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In the United States, second grade (called grade 2 in metric system
Metric system
The metric system is an international decimalised system of measurement. France was first to adopt a metric system, in 1799, and a metric system is now the official system of measurement, used in almost every country in the world...

countries) is a year of primary education
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

. Second grade is the second school year after kindergarten
Kindergarten
A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school...

. Students are traditionally 7–8 years old, depending on when their birthday occurs.

In mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

, students are taught place value to hundred
100 (number)
100 is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101.-In mathematics:One hundred is the square of 10...

s or thousands, and renaming with addition
Addition is a mathematical operation that represents combining collections of objects together into a larger collection. It is signified by the plus sign . For example, in the picture on the right, there are 3 + 2 apples—meaning three apples and two other apples—which is the same as five apples....

and subtraction
Subtraction
In arithmetic, subtraction is one of the four basic binary operations; it is the inverse of addition, meaning that if we start with any number and add any number and then subtract the same number we added, we return to the number we started with...

. Measurement is extended to the meter, foot, yard
Yard
A yard is a unit of length in several different systems including English units, Imperial units and United States customary units. It is equal to 3 feet or 36 inches...

, kilogram
Kilogram
The kilogram or kilogramme , also known as the kilo, is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram , which is almost exactly equal to the mass of one liter of water...

, pound
Pound (mass)
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the Imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement...

, and pint
Pint
The pint is a unit of volume or capacity that was once used across much of Europe with values varying from state to state from less than half a litre to over one litre. Within continental Europe, the pint was replaced with the metric system during the nineteenth century...

. Measurement of time and temperature in Fahrenheit and Celsius is also emphasized as well. Usually multiplication
Multiplication
Multiplication is the mathematical operation of scaling one number by another. It is one of the four basic operations in elementary arithmetic ....

and division
Division (mathematics)
right|thumb|200px|20 \div 4=5In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation.Specifically, if c times b equals a, written:c \times b = a\,...

is introduced towards the end of the school year but not emphasized. Positive and negative numbers are introduced, but not added and subtracted. These values are generally introduced in temperature. Addition and subtraction facts are practiced throughout the year. Students also learn about plane and solid shapes in geometry
Geometry
Geometry arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. Geometry was one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers ....

and explore how they are apparent in our everyday lives. Some second grade topics in math can be explored at the following website.

Reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols for the intention of constructing or deriving meaning . It is a means of language acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas...

, students read to perform a task using fictional and non-fictional texts, and learn about story elements
Short story
A short story is a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, often in narrative format. This format tends to be more pointed than longer works of fiction, such as novellas and novels. Short story definitions based on length differ somewhat, even among professional writers, in part because...

, text features, and character traits. In many counties and districts, schools have reading benchmarks that students need to meet by the end of each quarter and/or school year. At the end of the year, students begin their first novels. Decoding strategies usually end in second grade and reading more for comprehension.

Students in second grade also learn the basics of grammar
Grammar
In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics,...

in writing, including subject
Subject (grammar)
The subject is one of the two main constituents of a clause, according to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle and that is associated with phrase structure grammars; the other constituent is the predicate. According to another tradition, i.e...

, verb
Verb
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word that in syntax conveys an action , or a state of being . In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive...

In grammar, an adjective is a 'describing' word; the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified....

s. They also write to inform, to express personal ideas, and to persuade.
In the U.S. it is also common for second graders to be introduced to cursive
Cursive
Cursive, also known as joined-up writing, joint writing, or running writing, is any style of handwriting in which the symbols of the language are written in a simplified and/or flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing easier or faster...

. Cursive writing is also focused in third grade.

Second grade science usually involvement of the basic earth and space sciences. Students are introduced to the planets and the weather system. Dinosaurs are also covered as well. Health science such as the human body is taught as well.

In social studies, a general understanding of the government and current events are discussed. Students are expected to know who the president and vice president, and some basic presidents such as Abraham Lincoln and George Washington. The concept of the law is taught in second grade. Second grade students may also get a basic understanding of history, and what life was like in times before they were born. Field trips to historical and science museums are common. Some basic sociological institutions are taught such as race and gender, and the exploration of different cultural groups such as Black, Latin, and Asian.

Although the U.S. does not formally have national grade standards, there are groups selected by the Department of Education to develop standards which are generally used by each State to set their own standards. For mathematics, it is the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics was founded in 1920. It has grown to be the world's largest organization concerned with mathematics education, having close to 100,000 members across the USA and Canada, and internationally....

. There is an English guide to the second grade math standards and expectations. This description was built by using the major states as a norm.

### Ireland equivalent

In The Republic of Ireland, the equivalent is known as Second Class or Rang a dó (usually for 7-8 year olds) which is year 4 of Primary School.
It is traditionally the year that is dedicated to preparing for the child's "First Holy Communion", however, as Ireland becomes incresingly multicultural, more and more schools are opting to prepare for the sacrement outside of school hours - at weekends or after school.

### England equivalent

In England
Education in England
Education in England is overseen by the Department for Education and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for public education and state schools at a regional level....

, the second year of school is called year 1, and the pupils are 5 to 6 years old. So second grade is the equivalent to year 3 in England

### Scotland equivalent

At the same age, Scottish
Education in Scotland
Scotland has a long history of universal provision of public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from the other countries of the United Kingdom...

and Welsh
Education in Wales
Education in Wales differs in certain respects from education elsewhere in the United Kingdom. For example, a significant number of students all over Wales are educated either wholly or largely through the medium of Welsh: in 2008/09, 22 per cent of classes in maintained primary schools used Welsh...

pupils are in their third year of compulsory education and in their fourth year in Northern Ireland
Education in Northern Ireland
Education in Northern Ireland differs slightly from systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom, though it is more similar to that used in England and Wales than it is to Scotland. A child's age on 1 July determines the point of entry into the relevant stage of education unlike England and Wales...

.

### Greece equivalent

In Greece it can be referring either at the second grade of primary school, or the second grade of the Greek Gymnasium or at the second grade of Lycium.

### Brazil equivalent

In Brazil now, the time for elementary school were recently raised from 8 to 9 years, and the minimum age required to the second grade was changed from 6 to 7 years old.

### Peru equivalent

In Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

, this is also known as second grade (Segundo Grado), and pupils are between 7-8 years old.

### New Zealand equivalent

In New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, this level of class is called Year 3. Children generally start this level between the ages of seven and eight.

### Italy equivalent

In Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, it corresponds to second class of primary school (seconda classe della scuola primaria)

### France equivalent

In France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, it would correspond to CE1 (Cours Elémentaire 1) which is the second year of elementary school.