Russian Academy of Sciences

Russian Academy of Sciences

Overview
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy
National academy
A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research activities and standards for academic disciplines, most frequently in the sciences but also the humanities. Typically the country's learned societies in...

 of Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals.

Headquartered in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, the Academy is incorporated as a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia
Government of Russia
The Government of the Russian Federation exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the prime minister , the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers...

. It combines members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions.

There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members (academician
Academician
The title Academician denotes a Full Member of an art, literary, or scientific academy.In many countries, it is an honorary title. There also exists a lower-rank title, variously translated Corresponding Member or Associate Member, .-Eastern Europe and China:"Academician" may also be a functional...

s), corresponding members and foreign members.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Russian Academy of Sciences'
Start a new discussion about 'Russian Academy of Sciences'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy
National academy
A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research activities and standards for academic disciplines, most frequently in the sciences but also the humanities. Typically the country's learned societies in...

 of Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals.

Headquartered in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, the Academy is incorporated as a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia
Government of Russia
The Government of the Russian Federation exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the prime minister , the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers...

. It combines members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions.

Membership


There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members (academician
Academician
The title Academician denotes a Full Member of an art, literary, or scientific academy.In many countries, it is an honorary title. There also exists a lower-rank title, variously translated Corresponding Member or Associate Member, .-Eastern Europe and China:"Academician" may also be a functional...

s), corresponding members and foreign members. Academicians and corresponding members must be citizens of the Russian Federation when elected; however, some academicians and corresponding members had been elected before the collapse of the USSR and now are citizens of other countries. Members of RAS are elected based on their scientific contributions and election to membership is considered very prestigious. As of 2005-2007 there are just under 500 full members of the academy and a similar number of corresponding members.

Structure


The RAS consists of eleven specialized scientific branches, three territorial branches and 14 regional scientific centres. The Academy has numerous councils, committees and commissions, organized for different purposes.

Territorial branches


Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS)
The Siberian Branch was established in 1957, with Mikhail Lavrentyev as founding chairman. Research centres are in Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk is the third-largest city in Russia, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and the largest city of Siberia, with a population of 1,473,737 . It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District...

 (Akademgorodok
Akademgorodok
Akademgorodok , is a part of the Russian city Novosibirsk, located 20 km south of the city center. It is the educational and scientific centre of Siberia...

), Tomsk
Tomsk
Tomsk is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Tom River. One of the oldest towns in Siberia, Tomsk celebrated its 400th anniversary in 2004...

, Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River. It is the third largest city in Siberia, with the population of 973,891. Krasnoyarsk is an important junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and one of Russia's largest producers of...

, Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Irkutsk is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, one of the largest cities in Siberia. Population: .-History:In 1652, Ivan Pokhabov built a zimovye near the site of Irkutsk for gold trading and for the collection of fur taxes from the Buryats. In 1661, Yakov Pokhabov...

, Yakutsk
Yakutsk
With a subarctic climate , Yakutsk is the coldest city, though not the coldest inhabited place, on Earth. Average monthly temperatures range from in July to in January. The coldest temperatures ever recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the basin of the Yana River to the northeast...

, Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude is the capital city of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located about southeast of Lake Baikal on the Uda River at its confluence with the Selenga...

, Kemerovo
Kemerovo
Kemerovo is an industrial city in Russia, situated on the Tom River, east-northeast of Novosibirsk. It is the administrative center of Kemerovo Oblast, located in the major coal mining region of the Kuznetsk Basin...

, Tyumen
Tyumen
Tyumen is the largest city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located on the Tura River east of Moscow. Population: Tyumen is the oldest Russian settlement in Siberia. Founded in 16th century to support Russia's eastward expansion, the city has remained one of the most...

 and Omsk
Omsk
-History:The wooden fort of Omsk was erected in 1716 to protect the expanding Russian frontier along the Ishim and the Irtysh rivers against the Kyrgyz nomads of the Steppes...

. As of 2005, the Branch employed over 33,000 employees, 58 of whom were members of the Academy.

Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (URAN)
The Ural Branch was established in 1932, with Aleksandr Fersman as its founding chairman. Research centres are in Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg is a major city in the central part of Russia, the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast. Situated on the eastern side of the Ural mountain range, it is the main industrial and cultural center of the Urals Federal District with a population of 1,350,136 , making it Russia's...

, Perm
Perm
Perm is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River, in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains. From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov ....

, Cheliabinsk, Izhevsk
Izhevsk
Izhevsk is the capital city of the Udmurt Republic, Russia, situated on the Izh River in the Western Urals. Population: From 1984 to 1987 Izhevsk carried the name Ustinov |Minister of Defense of the USSR]], Marshal of the Soviet Union, Dmitry Ustinov). The city is an important industrial center,...

