Unimog

Unimog

Overview

Unimog is a range of multi-purpose auto four wheel drive
Four Wheel Drive
The Four Wheel Drive Auto Company, more often known as Four Wheel Drive or just FWD, was founded in 1909 in Clintonville, Wisconsin, as the Badger Four-Wheel Drive Auto Company by Otto Zachow and William Besserdich.-History:...

 medium truck
Truck
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile...

s produced by Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

, a division of Daimler AG. The name Unimog is pronounced ˈuːnɪmɔk in German and is an acronym for the German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 "UNIversal-MOtor-Gerät", Gerät being the German word for machine or device. Daimler Benz took over manufacture of the Unimog in 1951 and they are currently built in the Mercedes truck plant in Wörth am Rhein
Wörth am Rhein
Wörth am Rhein is a municipality in the southernmost part of the district of Germersheim, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is situated on the left bank of the Rhine, approx. 10 km west of the city center of Karlsruhe and just north of the German-French border....

 in Germany.
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Encyclopedia

Unimog is a range of multi-purpose auto four wheel drive
Four Wheel Drive
The Four Wheel Drive Auto Company, more often known as Four Wheel Drive or just FWD, was founded in 1909 in Clintonville, Wisconsin, as the Badger Four-Wheel Drive Auto Company by Otto Zachow and William Besserdich.-History:...

 medium truck
Truck
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile...

s produced by Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

, a division of Daimler AG. The name Unimog is pronounced ˈuːnɪmɔk in German and is an acronym for the German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 "UNIversal-MOtor-Gerät", Gerät being the German word for machine or device. Daimler Benz took over manufacture of the Unimog in 1951 and they are currently built in the Mercedes truck plant in Wörth am Rhein
Wörth am Rhein
Wörth am Rhein is a municipality in the southernmost part of the district of Germersheim, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is situated on the left bank of the Rhine, approx. 10 km west of the city center of Karlsruhe and just north of the German-French border....

 in Germany. Another Mercedes-Benz Türk A.Ş. plant assembles Unimogs in Aksaray
Aksaray
Aksaray is a city in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital district of Aksaray Province. According to 2009 census, population of the province is 376 907 of which 171,423 live in the city of Aksaray. The district covers an area of , and the average elevation is , with the highest...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

. Unimogs were also built in Argentina until the first years of the 1980s, in the González Catán factory.

New Unimogs can be purchased in one of three series.
  1. The medium series 405, also known as the UGN ("Geräteträger" or equipment carrier), is available as the U300 through U500 models.
  2. The heavy series 437, also known as the UHN ("Hochgeländegängig" or highly mobile cross country), is available as the U3000-U5000 model.
  3. The U20, the smallest Unimog, is based on a shortened U300 frame and has a cab over engine
    Cab over
    Cab-over, also known as COE , cab forward, or forward control, is a body style of truck or van that has a vertical front or "flat face", with the cab of the truck sitting above the front axle...

     compartment from the Brazilian Accelo light truck (Caminhões Leves) series.


The first model was designed shortly after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 to be used in agriculture as a self-propelled machine providing a power take-off
Power take-off
A power take-off or power takeoff is a splined driveshaft, usually on a tractor or truck, that can be used to provide power to an attachment or separate machine. It is designed to be easily connected and disconnected...

 to operate saws in forests or harvesting machines on fields. It was designed with permanent 4WD with equal size wheels in order to be driven on roads at higher speeds than standard farm tractors. With their very high ground clearance and a flexible frame that is essentially a part of the suspension, Unimogs are not designed to carry as much load as regular trucks.

Due to their off-road capabilities, Unimogs can be found in jungles, mountains and deserts as military vehicles, fire fighters, expedition campers, and even in competitions like truck trials and Dakar Rally
Dakar Rally
The Dakar Rally is an annual rally raid type of off-road automobile race, organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation...

 rally raid
Rally raid
Rally raid, also known as cross country rallying is a form of long distance off-road racing that takes place over several days. Each day may require traveling up to . The length of the event can be 3–15 days...

s. In Western Europe, they are commonly used as snowploughs, municipal equipment carriers, agricultural implements, construction equipment and road-rail vehicle
Road-rail vehicle
A road–rail vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle that can be legally used on both roads and rails. Combining the words "highway" and "rail", one is often referred to as a hi-rail truck or just hi-rail, sometimes spelled high-rail, HiRail or Hy-rail. They are normally converted rubber-tired road...

s.


