Springfield, Illinois

Springfield, Illinois

Overview
Springfield is the third and current capital of the US state of Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

 and the county seat of Sangamon County
Sangamon County, Illinois
Sangamon County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 197,465, which is an increase of 4.5% from 188,951 in 2000...

 with a population of 117,400 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2010), making it the sixth most populated city in the state and the second most populated Illinois city outside of the Chicago Metropolitan Area. Just over 208,000 residents live in the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area
Springfield, Illinois metropolitan area
The Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in Central Illinois, anchored by the city of Springfield...

, which includes Sangamon County and adjacent Menard County.
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Encyclopedia
Springfield is the third and current capital of the US state of Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

 and the county seat of Sangamon County
Sangamon County, Illinois
Sangamon County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 197,465, which is an increase of 4.5% from 188,951 in 2000...

 with a population of 117,400 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2010), making it the sixth most populated city in the state and the second most populated Illinois city outside of the Chicago Metropolitan Area. Just over 208,000 residents live in the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area
Springfield, Illinois metropolitan area
The Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in Central Illinois, anchored by the city of Springfield...

, which includes Sangamon County and adjacent Menard County. Present day Springfield was first settled in the late 1810s, around the time Illinois became a state. The most famous past resident is Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

, who lived in Springfield itself from 1837 until he went to the White House in 1861. Major tourist attractions include a multitude of historic sites connected with Lincoln. In 1908 a large race riot
Springfield Race Riot of 1908
The Springfield Race Riot of 1908 was a mass civil disturbance in Springfield, Illinois, USA sparked by the transfer of two African American prisoners out of the city jail by the county sheriff. This act enraged many white citizens, who responded by burning black-owned homes and businesses and...

 erupted in the city which culminated in the lynching of two African American residents and led to the founding of the NAACP.

The city lies on a mostly flat plain which encompasses much of the surrounding countryside. There is more hilly terrain near the Sangamon River
Sangamon River
The Sangamon River is a principal tributary of the Illinois River, approximately long, in central Illinois in the United States. It drains a mostly rural agricultural area between Peoria and Springfield...

. Lake Springfield
Lake Springfield
Lake Springfield is a 4,260 acre reservoir located in the city of Springfield, Illinois, southeast of downtown. It is 560 feet above sea level...

, a large artificial lake owned by City Water, Light & Power
City Water, Light & Power
City Water, Light & Power is the largest municipally owned utility in the U.S. state of Illinois.The utility provides the city of Springfield, Illinois with electric power from four coal-fired boilers...

 company called CWLP, supplies the city with recreation and drinking water. Weather is fairly typical for middle latitude locations, with hot summers and cold winters. Spring and summer weather is like that of most midwestern cities; severe thunderstorms are common. Tornadoes hit Springfield in 1957 and 2006.

The city is governed by a mayor-council form of government. The city proper is also the "Capital Township" governmental entity. In addition, the government of the state of Illinois
Government of Illinois
The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. The capital city of Illinois is Springfield. Under the Constitution of 1970, there are three branches of government: executive,...

 is also based in Springfield. State government entities located in the city include the Illinois General Assembly, the Illinois Supreme Court and the Office of the Governor of Illinois
Governor of Illinois
The Governor of Illinois is the chief executive of the State of Illinois and the various agencies and departments over which the officer has jurisdiction, as prescribed in the state constitution. It is a directly elected position, votes being cast by popular suffrage of residents of the state....

. There are three public and two private high schools in Springfield. Public schools in Springfield are operated by District No. 186. The economy of Springfield is marked by government jobs, which account for a large percentage of the work force in the city.

Early History and the naming of Springfield


Springfield's original name was Calhoun, after Senator John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
John Caldwell Calhoun was a leading politician and political theorist from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. Calhoun eloquently spoke out on every issue of his day, but often changed positions. Calhoun began his political career as a nationalist, modernizer, and proponent...

 of South Carolina
South Carolina
South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

. The land that Springfield now occupies was originally settled by trappers and traders who came to the Sangamon River
Sangamon River
The Sangamon River is a principal tributary of the Illinois River, approximately long, in central Illinois in the United States. It drains a mostly rural agricultural area between Peoria and Springfield...

 in 1818. The settlement's first cabin was built in 1820, by John Kelly, its site is at the northwest corner of Second Street and Jefferson Street. In 1821, Calhoun became the county seat of Sangamon County; due to the fertile soil, and trading opportunities. Settlers from Kentucky
Kentucky
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

, Virginia
Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

, and as far as North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

 came to the city. By 1832, Senator Calhoun had fallen out of the favor with the public and the town renamed itself Springfield after Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

. At that time, Springfield, Massachusetts was comparable to modern-day Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley is a term which refers to the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The region is home to many of the world's largest technology corporations...

-- known for industrial innovation, concentrated prosperity, and the celebrated Springfield Armory
Springfield Armory
The Springfield Armory, located in the City of Springfield, Massachusetts - from 1777 until its closing in 1968 - was the primary center for the manufacture of U.S. military firearms. After its controversial closing during the Vietnam War, the Springfield Armory was declared Western Massachusetts'...

. Most importantly, it was a city that had built itself up from frontier outpost to national power through ingenuity - an example that the newly named Springfield, Illinois, sought to emulate. Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia, Illinois
Kaskaskia is a village in Randolph County, Illinois, United States. In the 2010 census the population was 14, making it the second-smallest incorporated community in the State of Illinois in terms of population. A major French colonial town of the Illinois Country, its peak population was about...

 was the first capital of the Illinois Territory from its organization in 1809, continuing through statehood in 1818, and through the first year as a state in 1819. Vandalia
Vandalia, Illinois
Vandalia is a city in Fayette County, Illinois, United States, northeast of St. Louis, on the Kaskaskia River. From 1819 to 1839 it served as the state capital of Illinois. Vandalia was the western terminus of the National Road. Today it is the county seat of Fayette County and the home of the...

 was the second state capital of Illinois from 1819 to 1839. Springfield became the third and current capital of Illinois in 1839. The designation was largely due to the efforts of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 and his associates; nicknamed the "Long Nine" for their combined height of 54 feet (16.5 m).

Lincoln and politics


Lincoln arrived in the Springfield area when he was a young man in 1831, though he would not actually live in the city until 1837. He spent the ensuing six years in New Salem
New Salem, Illinois
New Salem is a village in Pike County, Illinois, United States. The population was 136 at the 2000 census.-Geography:New Salem is located at ....

 where he began his legal studies, joined the state militia and was elected to the Illinois General Assembly
Illinois General Assembly
The Illinois General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Illinois and comprises the Illinois House of Representatives and the Illinois Senate. The General Assembly was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818. Illinois has 59 legislative districts, with two...

. In 1837 Lincoln moved to Springfield and spent the next 24 years as a lawyer and politician; his Farewell speech when he left for Washington is a classic in American oratory.

Winkle (1998) examines the historiography concerning the development of the Second Party System
Second Party System
The Second Party System is a term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to name the political party system existing in the United States from about 1828 to 1854...

 (Whigs versus Democrats) and applies these ideas to the study of Springfield, a strong Whig enclave in a Democratic region, mainly by studying poll books for presidential years. The rise of the Whig Party
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. Considered integral to the Second Party System and operating from the early 1830s to the mid-1850s, the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic...

 took place in 1836 in opposition to the presidential candidacy of Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren was the eighth President of the United States . Before his presidency, he was the eighth Vice President and the tenth Secretary of State, under Andrew Jackson ....

 and was consolidated in 1840. Springfield Whigs tend to validate several expectations of party characteristics as they were largely native-born, either in New England or Kentucky, professional or agricultural in occupation, and devoted to partisan organization. Abraham Lincoln's career mirrors the Whigs' political rise, but by the 1840s Springfield began to fall into Democrat hands, as immigrants changed the city's political makeup. By the 1860 presidential election, Lincoln was barely able to win his home city.

