics, the Pell numbers are an infinite sequence of integers that have been known since ancient times, the denominators of the closest rational approximations to the square root of 2. This sequence of approximations begins 1/1, 3/2, 7/5, 17/12, and 41/29, so the sequence of Pell numbers...

  • 1382958545 – 15th Bell number
    Bell number
    In combinatorics, the nth Bell number, named after Eric Temple Bell, is the number of partitions of a set with n members, or equivalently, the number of equivalence relations on it...

  • 1406818759 – 30th Wedderburn-Etherington number
    Wedderburn-Etherington number
    In graph theory, the Wedderburn–Etherington numbers, named for Ivor Malcolm Haddon Etherington and Joseph Wedderburn, count how many weak binary trees can be constructed: that is, the number of trees for which each graph vertex is adjacent to no more than three other such vertices, for a...

  • 1836311903 – 46th Fibonacci number
  • 1882341361 – The least prime whose reversal is both square (403912) and triangular (triangular of 57121).
  • 1977326743 = 711
  • 2147483647 – 8th Mersenne prime
    Mersenne prime
    In mathematics, a Mersenne number, named after Marin Mersenne , is a positive integer that is one less than a power of two: M_p=2^p-1.\,...

     and the largest signed 32-bit
    Binary numeral system
    The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, represents numeric values using two symbols, 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2...

     integer
  • 2147483648 = 231
  • 2214502422 – 6th primary pseudoperfect number
  • 2357947691 = 119
  • 2971215073 – 11th Fibonacci prime (47th Fibonacci number)
  • 3166815962 – 26th Pell number
  • 3192727797 – 24th Motzkin number
  • 3323236238 – 31st Wedderburn-Etherington number
  • 3405691582 – hexadecimal CAFEBABE
    Magic number (programming)
    In computer programming, the term magic number has multiple meanings. It could refer to one or more of the following:* A constant numerical or text value used to identify a file format or protocol; for files, see List of file signatures...

    ; used as a placeholder in programming.
  • 3405697037 – hexadecimal CAFED00D
    Magic number (programming)
    In computer programming, the term magic number has multiple meanings. It could refer to one or more of the following:* A constant numerical or text value used to identify a file format or protocol; for files, see List of file signatures...

    ; used as a placeholder in programming.
  • 3486784401 = 320
  • 4294836223 – 16th Carol number
  • 4294967291 – Largest prime 32-bit unsigned integer
  • 4294967295 – Maximum 32-bit unsigned integer (hexadecimal FFFFFFFF)
  • 4294967296 = 232
  • 4294967297 – the first composite Fermat number
  • 4295098367 – 15th Kynea number
  • 4807526976 – 48th Fibonacci number
  • 5784634181 – 13th alternating factorial
    Alternating factorial
    In mathematics, an alternating factorial is the absolute value of the alternating sum of the first n factorials.This is the same as their sum, with the odd-indexed factorials multiplied by −1 if n is even, and the even-indexed factorials multiplied by −1 if n is odd, resulting in an...

  • 6103515625 - 514
  • 6210001000 – only self-descriptive number
    Self-descriptive number
    A self-descriptive number is an integer m that in a given base b is b-digits long in which each digit d at position n counts how many instances of digit n are in m.For example, in base 10, the number 6210001000 is self-descriptive because of the following...

     in base 10
  • 6227020800 = 13!
    Factorial
    In mathematics, the factorial of a non-negative integer n, denoted by n!, is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n...

  • 6983776800 – 15th colossally abundant number
    Colossally abundant number
    In mathematics, a colossally abundant number is a natural number that, in some rigorous sense, has a lot of divisors...

  • 7645370045 – 27th Pell number
  • 7778742049 – 49th Fibonacci number
  • 7862958391 – 32nd Wedderburn-Etherington number
  • 8589869056 – 6th perfect number
    Perfect number
    In number theory, a perfect number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper positive divisors, that is, the sum of its positive divisors excluding the number itself . Equivalently, a perfect number is a number that is half the sum of all of its positive divisors i.e...

  • 8589934592 = 233
  • 9043402501 – 25th Motzkin number
  • 9814072356
    9814072356 (number)
    9814072356 or 9,814,072,356 is 99066 squared, and is the eighty-seventh and largest square number using each of the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 0 exactly once ....

    – largest square pandigital number, largest pandigital pure power
  • 9876543210 – largest pandigital number without redundant digits

Sense of scale


The facts below give a sense of how large 1,000,000,000 (109) is in the context of time according to current scientific evidence:
  • 109 seconds is 114 days short of 32 calendar years (≈ 31.7 years).
  • About 109 minutes ago, the Roman Empire
    Roman Empire
    The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

     was flourishing and Christianity was emerging. (109 minutes is roughly 1,900 years.)
  • About 109 hours ago, modern human beings and their ancestors were living in the Stone Age
    Stone Age
    The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years , during which humans and their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporary genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus, widely used exclusively stone as their hard material in the...