Design


Unimogs have very high ground clearance made possible by portal gear
Portal gear
Portal axles are an offroad technology where the axle tube is above the center of the wheel hub.-Description:Compared to normal layout, portal axles enables the vehicle to gain a higher ground clearance, as both the axle tube and differential casing are tucked up higher under the vehicle.Due to...

s that allow the axle
Axle
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to its surroundings, with the wheels rotating around the axle. In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle...

s and transmission
Transmission (mechanics)
A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster defines transmission as: an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a...

 to be higher than the tires' centers. Unimogs also feature a flexible frame
Chassis
A chassis consists of an internal framework that supports a man-made object. It is analogous to an animal's skeleton. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, consisting of the frame with the wheels and machinery.- Vehicles :In the case of vehicles, the term chassis means the...

 that allows the tires a wide range of vertical movement to allow the truck to comfortably drive over extremely uneven terrain
Terrain
Terrain, or land relief, is the vertical and horizontal dimension of land surface. When relief is described underwater, the term bathymetry is used...

, even boulder
Boulder
In geology, a boulder is a rock with grain size of usually no less than 256 mm diameter. While a boulder may be small enough to move or roll manually, others are extremely massive....

s of one metre in height. They are equipped with high visibility driving cabs to enable the operator to see the terrain and more easily manipulate mounted tools. The newest Unimog models can be changed from left-hand drive to right-hand drive in the field to permit operators to work on the more convenient side of the truck. The ability to operate on highways enables the Unimog to be returned to a home garage or yard to thwart vandalism.

Equipment


Unimogs can be equipped with front and rear tool mounting brackets and hydraulic connections to allow bucket loaders and hydraulic arms to be used. Most units have a power takeoff (PTO) connection to operate rotary equipment such as snow brooms, snow blower
Snow blower
A snow blower or snow thrower is a machine for removing snow from an area where it is not wanted, such as a driveway, sidewalk, roadway, railroad track, rink, runway, or houses...

s, brush mowers, or stationary conveyor belts.

Variants


All Unimog models except for the 404S have a diesel
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

 power plant varying from 25 horsepower (19 kW) to upwards of 280 horsepower (205 kW). Unimogs are available with short wheelbases for tool carrier operations or long wheelbases for all-terrain cargo carrying operations.

The Unimog model with the largest single-design production run is the Unimog 404.1. The most common versions of this model were produced in troop carrier
Troop carrier
Troop carrier can refer to:*Troopship*Armoured personnel carrier*Military Light Truck...

 and radio box/signal truck variants for the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

 and other Western European armies. It is powered by a 2.2-litre M180 watercooled Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

 petrol engine
Petrol engine
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels....

 that produced 80 hp as standard. This engine was based on that offered in Mercedes-Benz 220
Mercedes-Benz 220
Mercedes-Benz has sold a number of automobiles with the "220" model name:* 1951–1955 W187** 1951–1955 220* 1956–1959 W180** 1956–1959 220S* 1958–1960 W128** 1958–1960 220SE* 1959–1965 W111** 1959–1965 220b...

 cars and more power was available, up to 145 hp, with high compression heads. The 404.0 was available with the 2.8-litre M130
Mercedes-Benz M130 engine
The Mercedes Benz M130 Engine was the last and largest of the ‘mid-sized’ Single Over Head Camshaft straight-6 cylinder engines produced by Mercedes Benz. The ‘mid-sized six’ started life as the 2.2 litre M180 which was unveiled at the Frankfurt Motor show in September 1951 alongside the new...

 petrol engine
Petrol engine
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels....

 that produced 110 hp as standard with up to 185 hp available with high compression heads and fuel injection.

Military


Apart from the Bundeswehr, Unimogs have been used by many different militaries
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

, including the Argentinian
Military of Argentina
The Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, in Spanish Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina, are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief and a civilian Minister of Defense...

, British, Belgian
Belgian Army
The Land Component is organised using the concept of capacities, whereby units are gathered together according to their function and material. Within this framework, there are five capacities: the command capacity, the combat capacity, the support capacity, the services capacity and the training...

, Danish, Dutch, French, Irish
Irish Army
The Irish Army, officially named simply the Army is the main branch of the Defence Forces of Ireland. Approximately 8,500 men and women serve in the Irish Army, divided into three infantry Brigades...

, Indonesian Army
Indonesian Army
The Indonesian Army , the land component of the Indonesian Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 328,517 regular personnel. The force's history began in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat "Civil Security Forces" served as paramilitary and police.Since the nation's independence struggle,...

, Portuguese
Portuguese Army
The Portuguese Army is the ground branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in co-operation with other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the defence of Portugal...

, Finnish, Estonian
Military of Estonia
The Estonian Defence Forces is the name of the unified armed forces of the Republic of Estonia. The Estonian military is a defence force consisting of Maavägi , Merevägi , Õhuvägi and a paramilitary organization Kaitseliit...

, Greek
Hellenic Air Force
The Hellenic Air Force, abbreviated to HAF is the air force of Greece. The mission of the Hellenic Air Force is to guard and protect Greek airspace, provide air assistance and support to the Hellenic Army and the Hellenic Navy, as well as the provision of humanitarian aid in Greece and around the...