Population


Winkle (1992) examines the impact of migration on political participation in Springfield during the 1850s. Widespread migration in the 19th-century United States produced frequent population turnover within Midwestern communities, which influenced patterns of voter turnout and office-holding. Examination of the manuscript census, poll books, and office-holding records reveals the impact of migration on the behavior of 8,000 participants in 10 elections in Springfield. Most voters were short-term residents who participated in only one or two elections during the 1850s, and fewer than 1% of all voters participated in all 10 elections. Instead of producing political instability, however, rapid turnover enhanced the influence of more persistent residents. Migration was selective by age, occupation, wealth, and birthplace. Therefore, more persistent voters were wealthier, more highly skilled, more often native-born, and socially more stable than nonpersisters. Officeholders were particularly persistent and socially and economically advantaged. Persisters represented a small "core community" of economically successful, socially homogeneous, and politically active voters and officeholders who controlled local political affairs while most residents moved in and out of the city. Members of a tightly knit and exclusive "core community," exemplified by Abraham Lincoln, blunted the potentially disruptive impact of migration on local communities.

Business


The business career of John Williams illustrates the important role of the merchant banker in the economic development of central Illinois before the Civil War. Williams began his career as a clerk in frontier stores and saved to begin his own business. Later, in addition to operating retail and wholesale stores, he acted as a local banker and then organized a national bank in Springfield. He was active in railroad promotion and as an agent for farm machinery.

Religion


During the mid-19th century the spiritual needs of German Lutherans in the Midwest were not being tended. As a result of the efforts of such missionaries as Friedrich Wynecken, Wilhelm Loehe, and Wilhelm Sihler, this situation was remedied by the deployment of additional Lutheran ministers, the opening of Lutheran schools, and the creation in Ft. Wayne of the Concordia Seminary
Concordia Seminary
Concordia Seminary is located in Clayton, Missouri, an inner-ring suburb on the western border of St. Louis, Missouri. The institution's primary mission is to train pastors, deaconesses, missionaries, chaplains, and church leaders for the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod . The current president of...

 in 1846. The Seminary moved to St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

, in 1869, and its practical division moved to Springfield in 1874. Through this seminary, during the last half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod succeeded in serving the spiritual needs of Midwestern congregations by establishing additional seminaries, and by developing a viable synodical tradition.

Civil War to 1900


The American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 made Springfield a major center of activity. Illinois regiments trained there, the first ones under Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States as well as military commander during the Civil War and post-war Reconstruction periods. Under Grant's command, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military and ended the Confederate States of America...

, who marched his soldiers to a remarkable series of victories in 1861–62. The city was a political and financial center of support, and new industries, businesses, and railroads were constructed to help support the war effort. The war's first official death was a Springfield resident, Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth
Elmer E. Ellsworth
-External links:* * * * * *...

.

Camp Butler, seven miles (11 km) northeast of Springfield, Illinois, opened in August 1861 as a training camp for Illinois soldiers, but also served as a camp for Confederate prisoners of war through 1865. In the beginning, Springfield residents visited the camp to experience the excitement of a military venture, but many reacted sympathetically to mortally wounded and ill prisoners. While the city's businesses prospered from camp traffic, drunken behavior and rowdiness on the part of the soldiers stationed there strained relations as neither civil nor military authorities proved able to control disorderly outbreaks.

After the war ended in 1865, Springfield became a major hub in the Illinois railroad system and besides politics and farming, coal mining was a major industry for Springfield by 1900.

Utopia


Local poet Vachel Lindsay's notions of utopia were expressed in his only novel, The Golden Book of Springfield (1920), which draws on ideas of anarchistic socialism
Social anarchism
Social anarchism is a term originally used in 1971 by Giovanni Baldelli as the title of his book where he discusses the organization of an ethical society from an anarchist point of view...

 in projecting the progress of Lindsay's hometown toward utopia.

The Dana-Thomas House is a Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture...

 creation built in 1902–03. Wright began work on the house in 1902. Commissioned by local patron of the arts and public benefactor Susan Lawrence Dana, Wright's architecture harmonized with the owner's devotion to the performance of music. Coordinating art glass designs for 250 windows, doors, and panels as well as over 200 light fixtures, Wright enlisted Oak Park artisans. The house is a radical departure from Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 architectural traditions and is the only historic site in Illinois acquired exclusively because of its architectural merit. Covering 12000 square feet (1,114.8 m²), the house contained vaulted ceilings and 16 major spaces. As the nation was changing, so Wright intended this structure to reflect the changes. Creating an organic and natural atmosphere, Wright saw himself as an "architect of democracy" and intended his work to be a monument to America's social landscape. It was opened to the public in September 1990; tours are available, 9:00 am–4 pm Wednesdays through Sundays.

1908 race riot



Sparked by the alleged rape of a white woman by a black man and the murder of a white engineer, supposedly also by a black man, in Springfield, and reportedly angered by the high degree of corruption in the city, some of the white citizenry took their anxiety and frustration out on blacks. Rioting broke out on August 14, 1908 and continued for three days in a period of violence known as the Springfield Race Riot
Springfield Race Riot of 1908
The Springfield Race Riot of 1908 was a mass civil disturbance in Springfield, Illinois, USA sparked by the transfer of two African American prisoners out of the city jail by the county sheriff. This act enraged many white citizens, who responded by burning black-owned homes and businesses and...

. Gangs of white youth and blue-collar workers attacked the predominantly black areas of the city known as the Levee district, where most black businesses were located, and the Badlands, where many black residences stood. Two blacks were lynched and four whites were killed by gunfire when black property-owners sought to defend their homes and businesses. The riot ended when the governor sent in more than 3,700 militiamen to patrol the city, but isolated incidences of violence against blacks continued in Springfield into September.

21st century



On March 12, 2006, Two EF2 tornadoes hit the city, injuring 24 people, damaged hundreds of buildings, and caused $150 million in damages.

On February 10, 2007, then-senator Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 announced his presidential candidacy in Springfield, standing on the grounds of the Old State Capitol. Senator Obama also used the Old State Capitol in Springfield as a backdrop when he announced Joe Biden
Joe Biden
Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden, Jr. is the 47th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President Barack Obama...

 as his running mate on August 23, 2008.

Geography


Springfield is located at 39.783250°N 89.650373°W. The city is at an elevation of 586 feet (178.6 m) above sea level. Located within the central section of Illinois, Springfield is 90 miles northeast of St. Louis. The Champaign/Urbana area is to the east, Peoria, Illinois
Peoria, Illinois
Peoria is the largest city on the Illinois River and the county seat of Peoria County, Illinois, in the United States. It is named after the Peoria tribe. As of the 2010 census, the city was the seventh-most populated in Illinois, with a population of 115,007, and is the third-most populated...

 is to the north, and Bloomington/Normal is to the northeast.

Topography


According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 60.3 square miles (156.2 km²), of which 54 square miles (139.9 km²) is land and 6.3 square miles (16.3 km²) (10.46%) is water. The city is located in the Lower Illinois River
Illinois River
The Illinois River is a principal tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately long, in the State of Illinois. The river drains a large section of central Illinois, with a drainage basin of . This river was important among Native Americans and early French traders as the principal water route...

 Basin, in a large area known as Till Plain. Sangamon County, and the city of Springfield, are in the Springfield Plain subsection of Till Plain. The Plain is underlain by glacial till
Till
thumb|right|Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material , and this characteristic, known as matrix support, is diagnostic of till....

 that was deposited by a large continental ice sheet that repeatedly covered the area during the Illinoian Stage.

The majority of the Lower Illinois River Basin is flat, with relief extending no more than 20 feet (6.1 m) in most areas, including the Springfield subsection of the plain. The differences in topography are based on the age of drift. The Springfield and Galesburg Plain subsections represent the oldest drift, Illinoian, while Wisconsinian drift resulted in end moraines
Moraine
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions, such as those areas acted upon by a past glacial maximum. This debris may have been plucked off a valley floor as a glacier advanced or it may have...

 on the Bloomington Ridged Plain subsection of Till Plain.

