is a large family
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...
es, belonging to the order Perciformes
The Perciformes, also called the Percomorphi or Acanthopteri, is one of the largest orders of vertebrates, containing about 40% of all bony fish. Perciformes means perch-like. They belong to the class of ray-finned fish and comprise over 7,000 species found in almost all aquatic environments...
. The family contains about 450 species of serranids in 64 genera, including the sea basses
Bass is a name shared by many different species of popular gamefish. The term encompasses both freshwater and marine species. All belong to the large order Perciformes, or perch-like fishes, and in fact the word bass comes from Middle English bars, meaning "perch."-Types of basses:*The temperate...
and the grouper
Groupers are fish of any of a number of genera in the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae, in the order Perciformes.Not all serranids are called groupers; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera: Epinephelus...
s (subfamily Epinephelinae). They range in size from the belted sandfish
The belted sandfish, Serranus subligarius, is a member of the Serranidae family. It is hermaphroditic and inhabits primarily the Florida coast....
), which grows to 110 mm (4.33 in), up to the itajara (Epinephelus itajara
), which grows to 2.4 m (94.5 in) and weighs up to 300 kg (661.4 lb).
Many serranid species are brightly colored, and many are caught commercially for food. They are usually found over reef
In nautical terminology, a reef is a rock, sandbar, or other feature lying beneath the surface of the water ....
s, in tropical to sub-tropical waters along the coasts. Serranids are generally robust in form, with large mouths and small spines on the gill coverings. They typically have several rows of sharp teeth, usually with a pair of particularly large, canine-like teeth projecting from the lower jaw.
All serranids are carnivorous. Although some species only feed on zooplankton
Zooplankton are heterotrophic plankton. Plankton are organisms drifting in oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. The word "zooplankton" is derived from the Greek zoon , meaning "animal", and , meaning "wanderer" or "drifter"...
, the majority feed on fish and crustaceans. They are typically ambush predators, hiding in cover on the reef and darting out to grab passing prey. Their bright colours are most likely a form of disruptive camouflage, similar to the stripes of a tiger
The tiger is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to and weighing up to . Their most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with lighter underparts...
Many species are protogynous hermaphrodite
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes.Many taxonomic groups of animals do not have separate sexes. In these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which both...
s, meaning that they start out as females and change sex to male later in life. They produce large quantities of eggs and their larvae are planktonic, generally at the mercy of ocean currents until they are ready to settle into adult populations.
- Subfamily Anthiinae
Perhaps the quintessential "reef fish," anthias make up a sizeable portion of the population of pink, orange and yellow fishes seen swarming in most coral reef photography and film...
Caesioperca is a genus of sea bass of the sub-family Anthiinae in the family Serranidae.-Species:*Caesioperca lepidoptera *Caesioperca rasor...
Luzonichthys are of the family Anthiinae and contain six species: Luzonichthys earlei, Luzonichthys microlepis, Luzonichthys taeniatus, Luzonichthys waitei, Luzonichthys whitleyi, Luzonichthys williamsi.- External links :...
Odontanthias is a genus of colourful reef fishes in the subfamily Anthiinae.-Species:Species within this genus include:* Odontanthias borbonius * Odontanthias caudicinctus...
Plectranthias is a genus of serranid fishes, mostly rather small with large mouths and eyes close together. There are currently 44 described species.-Species:*Plectranthias alleni*Plectranthias altipinnatus*Plectranthias anthioides...
Pseudanthias is a genus of colourful reef fishes of the subfamily Anthiinae . Fishbase describes 61 species belonging to this genus:* Pseudanthias albofasciatus, ,...
Serranocirrhitus is a genus of the most colourful reef fishes of the subfamily Anthiinae . Seven genera of anthias are known to occur in coral reef ecosystems.- External links :*http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=16&aid=1713...
- Subfamily Epinephelinae (groupers)
Cephalopholis is a genus of fish in the Serranidae family.It contains the following species:*Blue-Spotted Grouper *Chocolate hind *Graysby...
Chromileptes is a genus of fish in the Serranidae family.It contains the following species:* Humpback grouper...
Dermatolepis is a genus of fish in the Serranidae family.It contains the following species:* marbled grouper * smooth grouper...
Epinephelides is a genus of fish in the Serranidae family.It contains the following species:* black-arse cod...
Epinephelus is a genus of groupers. They are large sea fish. Members of this genus may also be called a Mero.-Species:FishBase lists 99 species:* Areolate grouper, Epinephelus areolatus ....
Mycteroperca is a genus of fish in the family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae .It contains the following species:* Black grouper * Venezuelan grouper...
Plectropomus is a genus of fish in the Serranidae family.-Species:*Plectropomus areolatus, Squaretail coralgrouper *Plectropomus laevis, Blacksaddled coralgrouper...
Variola is a genus of fish in the Serranidae family....
- Subfamily Grammistinae (soapfishes)
Suttonia is a genus of fish in the Serranidae family....
Grammistes is a genus of Serranidae. It contains only one species, the sixline soapfish or Grammistes sexlineatus...
- Subfamily Liopropomatinae
- Subfamily Serraninae
Acanthistius is a genus of groupers, large marine fish.-Species:* Brazilian sea bass, Acanthistius brasilianus * Yellowbanded perch, Acanthistius cinctus * Acanthistius fuscus Regan, 1913...
Centropristis is an extinct genus of prehistoric bony fish.-See also:* Prehistoric fish* List of prehistoric bony fish-External links:*...
Serranus is a genus of fish in the Serranidae family.It contains the following species:* meo viejo * Comber * Painted comber * Belted sandfish...
- incertae sedis
, is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Uncertainty at specific taxonomic levels is attributed by , , and similar terms.-Examples:*The fossil plant Paradinandra suecica could not be assigned to any...
In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms , normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point...
Palaeoperca is an extinct genus of prehistoric bony fish that lived from the early to middle Eocene.-See also:* Prehistoric fish* List of prehistoric bony fish...