, Swiss
Military of Switzerland
The Swiss Armed Forces perform the roles of Switzerland's militia and regular army. Under the country's militia system, professional soldiers constitute about 5 percent of military personnel; the rest are male citizen conscripts 19 to 34 years old...

, Chilean
Military of Chile
Chile's armed forces are subject to civilian control exercised by the president through the Minister of Defense. Military service of 12 to 24 months is mandatory for all male citizens upon turning 18. This conscription service can be postponed for educational or religious reasons...

, Bolivian Naval Force, Mexican, Pakistani, Rhodesian
Rhodesian Army
The Rhodesian Security Forces consisted of the Rhodesian Army, Royal Rhodesian Air Force, British South Africa Police, Rhodesian Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Guard Force.- Rhodesian Army :...

 and Singaporean
Singapore Armed Forces
The Singapore Armed Forces is the military arm of the Total Defence of the Republic of Singapore; as well as the military component of the Ministry of Defence. The SAF comprises three branches: the Singapore Army, the Republic of Singapore Air Force and the Republic of Singapore Navy...

 armed forces. They are also used extensively by the Brazilian Marine Corps
Brazilian Marine Corps
The Brazilian Marine Corps is the land combat branch of the Brazilian Navy.- Mission :...

, South African National Defence Force
South African National Defence Force
The South African National Defence Force is the armed forces of South Africa. The military as it exists today was created in 1994, following South Africa's first post-apartheid national elections and the adoption of a new constitution...

, the New Zealand Army
New Zealand Army
The New Zealand Army , is the land component of the New Zealand Defence Force and comprises around 4,500 Regular Force personnel, 2,000 Territorial Force personnel and 500 civilians. Formerly the New Zealand Military Forces, the current name was adopted around 1946...

, the Turkish Army
Turkish Army
The Turkish Army or Turkish Land Forces is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The modern history of the army began with its formation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire...

 and the Australian Army
Australian Army
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of Defence commands the Australian Defence Force , the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army...

. The Unimogs are used as troop carriers
Troop carrier
Troop carrier can refer to:*Troopship*Armoured personnel carrier*Military Light Truck...

, ambulance
Ambulance
An ambulance is a vehicle for transportation of sick or injured people to, from or between places of treatment for an illness or injury, and in some instances will also provide out of hospital medical care to the patient...

s, and mobile command centers
Command center
A command center is any place that is used to provide centralized command for some purpose.While frequently considered to be a military facility, these can be used in many other cases by governments or businesses...

 equipped with radios (radio boxes). The United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 use an engineer
Engineer
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical problems. Engineers design materials, structures, machines and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality,...

 version, while the United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 uses Unimog vehicles to access remote installations.

Civilian


Unimogs are used by German disaster relief organisation Technisches Hilfswerk (THW)
Technisches Hilfswerk
The Bundesanstalt Technisches Hilfswerk is a civil protection organisation controlled by the German federal government...

, by Fire Departments
Fire department
A fire department or fire brigade is a public or private organization that provides fire protection for a certain jurisdiction, which typically is a municipality, county, or fire protection district...

 and municipalities
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 as utility vehicles. They can be used as material handlers, auxiliary power providers (generators
Electrical generator
In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric charge to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is analogous to a water pump, which causes water to flow...

), and equipment carriers. Their ability to operate off-road, in deep water and mud makes it easier to access remote areas in emergency situations. They are commonly used in snow removal where other vehicles might not be able to operate. Most European Alpine
Alpine climate
Alpine climate is the average weather for a region above the tree line. This climate is also referred to as mountain climate or highland climate....

 towns and districts are equipped with one or more Unimog snow blowers to clear narrow mountain roads that have drifted closed.

In construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

, Unimogs are used as carriers of equipment and, with the optional extended cabin, also of workers. They can be equipped with a backhoe
Backhoe
A backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader...

, front loader
Loader (equipment)
A loader is a heavy equipment machine often used in construction, primarily used to load material into or onto another type of machinery .-Heavy equipment front loaders:A loader A loader is a heavy equipment machine often used in construction, primarily used to load material (such as asphalt,...

, or other contracting equipment. On railroads
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

, Unimogs are used as rail car mover
Rail car mover
A rail car mover is a road-rail vehicle fitted with couplers for moving small numbers of railroad cars around in a rail siding or small yard...

s and road-rail vehicle
Road-rail vehicle
A road–rail vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle that can be legally used on both roads and rails. Combining the words "highway" and "rail", one is often referred to as a hi-rail truck or just hi-rail, sometimes spelled high-rail, HiRail or Hy-rail. They are normally converted rubber-tired road...

s. They have also been used in mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

 areas, like seen in Gold Bridge, BC, Canada.

In agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

, Unimogs are used to operate farm equipment. While most farm field implement operations are now performed by a tractor
Tractor
A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction...