Lake Springfield
Lake Springfield
Lake Springfield is a 4,260 acre reservoir located in the city of Springfield, Illinois, southeast of downtown. It is 560 feet above sea level...

 is a 4200 acres (1,699.7 ha) man-made reservoir owned by City Water, Light & Power
City Water, Light & Power
City Water, Light & Power is the largest municipally owned utility in the U.S. state of Illinois.The utility provides the city of Springfield, Illinois with electric power from four coal-fired boilers...

, the largest municipally owned utility in Illinois. It was built and filled in 1935. The lake is used primarily as a source for drinking water for the city of Springfield, also providing cooling water for the condensers at the power plant on the lake. It attracts approximately 600,000 visitors annually and its 57 miles (92 km) of shoreline is home to over 700 lakeside residences and eight public parks.

The term "full pool" describes the lake at 560 feet (170.7 m) above sea level and indicates the level at which the lake begins to flow over the dam's spillway
Spillway
A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area, typically being the river that was dammed. In the UK they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways release floods so that the water does not overtop and damage or even destroy...

, if no gates are opened. Normal lake levels are generally somewhere below full pool, depending upon the season. During the drought from 1953 to 1955, lake levels dropped to their historical low, 547.44 feet (166.86 m) AMSL. The highest recorded lake levels were in December 1982, when the lake crested at 564 feet (172 m).

Climate


Springfield has a humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfa) and experiences typical mid-latitude weather. Hot, humid summers and cold, rather snowy winters are the norm. Illinois also experiences large numbers of tornadoes. From 1961 to 1990 the city of Springfield averaged 35.25 inches (895 mm) of precipitation per year. During that same period the average yearly temperature was 52.4 °F (11.3 °C), with a summer maximum of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July and a winter minimum of 24.2 °F (-4.3 °C) in January.

From 1971 to 2000, NOAA data showed that Springfield's annual mean temperature increased slightly to 52.7 °F (11.5 °C). During that period, July averaged 76.3 °F (24.6 °C), while January averaged 25.1 °F (-3.8 °C).

In 1957 a tornado hit Springfield, killing two people. On March 12, 2006, the city was struck by two F2 tornadoes. The storm system which brought the two tornado
Tornado
A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider...

es hit the city around 8:30pm; no one died as a result of the weather. Springfield received a federal grant in February 2005 to help improve its tornado warning systems and new sirens were put in place in November 2006 after eight of the sirens failed during an April 2006 test, shortly after the tornado hit. The cost of the new sirens totaled $983,000. Although tornadoes are not uncommon in central Illinois, the March 12 tornadoes were the first to hit the actual city since the 1957 storm. The 2006 tornados followed nearly identical paths to that of the 1957 tornado.

Cityscape



Springfield proper is greatly based on a grid street system, with numbered streets starting with the longitudinal First Street which leads to the Illinois State Capitol and leading to 32nd Street in the far eastern part of the city. Previously the city had four distinct boundary streets: North, South, East, and West Grand Avenues. Since expansion, West Grand Avenue became MacArthur Boulevard and East Grand became 19th Street on the north side and 18th Street on the south side. 18th Street has since been renamed after Martin Luther King Jr.  North and South Grand Avenues (which run east–west) have remained important corridors in the city. At South Grand and Eleventh Street, the old "South Town District" lies, with the City of Springfield undertaking a huge redevelopment project there.

Latitudinal streets range from names of presidents in the downtown area to names of notable people in Springfield and Illinois to names of institutions of higher education, especially in the Harvard Park neighborhood.

Springfield has at least twenty separately designated neighborhoods, though not all are incorporated with associations. They include: Benedictine District, Bunn Park, the Cabbage Patch, Eastside, Enos Park, Glen Aire, Harvard Park, Hawthorne Place, Historic West Side, Laketown, Lincoln Park, Medical District, Near South, Northgate, Oak Ridge, Old Aristocracy Hill, Shalom, Springfield Lakeshore, Twin Lakes, UIS Campus, Victoria Lake, Vinegar Hill, and Westchester neighborhoods.

The Lincoln Park Neighborhood is an area bordered by 3rd Street on its west, Black Avenue on the north, 8th street on the east and North Grand Avenue. The neighborhood is not far from Lincoln's Tomb on Monument Avenue.

Springfield also encompasses four different suburban villages that have their own municipal governments. They include Jerome
Jerome, Illinois
Jerome is a village in Sangamon County, Illinois, United States. The population was 1,414 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Springfield, Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Jerome is located at ....

, Leland Grove
Leland Grove, Illinois
Leland Grove is a city in Sangamon County, Illinois adjacent to Springfield. It is part of the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 1,592 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Leland Grove is located at ....

, Southern View
Southern View, Illinois
Southern View is a village in Sangamon County, Illinois, United States. The population was 1,695 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Springfield, Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Southern View is located at ....

 and Grandview
Grandview, Illinois
Grandview is a village in Sangamon County, Illinois, United States. The population was 1,537 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Springfield, Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area....

.

Culture



Springfield has been home to a wide array of individuals, who, in one way or another, contributed to the broader American culture. Wandering poet Vachel Lindsay
Vachel Lindsay
Nicholas Vachel Lindsay was an American poet. He is considered the father of modern singing poetry, as he referred to it, in which verses are meant to be sung or chanted...

, most famous for his poem "The Congo" and a booklet called "Rhymes to be Traded for Bread", was born in Springfield in 1879.
At least two notable people affiliated with American business and industry have called the Illinois state capital home at one time or another. Both John L. Lewis
John L. Lewis
John Llewellyn Lewis was an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960...

, a labor activist, and Marjorie Merriweather Post
Marjorie Merriweather Post
-External links:******...

, the founder of the General Foods Corporation, lived in the city; Post in particular was a native of Springfield. In addition, astronomer Seth Barnes Nicholson
Seth Barnes Nicholson
Seth Barnes Nicholson was an American astronomer.Nicholson was born in Springfield, Illinois and was raised in rural Illinois...

 was born in Springfield in 1891.
The industrialists and financiers Jacob Bunn and John Whitfield Bunn resided in Springfield and in Chicago, and contributed greatly to the economic development of both Springfield and Sangamon County, as well as to the economic growth of Chicago.

Literary tradition


Springfield and the Sangamon Valley enjoy a lush literary tradition in Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

, Vachel Lindsay
Vachel Lindsay
Nicholas Vachel Lindsay was an American poet. He is considered the father of modern singing poetry, as he referred to it, in which verses are meant to be sung or chanted...

, Edgar Lee Masters
Edgar Lee Masters
Edgar Lee Masters was an American poet, biographer, and dramatist...

, John Hay, William H. Herndon, Benjamin P. Thomas, Paul Angle, Virginia Eiffert, Robert Fitzgerald and William Maxwell, among others. Heritage and legacy endure today in Illinois’ state capital, where four institutions of higher learning; a state-of-the-art, world-class library and museum; and a solid society of artistic interests each coalesce to produce a region steeped in the pursuit of the very arts and letters that produce wellsprings for a life rich in meaning, learning, and public service.

Performing arts


The Hoogland Center for the Arts in downtown Springfield is a centerpiece for performing arts, and houses among other organizations the Springfield Theatre Centre, the Springfield Ballet Company, the Illinois Symphony Orchestra and the Springfield Municipal Opera
Springfield Municipal Opera
Originally conceived on April 21, 1950 as a not-for-profit theatrical organization, the Springfield Municipal Opera Association transformed a wheat field into an outdoor amphitheater...