     (more precisely, the Middle Paleolithic
    Middle Paleolithic
    The Middle Paleolithic is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. The term Middle Stone Age is used as an equivalent or a synonym for the Middle Paleolithic in African archeology. The Middle Paleolithic and the Middle Stone Age...

    ). (109 hours is roughly 114,000 years.)
  • About 109 days ago, Australopithecus
    Australopithecus
    Australopithecus is a genus of hominids that is now extinct. From the evidence gathered by palaeontologists and archaeologists, it appears that the Australopithecus genus evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct...

    , an ape-like creature related to an ancestor of modern humans, roamed the African savanna
    Savanna
    A savanna, or savannah, is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently small or widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of C4 grasses.Some...

    s. (109 days is roughly years.)
  • About 109 months ago, dinosaur
    Dinosaur
    Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade and superorder Dinosauria. They were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous , when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of...

    s walked the Earth during the late Cretaceous
    Cretaceous
    The Cretaceous , derived from the Latin "creta" , usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide , is a geologic period and system from circa to million years ago. In the geologic timescale, the Cretaceous follows the Jurassic period and is followed by the Paleogene period of the...

    . (109 months is roughly years.)
  • About 109 years ago, the first multicellular
    Multicellular organism
    Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to single-celled organisms. Most life that can be seen with the the naked eye is multicellular, as are all animals and land plants.-Evolutionary history:Multicellularity has evolved independently dozens of times...

     eukaryote
    Eukaryote
    A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes may more formally be referred to as the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota. The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleus, or nuclear...

    s appeared on Earth.
  • The universe
    Universe
    The Universe is commonly defined as the totality of everything that exists, including all matter and energy, the planets, stars, galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space. Definitions and usage vary and similar terms include the cosmos, the world and nature...

     is currently thought to be about 13.7 × 109 years old.
    Age of the universe
    The age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang posited by the most widely accepted scientific model of cosmology. The best current estimate of the age of the universe is 13.75 ± 0.13 billion years within the Lambda-CDM concordance model...



In terms of distance:
  • 109 inches is 15783 miles (25,400.2 km), more than halfway around the world and sufficient to reach any point on the globe from any other point.
  • 109 metres is almost three times the distance from the Earth
    Earth
    Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

     to the Moon
    Moon
    The Moon is Earth's only known natural satellite,There are a number of near-Earth asteroids including 3753 Cruithne that are co-orbital with Earth: their orbits bring them close to Earth for periods of time but then alter in the long term . These are quasi-satellites and not true moons. For more...

    .
  • 109 kilometres is over six times the distance from the Earth to the Sun
    Sun
    The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields...

    .


In terms of finance:
  • The possession of assets with total value of 109 United States dollar
    United States dollar
    The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

    s would place a person among the world's wealthiest individuals.
  • As visualized in a work by artist Michael Marcovici
    Michael Marcovici
    Michael Marcovici is an Austrian sculptor, painter, conceptual artist and designer of CADO Danish Modern furniture. His eclectic oeuvre includes works that feature strong statements regarding politics, science and technology, social topics and style. His output includes media works of ironic...

    , this amount of money in stacks of hundred-dollar bills can fit on twelve wrapped pallet
    Pallet
    A pallet , sometimes called a skid, is a flat transport structure that supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift, pallet jack, front loader or other jacking device. A pallet is the structural foundation of a unit load which allows handling and storage efficiencies...

    s.


In terms of area:
  • A billion square inches would be a square about one half mile on a side.
  • A piece of finely woven bed sheet cloth that contained a billion holes would measure about 500 square feet (46.5 m²), large enough to cover a moderate sized apartment.


In terms of volume:
  • There are a billion cubic millimeters in a cubic meter.
  • A billion grains of table salt or granulated sugar would occupy a volume of about two and a half cubic feet.
  • A billion cubic inches would be a volume comparable to a large commercial building slightly larger than a typical supermarket.


In terms of natural landscape; a small mountain, slightly larger than Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock in Stone Mountain, Georgia, United States. At its summit, the elevation is 1,686 feet amsl and 825 feet above the surrounding area. Stone Mountain granite extends underground at its longest point into Gwinnett County...

Georgia, United States, would weigh (have a mass of) a billion tons.

In terms of count:

A is a cube; B consists of 1000 cubes of type A. C consists of 1000 Bs; and D 1000 Cs. Thus there are As in C; and 1,000,000,000 As in D.