, Unimogs are used to haul produce, machinery and animals. They are also used around the farmyard
Barnyard
A barnyard or farmyard is a yard adjoined to a barn . As a combination of architecture and landscape design, the barnyard is less common now than in former times, especially since the tractor and truck have replaced the horse and wagon.A barnyard of the 19th century was fenced-in an area of or...

 to run chippers, grain augers
Auger
An auger is a drilling device, or drill bit, that usually includes a rotating helical screw blade called a "flighting" to act as a screw conveyor to remove the drilled out material...

, and conveyors.

Unimogs are also used as a prime mover, to pull heavy trailers, large wheeled conveyances or even Jumbo Jets. Often, only the "Triebkopf" front half is combined with a tailor-made rear.

Unimogs are used as tourist transport for jungle ecotourism
Ecotourism
Ecotourism is a form of tourism visiting fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas, intended as a low impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial tourism...

 or safaris.

North America



Unimogs have been uncommon in North America because of differing vehicle regulations and requirements from those in Germany, and due to the lack of a North American sales and support network. Most Unimog models found in North America have been imported by individual dealers or independent enthusiasts.

Between 1975 and 1980 the Case Corporation
Case Corporation
Case Corporation was a manufacturer of construction and agricultural equipment. In 1999 it merged with New Holland to form CNH Global, a Fiat Group division...

 (now merged into CNH Global
CNH Global
CNH Global N.V. is a global, full line company operating in both the agricultural and construction equipment industries. CNH's scope includes integrated engineering, manufacturing, marketing and distribution of equipment on five continents...

) imported the U-900 model into the United States and sold it through Case tractor dealerships as the MB4/94.

In 2002 DaimlerChrysler tried to re-enter the North American market and engaged in 4 years of aggressive marketing, such as truck and trade shows, Modern Marvels, numerous magazine articles, extensive demo tours, and individual demos. North American retail models were officially limited to the U500 series (the North-America-specific member of the UGN series) sold through heavy-truck dealerships, generally Freightliner
Freightliner LLC
Freightliner Trucks is an American manufacturer of heavy duty trucks, chassis and semi-trailer trucks in the United States. The company was founded as Freightliner Inc in 1942 and is now a division of Daimler Trucks North America, a subsidiary of the German Daimler AG...

 dealerships. Freightliner is a Daimler AG subsidiary. The UGN series was specifically manufactured for the North American market and was significantly different mechanically from its European counterpart. The UGN faced stiff competition in North America by manufacturers whose truck or equipment lines performed some of the same duties as the Unimog. Some of them are Caterpillar
Caterpillar Inc.
Caterpillar Inc. , also known as "CAT", designs, manufactures, markets and sells machinery and engines and sells financial products and insurance to customers via a worldwide dealer network. Caterpillar is the world's largest manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas...

, John Deere
John Deere
John Deere was an American blacksmith and manufacturer who founded Deere & Company, one of the largest and leading agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers in the world...

, AM General
AM General
AM General is an American heavy vehicle manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. It is best known for the civilian Hummer and the military Humvee, that is assembled in Mishawaka, Indiana...

, Sterling Trucks
Sterling Trucks
Sterling Trucks, a manufacturer of heavy duty trucks, was a subsidiary of Daimler Trucks North America, based in Portland, Oregon, United States, a member of the Daimler AG Truck Group. It was originally the heavy truck division of Ford Motor Company, but was purchased and rebranded in 1997....

 (also a Daimler AG subsidiary), and General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

. After 5 years and selling only 184 Unimogs, Freightliner LLC has exited the market. Daimler AG has cited non-compliance with EPA07 emission requirements as the main reason for ceasing North American Sales.

Motorsport



Unimogs are used in two kinds of competition: Dakar Rally
Dakar Rally
The Dakar Rally is an annual rally raid type of off-road automobile race, organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation...

 and other desert rally competitions, and slow-moving Truck Trials over obstacles.

Unimogs have won the truck class of the Dakar several times in the 1980s, often by accident as their main purpose is usually to provide support for cars and motorbikes. High-powered factory-sponsored entries of truck companies aiming for the overall win have since taken the laurels, with Unimogs mainly used for service purposes.

MB Trac


In 1973 the Unimog department in Gaggenau also designed the MB Trac
MB Trac
The MB-trac is a tractor developed by Mercedes-Benz which was based on their Unimog platform. It was built by Mercedes-Benz between the years 1973 and 1991...

, a more tractor-like version. It was produced by Daimler-Benz until 1991, when the product line was sold to Werner Forst- und Industrietechnik, which continues to produce it as the WF-Trac. It is sold and maintained by the Mercedes Unimog dealers.

The Mercedes G shares some features of the Unimog, which eases maintenance for military and industry users who also use the Unimog.