, also known as The Muni, which stages community theatre productions of Broadway musicals outdoors each summer. A few films have been created or had elements of them created in Springfield. Legally Blonde 2 was filmed in Springfield in 2003. Musicians Artie Matthews
Artie Matthews
Artie Matthews was a songwriter, pianist, and ragtime composer.Artie Matthews was born in Braidwood, Illinois; his family moved to Springfield, Illinois in his youth. He learned to play piano, mostly popular songs and light classics, until he heard ragtime played by a pianist named Banty Morgan...

 and Morris Day
Morris Day
Morris E. Day is an American musician and composer. He is best known as the lead singer of The Time.-1970s and 1980s:...

 both once called Springfield home. Other performing arts such as music and ballet are also common in Springfield.

Tourism



Springfield has long had an affiliation with food. The corn dog on a stick
Corn dog
A corn dog is a hot dog sausage coated in a thick layer of cornmeal batter and deep fried in oil, although some are baked. Almost all corn dogs are served on wooden sticks, though some early versions had no stick.-History:...

 is claimed to have been invented in the city under the name “Cozy Dog,” although there is some debate to the actual origin of the popular snack. The horseshoe sandwich
Horseshoe sandwich
The horseshoe sandwich originated in Springfield, Illinois. This open-faced sandwich begins with thick-sliced toasted bread, and most often hamburger patties, or ham. Other meat is also used, such as deep fried pork tenderloin, grilled or fried chicken breast, and fried fish filets. There is also...

, not well known outside of central Illinois, also originated in Springfield. Springfield was also once home to the Reisch Beer
Reisch Beer
Reisch Beer was a brewery established in the city of Springfield, Illinois by Franz Sales Reisch in 1849. The brewery operated until 1920 when it was forced to close because of Prohibition. It reopened in 1933 and stayed open until it shut its doors permanently in 1966.-External links:*, great,...

 brewery.


The alleged first U.S. drive-thru window is still in operation in Springfield at the Maid-Rite Sandwich Shop. The city is also known for its chili
Chili con carne
Chili con carne is a spicy stew. The name of the dish derives from the Spanish chile con carne, "chili pepper with meat". Traditional versions are made, minimally, from chili peppers, garlic, onions, and cumin, along with chopped or ground beef. Beans and tomatoes are frequently included...

, or “chilli”, as it is known in many chili shops throughout Sangamon County. The unique spelling is said to have begun with the founder of the Den Chilli Parlor in 1909, due to a spelling error in the chili parlor’s sign. Another interpretation is that the misspelling represented the “Ill” in the word Illinois. In 1993 the Illinois state legislature adopted a resolution proclaiming Springfield the “Chilli Capital of the Civilized World.”

The city of Springfield is dotted with sites centered around U.S. President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

, who started his political career in Springfield. These include: the Lincoln Home National Historic Site
Lincoln Home National Historic Site
Lincoln Home National Historic Site preserves the Springfield, Illinois home where Abraham Lincoln lived from 1844 to 1861, before becoming the 16th President of the United States...

, a National Historical Park
National Historical Park
National Historic Sites are protected areas of national historic significance in the United States. A National Historic Site usually contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject...

 that includes the preserved surrounding neighborhood, the Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices State Historic Site
Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices State Historic Site
The Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices State Historic Site is a historic brick building built in 1841 in the U.S. state of Illinois. It is located at 6th and Adams Streets in Springfield, Illinois...

, the Lincoln Tomb State Historic Site, the Old State Capitol State Historic Site
Old State Capitol State Historic Site
The Old State Capitol State Historic Site, in Springfield, Illinois, is the fifth capitol building built for the U.S. state of Illinois. It was built in the Greek Revival style in 1837-40, and served as the state house in 1840-1876...

, the Lincoln Depot
Lincoln Depot
Lincoln Depot is located in Springfield, Illinois. It is so called because Abraham Lincoln's bittersweet Farewell Address to Springfield was spoken here.-History:...

 from which Abraham Lincoln departed Springfield to be inaugurated in Washington D.C., the Elijah Iles House, Edwards Place and the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum
Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum
The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum documents the life of the 16th U.S. President, Abraham Lincoln, and the course of the American Civil War. Combining traditional scholarship with 21st century showmanship techniques, the popular museum continues to rank as one of the most visited...

. Near the village of Petersburg
Petersburg, Illinois
Petersburg is a city in Menard County, Illinois, on the bluffs and part of the floodplain overlooking the Sangamon River. It is part of the Springfield, Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 2,299 at the 2000 census, and 2,185 at a 2009 estimate. It is the county seat of Menard...

, is New Salem
New Salem, Illinois
New Salem is a village in Pike County, Illinois, United States. The population was 136 at the 2000 census.-Geography:New Salem is located at ....

 State Park, a restored hamlet of log cabins, recreating the town where Lincoln lived as a young man. With the opening of the Presidential Library and Museum in 2004, the city has seen a number of prominent visitors, including President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

, actor Liam Neeson
Liam Neeson
Liam John Neeson, OBE is an Irish actor who has been nominated for an Oscar, a BAFTA and three Golden Globe Awards.He has starred in a number of notable roles including Oskar Schindler in Schindler's List, Michael Collins in Michael Collins, Peyton Westlake in Darkman, Jean Valjean in Les...

, and the Emir of Qatar.

The Donner Party
Donner Party
The Donner Party was a group of American pioneers who set out for California in a wagon train. Delayed by a series of mishaps, they spent the winter of 1846–47 snowbound in the Sierra Nevada...

, a group of pioneers who resorted to cannibalism while snowbound in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, began their journey in Springfield. Springfield's Dana-Thomas House is among the best preserved and most complete of Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture...

's early "Prairie" houses. It was built in 1902–1904 and has many of the furnishings Wright designed for it. Springfield's Washington Park is home to Thomas Rees Memorial Carillon
Carillon
A carillon is a musical instrument that is typically housed in a free-standing bell tower, or the belfry of a church or other municipal building. The instrument consists of at least 23 cast bronze, cup-shaped bells, which are played serially to play a melody, or sounded together to play a chord...

 and the site of an annual carillon festival, held since 1962. In August, the city is the site of the Illinois State Fair
Illinois State Fair
The Illinois State Fair is an annual festival, centering on the theme of agriculture, hosted by the U.S. state of Illinois in the state capital, Springfield. The state fair has been celebrated almost every year since 1853. In 2008 there were more than 700,000 visits, up five percent from 2005,...

.

Although not born in Springfield, Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 is the city's most famous resident. He lived there for 24 years. The only home he ever owned is open to the public, seven days a week, free of charge, and operated by the National Park Service.

Springfield is home to the areas largest Amusement park: Knights Action Park and Carribean Water Park which is Open from May to September.

Sports


Historically, Springfield has been home to a number of minor league baseball
Minor league baseball
Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of professional baseball leagues in the Americas that compete at levels below Major League Baseball and provide opportunities for player development. All of the minor leagues are operated as independent businesses...

 franchises, the latest club, the Springfield Sliders, arriving in the city in 2008. The city was the home of the Springfield Stallions
Springfield Stallions
The Springfield Stallions were an indoor football team that played their home games at the Prairie Capital Convention Center. They were a 2007 expansion member of the Continental Indoor Football League....

, an indoor football team who played at the Prairie Capital Convention Center
Prairie Capital Convention Center
The Prairie Capital Convention Center is a 7,700-seat multi-purpose arena in Springfield, Illinois.It was built in 1978 and is governed by the Springfield Metropolitan Exposition and Auditorium Authority ....

 in 2007. Today, the city is host to the Springfield Junior Blues
Springfield Jr. Blues
The Springfield Jr. Blues are a Tier II Junior A ice hockey team in the North American Hockey League's Mid-west Division. The team plays their home games at the Nelson Center in Springfield, Illinois. The Jr. Blues are coached by Head Coach Joe Dibble and Assistant Coach Jason...