Military



The Unimog also serves as a technical platform for armored vehicles like the ATF Dingo
ATF Dingo
The ATF Dingo is a German heavily armored military infantry mobility vehicle based on a Unimog chassis with a V-hull design, produced by the company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann . It is designed to withstand land mines, rifle fire, artillery fragments and NBC-threats. ATF stands for...

, a mine-protected utility and reconnaissance vehicle used by the German Forces in international missions.

Armoured vehicles developed in Germany using Unimog chassis are the UR-416
Thyssen Henschel UR-416
The Thyssen Henschel UR-416 is a German armoured personnel carrier, introduced in 1969 built from the same body as the Mercedes-Benz Unimog light truck.-Development:...

, the Sonderwagen 4 and Condor 1
Condor (APC)
The Rheinmetall Condor is a 4x4 wheeled armoured personnel carrier originally designed by Thyssen-Henschel of Germany and manufactured by Henschel Wehrtechnik GmbH....

 in Police service, and the ATF Dingo used by the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

 in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. The French Aravis
Nexter Aravis
The Aravis is a 4x4, mine-resistant, ambush protected vehicle developed and built by Nexter. An order for 15 Aravis vehicles was placed by the Délégation Générale pour l'Armement in April 2009 for use by the French Army as a reconnaissance and escort vehicle for engineer units...

 mine-protected vehicle, like the Dingo, based on the Special Chassis FGA 12.5 (special application of U5000, see also www.mercedes-benz.com/special-chassis). The Buffel
Buffel
The Buffel is a mine-protected APC used by the South African Army during the South African Border War. The Buffel was also used as an armoured fighting vehicle and proved itself in this role...

, RG-19
RG-19
The RG-19 Caddie is a prototype Armoured Personnel carrier manufactured by TFM of South Africa. The company was later taken over by Reunert Defence OMC.-Production history:...

 and Mamba APC
Mamba APC
The Mamba is a South African armoured personnel carrier that offers protection against small arms fire and land mines. The vehicle, which uses a Unimog chassis and is powered by a Mercedes Benz engine, is suited for rough terrain and can carry up to 10 passengers plus the driver...

 Armoured Personnel Carrier
Armoured personnel carrier
An armoured personnel carrier is an armoured fighting vehicle designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.APCs are usually armed with only a machine gun although variants carry recoilless rifles, anti-tank guided missiles , or mortars...

s from South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 are based upon the Unimog driveline. The AV-VBL developed by Brazil's Tectran is also an AFV family based on the Unimog.

The Swedish Landsverk
AB Landsverk
Landsverk was founded in 1872 as Firman Petterson & Ohlsen. It was a heavy industry, manufacturingrailroad cars, harbour cranes and agricultural machinery. It was located in Landskrona, Sweden.-Early days:...

 Company produced an armoured scout car based on the Unimog S404 in the late 1950s. The Irish Army
Irish Army
The Irish Army, officially named simply the Army is the main branch of the Defence Forces of Ireland. Approximately 8,500 men and women serve in the Irish Army, divided into three infantry Brigades...

 purchased 15 of the vehicles (originally intended for the police force in the Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo
The Belgian Congo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo between King Leopold II's formal relinquishment of his personal control over the state to Belgium on 15 November 1908, and Congolese independence on 30 June 1960.-Congo Free State, 1884–1908:Until the latter...

) in 1971 at a bargain price. They were intended as a stop-gap vehicle for use until the first Panhard M3
Panhard M3
The Panhard M3 VTT , armoured personnel carrier was designed as a private venture with the first prototype completed in 1969. The prototype had a single door in each side of the hull and twin doors in the hull rear...

 VTT APCs entered service in 1972. The type had excellent off-road capability but poor on-road handling due to a high centre of gravity and several accidents occurred as a result. A four-man dismountable squad was carried, but space was cramped, and in any case a four-man detachment was far too small for any sort of realistic military purpose. Other considerations were that the FN MAG
FN MAG
The FN MAG is a Belgian 7.62 mm general-purpose machine gun, designed in the early 1950s at Fabrique Nationale by Ernest Vervier. It has been used by more than 80 countries, and it has been made under licence in countries such as Argentina, Egypt, India, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the...

 gunner's position was too exposed. Eventually the Unimog Scout Cars arrived in Ireland in February 1972, their departure having been delayed by a local peace group who thought they were destined for the Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
The Provisional Irish Republican Army is an Irish republican paramilitary organisation whose aim was to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and bring about a socialist republic within a united Ireland by force of arms and political persuasion...

 (PIRA). By mid-1978 all had been transferred to the Irish Army Reserve
Irish Army Reserve
The Army Reserve is the land component of the Reserve Defence Forces . It is the second line reserve of the Army. The Army Reserve is a part-time, fully voluntary organisation, and is one of two elements of the Reserve Defence Forces of Ireland, the other element being the Naval Service Reserve.It...