, a North American Hockey League team that plays at the Nelson Recreation Center. The city is also a host to several Semi Pro Football Teams. The oldest organization is the Capital City Outlaws which was established in 1992. The Outlaws which played 11 man football, most recently in The Midwest Football League until 2004, switched to an 8 man Semi Pro Football League (8FL) in 2004. The Sangamon County Seminoles became an expansion team in the 8FL in 2008. A newly formed team in 2010, the Springfield Foxes, plays in the Mid States Football League (11 man).

The city has produced several notable professional sports talents. Current and former Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

 players, Kevin Seitzer
Kevin Seitzer
Kevin Lee Seitzer is a former third baseman in Major League Baseball with the Kansas City Royals, Milwaukee Brewers, Oakland Athletics, and Cleveland Indians.-Career:...

, Jeff Fassero
Jeff Fassero
Jeffrey Joseph Fassero is a former Major League Baseball pitcher.-Montreal Expos:Fassero was drafted by the St. Louis Cardinals in the 22nd round of the amateur draft, but he bounced around in the minors for several years until he joined the Montreal Expos in...

, Ryan O'Malley
Ryan O'Malley
Ryan Joseph O'Malley is a former Major League Baseball pitcher. He played for the Chicago Cubs in . O'Malley made his major league debut for the Cubs on August 16, 2006, against the Houston Astros. He pitched eight innings, giving up five hits, six walks, two strikeouts and no runs in a 1-0 win...

, Jason and Justin Knoedler
Justin Knoedler
Justin Joseph Knoedler is a former Major League Baseball catcher.Knoedler was originally drafted by the St. Louis Cardinals in the 41st round in the 1998 Major League Baseball Draft out of Springfield High School but did not sign with them...

, and Hall of Famer Robin Roberts
Robin Roberts (baseball player)
Robin Evan Roberts was a Major League Baseball starting pitcher who pitched primarily for the Philadelphia Phillies . He spent the latter part of his career with the Baltimore Orioles , Houston Astros , and Chicago Cubs...

 were all born in Springfield. Former MLB player Dick "Ducky" Schofield
Ducky Schofield
John Richard "Ducky" Schofield was a Major League Baseball infielder.Schofield made his Major League Baseball debut with the St. Louis Cardinals on July 3, 1953, and appeared in his final game on September 30, 1971. Ducky was a member of the 1960 World Champion Pittsburgh Pirates and played a...

 is currently an elected official in Springfield, and his son Dick Schofield
Dick Schofield
Richard Craig "Dick" Schofield was a Major League Baseball shortstop who played 14 seasons, spanning from 1983–96. Schofield played the majority of his career with the California Angels, but also played on the 1993 Toronto Blue Jays team that eventually won the World Series...

 also played in the Major Leagues, as does Ducky's grandson, Jayson Werth
Jayson Werth
Jayson Richard Gowan Werth is an American professional baseball outfielder for the Washington Nationals of Major League Baseball. He has previously played for the Toronto Blue Jays, Los Angeles Dodgers, and Philadelphia Phillies. He bats and throws right-handed.-Background:Werth was born in...

. Ducky, Dick, and Jayson were all born in Springfield. Ducky's daughter (and Jayson's mother) Kim Schofield Werth, also from Springfield, is a track star who competed in the U.S. Olympic Trials. National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

 players Dave Robisch
Dave Robisch
David George Robisch is a retired American professional basketball player in the ABA and NBA. Robisch played at the University of Kansas, where he was initiated into the Sigma Nu Fraternity...

, Kevin Gamble
Kevin Gamble
Kevin Douglas Gamble is a retired American professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association. At 6'5" he played as both a shooting guard and small forward...

, and Andre Iguodala
Andre Iguodala
Andre Tyler Iguodala is an American professional basketball player who plays small forward for the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association . Iguodala is listed at 6 ft 6 in and 207 lbs. . Iguodala played his high school basketball for Lanphier High School in Springfield, Illinois...

 are also all from the city. Long-time NFL announcer (NBC) and former Cincinnati Bengal Pro Bowl tight end Bob Trumpy is a city native, having graduated from Springfield High School. Former NFL wide receiver, Otto Stowe
Otto Stowe
Otto Stowe is a former American football wide receiver who played 4 seasons in the NFL for the Denver Broncos, Dallas Cowboys, and Miami Dolphins. He played college football at Iowa State University where he was elected to the Hall of Fame in 2008.-References:...

, was a 1967 graduate of the now defunct Feitshans High School. A UFC fighter, Matt Mitrione
Matt Mitrione
Matthew Steven Mitrione is an American mixed martial artist and former NFL football player, playing for the New York Giants and Minnesota Vikings. He was a cast member of Spike TV's The Ultimate Fighter: Heavyweights....

, attended and played football for Sacred Heart Griffin. He also played in the NFL as an undrafted free agent for several teams.

Media


The State Journal-Register
State Journal-Register
The State Journal-Register is the only local daily newspaper for Springfield, Illinois and its surrounding area. It was founded in 1831 as the Sangamon Journal, and claims to be "the oldest newspaper in Illinois." The State-Journal merged with its afternoon rival, the Illinois State Register, in...

is the primary daily newspaper for Springfield, and its surrounding area. The newspaper was originally founded in 1831 as the Sangamon Journal, and claims to be "the oldest newspaper in Illinois." The local alternative weekly is the Illinois Times
Illinois Times
Illinois Times is a weekly free newspaper based in Springfield, Illinois. Founded in 1975, the newspaper was acquired in 1977 by Fletcher Farrar Sr., a Mount Vernon, Ill., businessman who employed his son, Fletcher "Bud" Farrar Jr., as editor. The senior Farrar died in 1995; his son sold the...

. There are four TV channels which include WCIX MYTV 49, WICS
WICS
WICS is the ABC-affiliated television station for Springfield and Decatur, Illinois. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 42 from a transmitter south of Dawson and I-72/US 36. The station can also be seen on Comcast channel 2 and Suddenlink channel 10...

 ABC 20, WRSP FOX 55, and WSEC PBS 14. Springfield is also served by an NBC affiliate in Decatur
Decatur, Illinois
Decatur is the largest city and the county seat of Macon County in the U.S. state of Illinois. The city, sometimes called "the Soybean Capital of the World", was founded in 1823 and is located along the Sangamon River and Lake Decatur in Central Illinois. In 2000 the city population was 81,500,...

 (WAND-TV) and a CBS affiliate in Champaign (WCIA). One television station that has since ceased to exist was WJJY-TV
WJJY-TV
WJJY-TV was a short-lived television station station based in Jacksonville, Illinois that was on the air from 1969 to 1971. It was the ABC television affiliate for Quincy, Illinois, and also reached Springfield as well.-History:...

, which operated in the Springfield area for three years (1969–1971).

Radio stations

Economy


Many of the jobs in the city center around state government, headquartered in Springfield. As of 2002, the State of Illinois is both the city and county's largest employer, employing 17,000 people across Sangamon County. As of February 2007, government jobs, including local, state and county, account for about 30,000 of the city's non-agricultural jobs. Trade, transportation and utilities, and the health care industries each provide between 17,000 and 18,000 jobs to the city. The largest private sector employer in 2002 was Memorial Health Systems. 3,400 people worked for that company. According to estimates from the "Living Wage Calculator", maintained by Pennsylvania State University
Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University, commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU, is a public research university with campuses and facilities throughout the state of Pennsylvania, United States. Founded in 1855, the university has a threefold mission of teaching, research, and public service...

, the living wage
Living wage
In public policy, a living wage is the minimum hourly income necessary for a worker to meet basic needs . These needs include shelter and other incidentals such as clothing and nutrition...

 for the city of Springfield is $7.50 per hour for one adult, approximately $13,000 working 2,000 hours per year. For a family of four costs are increased and the living wage is $19.49 per hour within the city. According to the United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) the Civilian Labor force dropped from 116,500 in September 2006 to 113,400 in February 2007. In addition, the unemployment rate rose during the same time period from 3.8% to 5.1%.

Largest Employers


According to the City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the largest employers in the city are:
# Employer # of Employees
1 State of Illinois 17,200
2 Memorial Medical Center
Memorial Medical Center (Springfield, Illinois)
Memorial Medical Center is an acute care hospital in Springfield, Illinois, that offers comprehensive inpatient and outpatient services. It includes the Memorial Heart and Vascular Institute, the Center for Neuromuscular Sciences, Emergency Services, Family Maternity Suites, Regional Cancer Center,...

5,899
3 St. John's Hospital 3,267
4 Springfield Public Schools
Springfield Public Schools
The Springfield Public Schools is a comprehensive community public school district serving students in Kindergarten through 12th grade from Springfield Township, in Union County, New Jersey, United States....

2,240
5 University of Illinois at Springfield
University of Illinois at Springfield
The University of Illinois at Springfield is a public university in Springfield, Illinois. The University was established in 1969 as Sangamon State University by the Illinois General Assembly and became a part of the University of Illinois system on July 1, 1995.The University of Illinois at...

2,092
6 Springfield Clinic 1,847
7 Illinois National Guard
Illinois National Guard
The Illinois National Guard comprises both Army National Guard and Air National Guard components. The National Guard is the only United States military force empowered to function in a state status. The Constitution of the United States specifically charges the National Guard with dual federal and...

1,819
8 City of Springfield 1,726
9 Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine is an allopathic medical school located in Springfield, Illinois, the state capital. It is part of the Southern Illinois University system, which includes a campus in Edwardsville as well as the flagship in Carbondale. The medical school was founded...

1,661
10 AT&T Mobility 1,254

Demographics



As of the census of 2000, there were 111,454 people, 48,621 households, and 27,957 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 2,063.9 people per square mile (796.9/km²). There were 53,733 housing units at an average density of 995.0 per square mile (384.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.01% White, 15.34% African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.45% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 1.49% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.20% of the population.

There were 48,621 households, out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.5% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.94.

In the city the population was spread out, with 28.0% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $39,388, and the median income for a family was $51,298. Families with children had a higher income of about $69,437. Males had a median income of $36,864 versus $28,867 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $23,324. About 8.4% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over.

Law and government


Springfield city government is structured under the mayor-council form of government. It is the strong mayor variation of that type of municipal government, the mayor holds executive authority, including veto
Veto
A veto, Latin for "I forbid", is the power of an officer of the state to unilaterally stop an official action, especially enactment of a piece of legislation...

 power, in Springfield. The executive branch also consists of 17 non-elected city "offices." Ranging from the police department to the Office of Public Works, each office can be altered through city ordinance.

Elected officials in the city, mayor, aldermen, city clerk, and treasurer, serve four year terms. The elections are not staggered. The council members are elected from ten districts throughout the city while the mayor, city clerk and city treasurer are elected on an at-large basis. The council, as a body, consists of the ten aldermen and the mayor, though the mayor is generally a non-voting member who only participates in the discussion. There are a few instances where the mayor does vote on ordinances or resolutions: if there is a tie vote, if more than half of the aldermen support the motion, whether there is a tie or not, and where a vote greater than the majority is required by the municipal code.

As the state capital, Springfield, is home to the three branches of Illinois government
Government of Illinois
The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. The capital city of Illinois is Springfield. Under the Constitution of 1970, there are three branches of government: executive,...

. Much like the United States federal government, Illinois government has an executive branch, occupied by the state governor, a legislative branch, which consists of the state senate and house, and a judicial branch, which is topped by the Illinois Supreme Court. The Illinois legislative branch is collectively known as the Illinois General Assembly
Illinois General Assembly
The Illinois General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Illinois and comprises the Illinois House of Representatives and the Illinois Senate. The General Assembly was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818. Illinois has 59 legislative districts, with two...

.

Township



The Capital Township formed from Springfield Township
Springfield Township, Sangamon County, Illinois
Springfield Township is located in Sangamon County, Illinois. It is made up of unincorporated areas bordering on the city of Springfield, which should not be confused with the township of the same name. The population of Springfield Township was 7,046 at the 2000 census.- External links :***...

 on July 1, 1877, and was established and named by the Sangamon County Board on March 6, 1878, and the limits of the township and City of Springfield were made co-extensive on February 17, 1892 to better serve the people. There are three functions of this township: assessing property, collection first property tax payment, and assisting residents that live in the township. One thing that makes the Capital township unique is that the township never has to raise taxes for road work, since the roads are maintained by the Springfield Department of Public Works.

Education


Springfield is home to at least eight public and private high schools.

The Springfield public school district is District No. 186. District 186 operates 24 elementary schools and an early learning center, (pre-K). District 186 operates three high schools, Lanphier High School
Lanphier High School
Lanphier High School, in the capital of the U.S. state of Illinois, Springfield, is a public high school affiliated with Springfield Public School District 186...

, Springfield High School
Springfield High School (Illinois)
Springfield High School is a public secondary school located in Springfield, Illinois. It is the oldest of the three high schools in Springfield Public Schools District 186 . The school draws mainly from the west side of Springfield.While the school opened in 1857, the current building was...

 and Springfield Southeast High School
Southeast High School (Springfield, Illinois)
Springfield Southeast High School is a public high school located in Springfield, Illinois. Southeast is the youngest high school serving Springfield Public Schools District 186, the oldest and second oldest being Springfield High School and Lanphier High School respectively...

, which replaced Feitshan's High School in 1974, and five middle schools.

Springfield hosts three Universities. One is the University of Illinois at Springfield
University of Illinois at Springfield
The University of Illinois at Springfield is a public university in Springfield, Illinois. The University was established in 1969 as Sangamon State University by the Illinois General Assembly and became a part of the University of Illinois system on July 1, 1995.The University of Illinois at...

, which is located on the southeast side of the city. The second is Benedictine University at Springfield located on North Fifth Street, and the third is Robert Morris University (Illinois), located on Montvale, just off Wabash. Springfield is also home to a junior college Lincoln Land Community College
Lincoln Land Community College
Lincoln Land Community College is a comprehensive community college with its main campus in Springfield, IL. The LLCC district is the largest in the state and covers all or parts of 15 counties...

.

The city is home to the Springfield campus of the Southern Illinois University
Southern Illinois University
Southern Illinois University is a state university system based in Carbondale, Illinois, in the Southern Illinois region of the state, with multiple campuses...

 School of Medicine, which includes a Cancer Institute in Springfield's Medical District.

Springfield's Sacred Heart-Griffin High School
Sacred Heart-Griffin High School
Sacred Heart-Griffin High School, often abbreviated SHG, is Springfield, Illinois' largest private high school. The school is Roman Catholic and is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield in Illinois. On the school's campus is a motherhouse for a Dominican order of religious...

 is a city Catholic high school. Other area high schools include Calvary Academy and Lutheran High School
Lutheran High School (Springfield, Illinois)
Lutheran High School in the capital of the U.S. state of Illinois, Springfield, is a private, Lutheran high school that was founded in 1978 . The school is accredited by the Illinois State Board of Education and the National Lutheran School Accreditation...

.

Health systems


There are two Springfield hospitals, Memorial Medical Center
Memorial Medical Center (Springfield, Illinois)
Memorial Medical Center is an acute care hospital in Springfield, Illinois, that offers comprehensive inpatient and outpatient services. It includes the Memorial Heart and Vascular Institute, the Center for Neuromuscular Sciences, Emergency Services, Family Maternity Suites, Regional Cancer Center,...

 and St. John's Hospital. A third hospital, named Doctor's Hospital operated on Springfield's south side until 1999.

St. John's Hospital is home to the Prairie Heart Institute, which performs more cardiovascular procedures than any other hospital in Illinois. The dominant health care provider in the area is Springfield Clinic. The major medical education concern in the area is the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine is an allopathic medical school located in Springfield, Illinois, the state capital. It is part of the Southern Illinois University system, which includes a campus in Edwardsville as well as the flagship in Carbondale. The medical school was founded...