, the FCA. All were withdrawn by 1984, and two are preserved; one in the transport museum in Howth
Howth
Howth is an area in Fingal County near Dublin city in Ireland. Originally just a small fishing village, Howth with its surrounding rural district is now a busy suburb of Dublin, with a mix of dense residential development and wild hillside, all on the peninsula of Howth Head. The only...

 Co Dublin and one in England.

In Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, the Army uses the Unimog as transport for sensitive field equipment, such as radars and communication systems.

History


This section contains information translated from the German language Wikipedia page for Unimog.

1946 – First prototype


Unimogs were developed in post-war Germany to be used as agricultural equipment. The Unimog was designed with equal-sized wheels, a mounting bracket in front, a hitch in the rear, and loading space in the center. This was to make it a multi-purpose vehicle that farmers could use in the field and on the highway. Minneapolis-Moline
Minneapolis-Moline
Minneapolis-Moline was a large tractor and machinery producer based in Minnesota. It was the product of a merger between three companies in 1929: Minneapolis Steel & Machinery , Minneapolis Threshing Machine, and Moline Plow...

 had developed the UDLX Comfortractor for North America in 1938 with a similar concept in mind.

Albert Friedrich designed the first model and entered a production agreement with Erhard und Söhne (Erhard and Sons) in Schwäbisch Gmünd
Schwäbisch Gmünd
Schwäbisch Gmünd is a town in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. With a population of around 62,000, the town is the second largest in the Ostalbkreis and the whole region of East Württemberg after Aalen...

.

Development began on January 1, 1946. The first prototype was ready by the end of 1946. The prototype was equipped with a gasoline engine because the development of the OM636 diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

 had not been finished. The prototype looked almost like the Unimogs that were built later. The original track width of 1,270 millimeters was equivalent to two potato rows.

1947 – Production


The 25-hp (19 kW) OM636 Daimler Benz diesel engine became standard equipment in the first production Unimogs at the end of 1947. The original symbol for the Unimog was a pair of ox's horns in the shape of a letter U. The first 600 "70200" series Unimogs were built by Boehringer. This was mainly for two reasons: Erhard und Soehne did not have the capacity to build the Unimogs and Mercedes Benz was not permitted to build all-wheel drive vehicles at that time.

1950s



1951 – Daimler Benz – Gaggenau manufacturing plant


After Daimler Benz took over manufacture of the Unimog in 1951, (Unimog 2010) the three pointed Mercedes star began to appear on the front of the vehicle and replaced the Unimog ox horn symbol. The new model became known as the series 401.

A new series 402 with a long wheelbase chassis (2120 mm (83.5 in) instead of 1720 mm (67.7 in)) also became available.

The vehicles began to be manufactured in Gaggenau
Gaggenau
Gaggenau is a town in the district of Rastatt, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located some 8 km northeast of Baden-Baden.- Geography :...

, in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

. Production continues there as of 2006.

1953 – Closed cab



An enclosed driver's cab was available as option starting in 1953, making the Unimog a true all-weather vehicle.

1955 – The 404 S



In 1955, the first Unimog 404 S series were produced. The primary customer of the 404 S was the Federal West German army, which was re-arming in the face of the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

.

The 404 was intended to be a mobile cross-country truck
Truck
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile...

, instead of an agricultural implement. The 404 S is the most popularly produced variant. 64,242 were produced between 1955 and 1980. One of the oldest 404s known to exist is the 1955 Serial Number 4, located in Washington state.

1957


The Unimog is equipped with a fully synchronized transmission
Transmission (mechanics)
A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster defines transmission as: an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a...

 allowing easy shifting while at speed. It is one of the first agricultural tractors to be so equipped.

1960s



1963 – 406 Series


The 406/416 middle series were produced beginning in 1963. They were equipped with a four cylinder diesel (OM312) producing 65 hp. The 406 and 416 are similar, The 416 having a longer 2900 mm (114.2 in) wheelbase compared to 2380 mm (93.7 in) for the 406. Later models were equipped with the direct injection OM352
Mercedes-Benz OM352 engine
The Mercedes Benz OM352 Engine was a 5675 cm3 displacement inline 6 cylinder 4 stroke Diesel engine. It was also sold as a industrial engine by Daimler Benz AG. It was also available with a turbo charger and was then designated as OM 352 A, and with a charge air cooler and was then named OM 352 LA...

 diesel engines starting with 80 hp and going up to 110 hp.

Between the original Unimog and the middle series, Daimler-Benz developed a light series 421/403. This was later supplemented by the 413 line. They differ by the wheelbase and the engine power. The 421 has a 2380 mm (93.7 in) wheelbase and the 403 has a 2250 mm (88.6 in) wheelbase. The new engines come from the passenger car line (421/U of 40 hp with 2.2-litre capacity), and from the Benz truck line (403/U of 54 hp with 4.8-litre capacity).

1972 – MB Trac


The Unimog was quite successful, except as originally intended as an agricultural platform. Daimler Benz produced a new vehicle in 1972, the MB Trac
MB Trac
The MB-trac is a tractor developed by Mercedes-Benz which was based on their Unimog platform. It was built by Mercedes-Benz between the years 1973 and 1991...

 to be more oriented to larger scale mechanical farming. The new tractor crossed the Unimog technology of all-wheel drive and a power transmission to four large equal-sized wheels, with the appearance of a tractor: slim hood, behind it an angular, highly rising driver cab. In contrast to conventional tractors the cab is situated between the axles, similar to large North American four wheel drive tractors. There is no articulation between the front and rear sections as with the American tractors.

From the initial MB-trac 65 and MB-trac 70 (later 700) a broad platform developed to the heavy-duty MT-trac 1800 within a few years, though the MB-trac was not a huge success. Daimler Benz later merged the MB-trac with the agricultural machinery activities of Deutz AG
Deutz AG
Deutz AG is an engine manufacturer, based in Cologne, Germany.-History:The company was founded by Nikolaus Otto, inventor of the four-stroke internal combustion engine, in 1864 as N. A...

. The manufacturing of the MB-trac series ended in 1991.

1974 – Heavy series


In 1974, The new U 120 of the "heavy" series 425 Daimler Benz, extended the Unimog available models with an additional heavy line. The new, angular cab is remarkable with a large, forward hood sloping to the nose. The hood flows down in a wide, black grille. The appearance of this driving cab remains unchanged in principle in 2006, more than one quarter century later.

The series 425 have a 2810 millimetres (110.6 in) wheelbase and nine tons permissible total weight with 120 hp (shortly thereafter 125 hp as U 125).

1975 – Series 435


For the German Federal Armed Forces likewise, the manufacturing of the series 435 began in 1975 as a successor of the Mercedes Benz Unimog S 404. The 435 was characterized by a long wheelbase of 3250 mm (128 in), 3700 mm (145.7 in) or 3850 mm (151.6 in).

1976 – Unimog models re-named



The new angular 424 "middle" series of Unimogs were produced starting from 1976. They are designated U 1000, U 1300/L, U 1500, and the flagship U 1700/L with 124 kW (168 hp) engine performance.

In the same period Daimler Benz re-ordered the type designations for the older series. The classical round form series of the Mercedes Benz Unimog are designated U 600/L, U 800/L, U 900 and U 1100/L. (The letter L stands for a long wheelbase, because most models are available in two wheelbase variants. )

The Unimog with the rounded driving cab became known as the light series. The new series with angular cab were divided by payload into a middle and heavy series. Some engines overlap – the Unimog nomenclature is not simple to understand (see below for notes on series names).

The long-proven Unimog-S (404), although with clearly decreasing number of items, is the single remaining "Benziner" in the lineup.

With the exception of the entry-level model, all Mercedes Benz Unimogs for 1976 were equipped with four wheel disc brakes – many years before this safety equipment was mandated for trucks.

1992 – New light models


Introduction of the new light models 408 (U90) and 418 (U110-U140) with newly designed cabins replace the predecessor models. The new very diagonal front portion gives the operator a good overview forward. The asymmetric front hood, which is lower on the driver's side, permits the best overview of connections and attachments. A new framework and progressively working coil springs improve the handling for the Unimog. The completely re-arranged cab with a high roof offers more space than previously, distinct controls, and not least, a friendly workplace. Among the technical characteristics for the new Unimog are: the tire pressure adjustment system that can be operated while driving, anti-skid system, new engines from the passenger car range for the U 90 of the easy series rank as well as "Servolock", a mechanism for the hydraulic connection of implements.

1993 – U2450



The culmination of the 1993 program is the Unimog U 2450 L 6×6, an all-wheel-driven 3 axle truck. Engine performance increased tenfold with this new top model compared to the original Unimog. The Unimog club in Gaggenau is brought into being.

1994 – The "Funmog"


Mercedes Benz brings out the "Funmog", which is limited to twelve copies. With luxury extras such as leather seats & carpets. It was the most expensive Unimog, with prices starting at DM150,000.

1996 – UX100


Introduction of the very small model UX100. It is designed to slip speedily over sidewalks and by park plants. It is sold off after a few years of production to Hako, which are specialized in vehicles of this kind and size.

2002 – UHN models

  • Production is transferred from Gaggenau to the Wörth am Rhein
    Wörth am Rhein
    Wörth am Rhein is a municipality in the southernmost part of the district of Germersheim, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is situated on the left bank of the Rhine, approx. 10 km west of the city center of Karlsruhe and just north of the German-French border....