.

Parks


The Springfield Park District operates more than 30 parks throughout the city. The two best-known are Carpenter Park
Carpenter Park
Carpenter Park is a 322-acre park on the north bank of the Sangamon River on the far north side of the city of Springfield, Illinois. The park is a listed Illinois Nature Preserve and has been designated as an Important Bird Area of Illinois...

, an Illinois Nature Preserve on the banks of the Sangamon River
Sangamon River
The Sangamon River is a principal tributary of the Illinois River, approximately long, in central Illinois in the United States. It drains a mostly rural agricultural area between Peoria and Springfield...

, and Washington Park and Botanical Garden on the city's southwest side and adjacent to some of Springfield's most beautiful and architecturally interesting homes. Lincoln Park, located next to Oak Ridge Cemetery where President Lincoln's tomb is located, is home to the Nelson Recreation Center, which boasts a public swimming pool, tennis courts, and the city's only public ice rink, home of the Springfield Junior Blues, a minor league hockey team. Centennial Park, which rests on the outskirts of Springfield's southwest limits, holds the city's only public skatepark, as well as several ball fields, tennis courts, and a manmade hill for cardio exercises and sledding in winter months.

Public utilities


The owner of Lake Springfield, City Water, Light & Power
City Water, Light & Power
City Water, Light & Power is the largest municipally owned utility in the U.S. state of Illinois.The utility provides the city of Springfield, Illinois with electric power from four coal-fired boilers...

, supplies electric power generated from the Dallman Power Plants for the city of Springfield and eight surrounding communities, the company also provides the cities and towns with water from the lake. In 2005, ground was broken for a third municipally owned power plant. This Power Plant has been completed and came online in 2010. Natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 is provided via AmerenCILCO, formerly Central Illinois Light Company (CILCO).

Transportation


Interstate 55
Interstate 55
Interstate 55 is an Interstate Highway in the central United States. Its odd number indicates that it is a north–south Interstate Highway. I-55 goes from LaPlace, Louisiana at Interstate 10 to Chicago at U.S. Route 41 , at McCormick Place. A common nickname for the highway is "double...

 runs from north to south past Springfield, while I-72
Interstate 72
Interstate 72 is an Interstate Highway in the midwestern United States. Its western terminus is in Hannibal, Missouri, at an intersection with U.S. Route 61; its eastern terminus is at Country Fair Drive in Champaign, Illinois. In 2006, the Illinois General Assembly dedicated all of Interstate 72...

, also known as US 36, runs from east to west. Springfield is also served by Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 passenger trains, which operate between Chicago and St. Louis and stop at the former Gulf, Mobile & Ohio station. Local mass transportation needs are met by a bus service. The Springfield Mass Transit District (SMTD) operates Springfield's bus system. The city also lies along historic Route 66
U.S. Route 66
U.S. Route 66 was a highway within the U.S. Highway System. One of the original U.S. highways, Route 66 was established on November 11, 1926 -- with road signs erected the following year...

.

Border thoroughfare traffic is handled by Veterans Parkway and J. David Jones Parkway on the west side, Everett M. Dirksen Parkway on the east side, Sangamon Avenue on the north end, and Wabash Avenue, Stanford Avenue, and Adlai Stevenson Drive on the south end. The far south corridor is served by Toronto and Woodside Roads.

Abraham Lincoln Capital Airport
Abraham Lincoln Capital Airport
-Airport services:The airport has a Subway, a gift shop and an automated teller machine. TV and a lounge are also provided at the airport.-External links:* , official site* , official site* from USGS The National Map**...

 serves the capital city with air service to Chicago/O'Hare
O'Hare International Airport
Chicago O'Hare International Airport , also known as O'Hare Airport, O'Hare Field, Chicago Airport, Chicago International Airport, or simply O'Hare, is a major airport located in the northwestern-most corner of Chicago, Illinois, United States, northwest of the Chicago Loop...

.

Springfield and the surrounding metropolitan area has constructed bike trails and bike lanes on a number of streets. Currently four main trails exist; two significant paved trails, the Interurban Trail
Interurban Trail (Sangamon County)
The Interurban Trail is a rail trail in Sangamon County, Illinois. It was built by the Illinois Department of Transportation and occupies an abandoned Illinois Terminal Railroad interurban corridor. It stretches from the south side of Springfield, Illinois, to the center of Chatham,...

 and the Lost Bridge Trail
Lost Bridge Trail
The Lost Bridge Trail is a rail trail in Sangamon County, Illinois. It was built by the Illinois Department of Transportation along an abandoned Baltimore and Ohio Railroad corridor between the east side of Springfield, Illinois to the center of Rochester, Illinois.The trail crosses the South...

, serve Springfield and its suburbs of Chatham, Illinois
Chatham, Illinois
Chatham is a village in Sangamon County, Illinois, United States. The population was 11,500 as of the 2010 census. The village lies along the original alignment of historic U.S...

 and Rochester, Illinois
Rochester, Illinois
Rochester is a village in Sangamon County, Illinois, United States. The population was 2,893 at the 2000 census, and 3,246 at a 2009 estimate...

 respectively. A third trail, the Wabash Trail
Wabash Trail (Sangamon County)
The Wabash Trail is a rail trail in Sangamon County, Illinois. It was built by the Illinois Department of Transportation and occupies an abandoned Wabash Railroad right-of-way on the southwest side of Springfield, Illinois....

, extends westward from the northern end of the Interurban Trail
Interurban Trail (Sangamon County)
The Interurban Trail is a rail trail in Sangamon County, Illinois. It was built by the Illinois Department of Transportation and occupies an abandoned Illinois Terminal Railroad interurban corridor. It stretches from the south side of Springfield, Illinois, to the center of Chatham,...

 toward Parkway Pointe, a regional shopping destination.

The fourth trail is a section, opened in July 2011, of the Sangamon Valley Trail
Sangamon Valley Trail
The Sangamon Valley Trail is a rail trail on the west side of Sangamon County in the U.S. state of Illinois. Skirting Springfield, Illinois, it extends from Centennial Park, on Springfield's southwest side, to Stuart Park on the same city's northwest side...

 spanning north to south through the west central part of Sangamon County. The section open as of 2011 extends northward from Centennial Park to Stuart Park. This trail, if completed in its entirety, will reuse the entire Sangamon County portion of the abandoned St. Louis, Peoria and North Western Railway
St. Louis, Peoria and North Western Railway
The St. Louis, Peoria and North Western Railway was a short-lived and nominally independent railroad of 114.6 miles in length. It extended from near Benld, Illinois, its southern end, to Peoria, Illinois at its northern end...

 railroad line as a trail that will extend from Virden, Illinois, to Athens, Illinois.

Notable people


  • Jacob Bunn, corporate leader, financier, industrialist, and personal friend of Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

    .
  • John Whitfield Bunn, corporate leader, financier, industrialist, and personal friend of Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

    .
  • John Hay
    John Hay
    John Milton Hay was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln.-Early life:...

    , statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

    .
  • William H. Herndon, law partner and biographer to Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

    .
  • William Jayne
    William Jayne
    William A. Jayne was an American physician and statesman. He served as Governor of the Dakota Territory and as the territory's delegate to the United States House of Representatives during the American Civil War....

    , first governor of the Dakota Territory, and personal friend of Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

    .
  • The Rt. Reverend Albert Arthur Chambers, Seventh Bishop of Springfield
  • Andre Iguodala
    Andre Iguodala
    Andre Tyler Iguodala is an American professional basketball player who plays small forward for the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association . Iguodala is listed at 6 ft 6 in and 207 lbs. . Iguodala played his high school basketball for Lanphier High School in Springfield, Illinois...

    , basketball player for the Philadelphia 76ers
  • John L. Lewis
    John L. Lewis
    John Llewellyn Lewis was an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960...

    , president of the United Mine Workers of America (1920 to 1960).
  • Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

    , 16th president of the United States of America.
  • Vachel Lindsay
    Vachel Lindsay
    Nicholas Vachel Lindsay was an American poet. He is considered the father of modern singing poetry, as he referred to it, in which verses are meant to be sung or chanted...

    , poet, considered the father of modern singing poetry,
  • Robin Roberts
    Robin Roberts
    Robin Roberts may refer to:* Robin Roberts , American baseball player* Robin Roberts , Good Morning America anchor and former ESPN anchor...

    , major league pitcher and member of the Baseball Hall of Fame,
  • Adlai Stevenson, 31st Governor of Illinois
    Governor of Illinois
    The Governor of Illinois is the chief executive of the State of Illinois and the various agencies and departments over which the officer has jurisdiction, as prescribed in the state constitution. It is a directly elected position, votes being cast by popular suffrage of residents of the state....

    , the Democratic Party's nominee for president in 1952 and 1956.
  • Warren Staley
    Warren Staley
    Warren Staley is the former chief executive officer of Cargill, Inc. of Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.Staley is a graduate of Kansas State University , and Cornell University, receiving an M.B.A. from Cornell in 1967. He joined Cargill in 1969, became president and chief operating officer in 1998,...

     is the former CEO of Cargill, Inc., attended Springfield High School
  • Brendon Small
    Brendon Small
    Brendon Small is an American sitcom writer/producer, actor, comedian, voice actor, composer, and musician...

     is an American sitcom writer/producer, actor, voice actor, composer, and musician. He is best known as the creator of the animated series Home Movies and Metalocalypse.
  • Brad Jones, actor known as the Cinema Snob on That Guy with the Glasses
    That Guy with the Glasses
    That Guy with the Glasses is a website that mostly showcases satirical reviews of movies and video games. It primarily stars Chicago native Douglas Darien "Doug" Walker as "That Guy with the Glasses". The founder and administrator of the site is Michael Michaud, CEO of the parent company Channel...

    .
  • Jayson Werth
    Jayson Werth
    Jayson Richard Gowan Werth is an American professional baseball outfielder for the Washington Nationals of Major League Baseball. He has previously played for the Toronto Blue Jays, Los Angeles Dodgers, and Philadelphia Phillies. He bats and throws right-handed.-Background:Werth was born in...

    , baseball player for the Washington Nationals

Sister cities


Springfield, Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

, USA has four sister cities
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

, as designated by Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between United States and international communities. More than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in 136 countries around the world...

, they include the following places: Villach
Villach
Villach is the second largest city in the Carinthia state in the southern Austria, at the Drava River and represents an important traffic junction for Austria and the whole Alpe-Adria region. , the population is 58,480.-History:...

(Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

) Killarney
Killarney
Killarney is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. The town is located north of the MacGillicuddy Reeks, on the northeastern shore of the Lough Lein/Leane which are part of Killarney National Park. The town and its surrounding region are home to St...

(Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

) San Pedro
San Pedro, Coahuila
San Pedro is a city located in the southwestern part of the state of Coahuila in Mexico. San Pedro lies east-northeast of the city of Torreón and serves as the seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name....

(Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

) Ashikaga
Ashikaga, Tochigi
is a city located in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Ashikaga is located north of Tokyo.As of April 1, 2011, the city has an estimated population of 153,766, with a household number of 59,219, and a density of 864.73 persons per km²...

(Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

)

Primary sources

  • Chicago Commission on Race Relations. Negro in Chicago (1919), section on Springfield Riot, pp 66–71 complete edition online
  • History of Sangamon County, Illinois (1881)

See also

  • Abraham Lincoln Memorial Garden
    Abraham Lincoln Memorial Garden
    The Abraham Lincoln Memorial Garden is a self-governing 100-acre woodland and prairie garden owned by the city of Springfield, Illinois and managed by the Abraham Lincoln Memorial Garden Foundation. The gardens are made up of two major units, the Jensen section bordering Lake Springfield, and...

  • Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum
    Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum
    The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum documents the life of the 16th U.S. President, Abraham Lincoln, and the course of the American Civil War. Combining traditional scholarship with 21st century showmanship techniques, the popular museum continues to rank as one of the most visited...

  • Camp Butler National Cemetery
    Camp Butler National Cemetery
    Camp Butler National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located a few miles northeast of Springfield and a few miles southwest of Riverton, a small town nearby to Springfield, in Sangamon County, Illinois. It was named for Illinois State Treasurer at the time of its establishment,...

  • Executive Mansion
    Illinois Executive Mansion
    The Illinois Executive Mansion is the official residence of the Governor of Illinois. It is located at 410 E. Jackson Street in Springfield, Illinois and is open to tours on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday mornings, free of charge. The Georgian style Mansion was designed by Chicago architect John M....

  • Illinois State Capitol
    Illinois State Capitol
    The Illinois State Capitol, located in Springfield, Illinois, is the building that houses the executive and legislative branches of the government of the U.S. state of Illinois. The current building is the sixth capitol of the state since its admission as a state of the United States in 1818. The...

  • Illinois State Fair
    Illinois State Fair
    The Illinois State Fair is an annual festival, centering on the theme of agriculture, hosted by the U.S. state of Illinois in the state capital, Springfield. The state fair has been celebrated almost every year since 1853. In 2008 there were more than 700,000 visits, up five percent from 2005,...

  • Lincoln Home National Historic Site
    Lincoln Home National Historic Site
    Lincoln Home National Historic Site preserves the Springfield, Illinois home where Abraham Lincoln lived from 1844 to 1861, before becoming the 16th President of the United States...

  • USS Springfield
    USS Springfield
    USS Springfield may refer to:*USS Springfield , was a stern-wheel steamboat in use during the American Civil War.*USS Springfield , was a steamboat chartered during 1918 and 1919....

  • USS Springfield (SSN-761)
    USS Springfield (SSN-761)
    USS Springfield , a , is the fourth ship of the United States Navy to bear that name. The ship was named in honor of both the cities of Springfield, Illinois and Springfield, Massachusetts....

  • White Oaks Mall
    White Oaks Mall (Springfield, Illinois)
    White Oaks Mall is a shopping center in Springfield, Illinois, United States. It is located at the junction of Illinois Route 4 and Wabash Avenue...

  • National Museum of Surveying
    National Museum of Surveying
    The National Museum of Surveying was the Michigan Museum of Surveying, but in 2007, the museum moved to Springfield, Illinois to become a national museum. The museum officially opened in Springfield, Illinois on September 24, 2010. In the space, the museum houses many exhibits on surveying, a room...


Further reading

  • Angle, Paul M. "Here I have lived": A history of Lincoln's Springfield, 1821–1865 (1935, 1971)
  • Crouthamel, James L. "The Springfield Race Riot of 1908." Journal of Negro History 1960 45(3): 164–181. Issn: 0022-2992 in Jstor
  • Harrison, Shelby Millard, ed. The Springfield Survey: Study of Social Conditions in an American City (1920), famous sociological study of the city vol 3 online
  • Laine, Christian K. Landmark Springfield: Architecture and Urbanism in the Capital City of Illinois. Chicago: Metropolitan, 1985. 111 pp.
  • Lindsay, Vachel. The Golden Book of Springfield (1920), a novel excerpt and text searc
  • Senechal, Roberta. The Sociogenesis of a Race Riot: Springfield, Illinois, in 1908. 1990. 231 pp.
  • VanMeter, Andy. "Always My Friend: A History of the State Journal-Register and Springfield." Springfield, Ill.: Copley, 1981. 360 pp. history of the daily newspapers
  • Wallace, Christopher Elliott. "The Opportunity to Grow: Springfield, Illinois during the 1850s." PhD dissertation Purdue U. 1983. 247 pp. DAI 1984 44(9): 2864-A. DA8400427 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
  • Winkle, Kenneth J. "The Second Party System in Lincoln's Springfield." Civil War History 1998 44(4): 267–284. Issn: 0009-8078

External links