     Mercedes-Benz-LKW-Montagewerks, the largest truck manufacturing plant in Europe.
  • Introduction of the U3000-U5000 models (437.4)

2005 – Black Edition


At the Dubai Motor Show
Dubai Motor Show
The Middle East International Motor Show is an annual auto show held at the Emirate of Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates...

 in December, the "Unimog U 500 Black Edition" premiered as an offering to wealthy desert-dwellers. It is a similar luxury offering comparable to the Funmog.

2006


Starting from June, 2006 the UGN series is produced with "BlueTec" technology so that the future exhaust limit Euro IV requirements will be met. With that a new packaging of the vehicle and new design designations are connected (old design +1, e.g. from 405.100 becomes 405.101)

At the IAA 2006 commercial vehicle show in Hanover a new Unimog U 20 was presented, which will be available at the end of 2007. The most striking feature is the cabover design with no vestigial front hood characteristic of the traditional Unimog. It has a total weight from 7.5 to 8.5 tons. The underlying technology comes from the U 300. The driving cab is from the new Brazilian Accelo light truck (Caminhões Leves) series. The wheelbase is shortened to 2700 mm (106.3 in).

Unimog series names and identification notes


Unimog series numbers like 401, 406, or 425 in this article are the factory numerical designation ("Baumuster" in German). Unimogs also have a sales model number like U80, U120, or U1350. Each series can have several model numbers, as they are equipped with different engines.

The "U" model numbers were roughly equivalent to the horsepower of the engine. A 424.121 with a 2630 mm (103.5 in) wheelbase equipped with the 100 hp OM 352 engine is a U1000. A 427.100 with a 2650 mm (104.3 in) wheelbase and the 100-hp 366 engines is also a U1000. Starting in 1976, model numbers have an extra 0 at the end. More recent models like the U5000 are only rated at 218 hp.

Unimog 404

  • Introduced: 1955
  • Discontinued: 1980
  • Width: 2130 millimetres (83.9 in)
  • Length: 4900 mm (192.9 in)
  • Height: 2190 millimetres (86.2 in), cab height: 1600 millimetres (63 in)
  • Cargo bed: 3000 by, 2130 by with double-cab
  • Wheelbase: 2900 millimetres (114.2 in)
  • Turning radius: 13 metres (42.7 ft)
  • Empty weight: 2900 kilograms (6,393.4 lb)
  • Gross weight: 4400 kilograms (9,700.3 lb)
  • Tires: 10.5 x 20 (DOT)
  • Fuel: 2 x 60-litre (15.9 US gal)
  • Ground clearance: 400 millimetres (15.7 in)
  • Fording (w/o equipment): 800 millimetres (31.5 in)
  • Traverse angle
    • On a side slope: 42 degrees
    • Approach: 45 degrees
    • Departure: 46 degrees
  • Climb: 70% grade loaden with 1,5 tons, 100% empty
  • Descent: 90% grade
  • Average fuel consumption (gasoline): 10–14 mpg (US) (24–30 L/100 km)
  • Engine: 2.2-litre straight 6 SOHC (Mercedes Benz M180) 80 HP (60 kW)
    • Shielded Distributor Ignition, 24 Volt Electrical System
    • 2 Barrel Zenith NDIX-32 Carburetor
  • Transmission gearing
    • Forward: 14.93/8.23/4.47/2.46/1.52/1.0
    • Reverse: 20.12/11.09

Unimog U5000 BM437.430


(Short Wheel Base Single Cab)
  • Introduced: 2002
  • Discontinued: In production
  • Width: 2474 mm (97.4 in)
  • Track width: 1920 mm (75.6 in)
  • Length: 5410 mm (213 in)
  • Height: 2740 mm (107.9 in)
  • Wheelbase: 2336 mm (92 in)
  • Turning radius: 14.5 m (47.6 ft)
  • Empty weight: 4300 kg (9,479.9 lb)
  • Gross weight: 11800 kg (26,014.5 lb)
  • Tires: 365/85 R 20
  • Fuel: 145 l (38 US gal; 32 imp gal)
  • Ground clearance: 476 mm (18.7 in) (varies with tyre)
  • Fording 800 mm (31.5 in) (standard)

} (optional equipment)
  • Traverse angle: not published
    • On a side slope: not published
    • Approach: 44 degrees
    • Departure: 53 degrees
  • Climb: Max.45 degrees
  • Descent: Max.45 degrees
  • Average fuel consumption (diesel): not published
  • Engine: 4.8-litre straight 4 Turbocharged OM924LA 218 HP (160 kW)
    • Electronic Speed governor
  • Transmission gearing
    • Forward: 9.570/6.635/4.375/3.219/2.188/1.517/1.000/0.736
    • Reverse: 14.569/10.101/6.660/4.900/3.330/2.309/1.522/1.120
    • Max.speed 80 km/h (limited in EU)

External links