, Orenburg
Orenburg
Orenburg is a city on the Ural River and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia. It lies southeast of Moscow, very close to the border with Kazakhstan. Population: 546,987 ; 549,361 ; Highest point: 154.4 m...

, Ufa
Ufa
-Demographics:Nationally, dominated by Russian , Bashkirs and Tatars . In addition, numerous are Ukrainians , Chuvash , Mari , Belarusians , Mordovians , Armenian , Germans , Jews , Azeris .-Government and administration:Local...

 and Syktyvkar
Syktyvkar
-Twin towns/sister cities:Syktyvkar is twinned with the following sister cities: Cullera, Spain Debrecen, Hungary Los Altos, United States Lovech, Bulgaria Taiyuan, China-External links:* * * *...

. As of 2007, the Branch employed 3,600 scientists, 590 of whom were full professors, 31 full members and 58 corresponding members of the Academy.

Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS)
The Far East Branch includes the Primorsky Scientific Center in Vladivostok
Vladivostok
The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide.The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 m...

, the Amur Scientific Center in Blagoveschensk, the Khabarovsk Scientific Center, the Sakhalin Scientific Center in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
-Demographics:Most residents are ethnic Russians, but there also exists a sizable population of Koreans. Of the 43,000 Sakhalin Koreans, half are estimated to live in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, comprising roughly 12% of the city's population...

, the Kamchatka Scientific Center in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky is the main city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Population: .-History:It was founded by Danish navigator Vitus Bering, in the service of the Russian Navy...

 and the North-Eastern Scientific Center in Magadan
Magadan
Magadan is a port town on the Sea of Okhotsk and gateway to the Kolyma region. It is the administrative center of Magadan Oblast , in the Russian Far East. Founded in 1929 on the site of an earlier settlement from the 1920s, it was granted the status of town in 1939...

.

Regional centres


  • Buryat Science Centre
  • Kazan Science Centre
  • Pushchino Science Centre
  • Samara Science Centre
  • Saratov Science Centre
  • Vladikavkaz Science Centre of RAN and Government of Northern Ossetia
  • Dagestan Science Centre
  • Kabardino-Balkarian Science Centre
  • Karelian Science Centre
  • Kola Science Centre
  • Science Centre of RAN in Chernogolovka
  • St. Petersburg Science Centre
  • Ufa Science Centre
  • Southern Science Centre
  • Troitsk Science Centre
  • Perm Science Centre

Institutions


The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of a large number of research institutions, including:
  • Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
    Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
    The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics is one of the major centres of advanced study of nuclear physics in Russia. It is located in the Siberian town Akademgorodok, on Academician Lavrentiev Avenue. The institute was founded by Gersh Itskovich Budker in 1959...

  • Central Economic Mathematical Institute CEMI
  • Dorodnitsyn Computing Centre
  • Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology
    Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology
    The Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology is a research institute located in Moscow, Russia. The Institute is included in the Branch of Biological Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences and has the status of a State non-commercial organization....

  • Institute for Spectroscopy
  • Institute for System Programming
    Institute for System Programming
    The Institute for System Programming of the Russian Academy of Sciences was founded on January 25, 1994, on the base of the departments of System Programming and Numerical Software of the Institute for Cybernetics Problems of the RAS...

  • Institute of Archaeology
  • Institute of Biological Instrumentation
  • Institute of Ecology and Evolution
  • Institute of Economy (RAS)
  • Institute of Gene Biology
  • Institute of Silicate Chemistry
  • Institute of High Current Electronics
  • Institute of Linguistics
  • Institute of Oriental Studies
    Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences
    Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences , formerly Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences, is Russia's leading research institution for the study of the countries and cultures of Asia and North Africa...

  • Institute of Philosophy
  • Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics
  • Institute of State and Law
  • Institute of the U.S.A. and Canada (ISKRAN)
    Institute for US and Canadian Studies
    Institute for US and Canadian Studies - is a Russian think tank which is part of the Russian Academy of Sciences, specializing on the comprehensive studies of the United States and Canada....

  • Institute of World Economy and International Relations
    Institute of World Economy and International Relations
    The Institute of World Economy and International Relations was founded in 1956. It was a successor to the earlier organization, the Institute of World Economy and Politics which existed from 1925 to 1948....

     (IMEMO)
  • Institute of World Literature (Moscow)
  • Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute
    Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute
    Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is one of Russia's largest research centers specialized in physics and technology. The institute was established in 1918 in Petrograd and run for several decades by Abram Fedorovich Ioffe...

  • Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics
    Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics
    The Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a research institute specializing in computational mathematics....

  • Komarov Botanical Institute
    Komarov Botanical Institute
    The Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a leading botanical institution in Russia, It is located on Aptekarsky Island in St. Petersburg, and is named after the Russian botanist Vladimir Leontyevich Komarov...

  • Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics
    Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics
    The L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a research institution, located in the small town of Chernogolovka near Moscow...

  • Laser and Information Technology Institute
  • Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering
    Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering
    Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering is a Russian research institution. It used to be a Soviet Academy of Sciences organization in Soviet times...

  • Lebedev Physical Institute
    Lebedev Physical Institute
    The Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences , situated in Moscow, is one of the leading Russian research institutes specializing in physics. It is also one of the oldest research institutions in Russia: its history dates back to a collection of physics equipment established by...

  • N.N. Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology
  • Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Chemistry
  • Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics
  • Paleontological Institute
  • Program Systems Institute
  • Prokhorov General Physics Institute
  • Schmidt Institute of the Physics of the Earth
  • Space Research Institute
    Russian Space Research Institute
    The Russian Space Research Institute is the leading organization of the Russian Academy of Sciences on space exploration to benefit fundamental science....

  • Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
  • Special Astrophysical Observatory
  • Steklov Institute of Mathematics
    Steklov Institute of Mathematics
    Steklov Institute of Mathematics or Steklov Mathematical Institute is a research institute based in Moscow, specialized in mathematics, and a part of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was established April 24, 1934 by the decision of the General Assembly of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in...

  • Sukachev Institute of Forest
    Sukachev Institute of Forest
    Institute of Forest SB RAS is the first academic institution of forest profile in Russia. It was founded in 1944 in Moscow by an outstanding native biologist academician Vladimir Nikolayevich Sukachev. The institute was named after him in 1967...

  • Vingoradov Russian Language Institute
    Russian Language Institute
    The V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is the language regulator of the Russian language. It is based in Moscow and it is part of the Russian Academy of Sciences.It was founded in 1944.-See also:* The V.V...

  • Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

Member institutions are linked by a dedicated Russian Space Science Internet (RSSI). The RSSI, starting with just 3 members, now has 3100 members, including 57 of the largest research institutions.

Russian universities and technical institutes are not under the purview of the RAS (they are subordinated to the Ministry of Education of Russian Federation), but a number of leading universities, such as Moscow State University
Moscow State University
Lomonosov Moscow State University , previously known as Lomonosov University or MSU , is the largest university in Russia. Founded in 1755, it also claims to be one of the oldest university in Russia and to have the tallest educational building in the world. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy...

, St. Petersburg State University, Novosibirsk State University
Novosibirsk State University
Novosibirsk State University was founded in May 1959 in the USSR by Soviet academicians Mikhail Alekseevich Lavrentiev, Sergei Lvovich Sobolev and Sergey Alekseyevich Khristianovich in a program of establishing a Siberian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences...

 and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, make use of the staff and facilities of many institutes of RAS (as well as of other research institutions); the MIPT faculty refers to this arrangement as the "Phystech System".

Since 1933, the main scientific journal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences was the Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences
The Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences was a Soviet journal that was dedicated to publishing original, academic research papers in physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, and biology...

(Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR); after 1992, it became simply Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences (Doklady Akademii Nauk).

The Academy is also increasing its presence in the educational area. In 1990 the Higher Chemical College of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Higher Chemical College of the Russian Academy of Sciences
-General information:Higher Chemical College of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a department of Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology. The focus of HCC RAS is on training research scientists. Involvement in academic research is an integral part of curriculum, with increasing credit load...

 was founded, a specialized university intended to provide extensive opportunities for students to choose an academic path.

Awards


The Academy gives a number of different prizes, medals and awards among which:
  • Demidov Prize
    Demidov Prize
    The Demidov Prize was a national scientific prize in the Russian Empire awarded annually to the members of the Russian Academy of Sciences. One of the most prestigious and oldest scientific awards in the world, its traditions influenced other awards of this kind including the Nobel Prize...

  • Lomonosov Gold Medal
    Lomonosov Gold Medal
    The Lomonosov Gold Medal, named after Russian scientist and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov, is awarded each year since 1959 for outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and the humanities by the USSR Academy of Sciences and later the Russian Academy of Sciences . Two medals are awarded...

  • Markov
    Andrey Markov
    Andrey Andreyevich Markov was a Russian mathematician. He is best known for his work on theory of stochastic processes...

     Prize
  • Bogolyubov
    Nikolay Bogolyubov
    Nikolay Nikolaevich Bogolyubov was a Russian and Ukrainian Soviet mathematician and theoretical physicist known for a significant contribution to quantum field theory, classical and quantum statistical mechanics, and to the theory of dynamical systems; a recipient of the Dirac Prize...

     Gold Medal
  • Pushkin Prize
    Pushkin Prize
    The Pushkin Prize was established in 1881 by the Russian Academy of Sciences to honor one of the greatest Russian poets Alexander Pushkin . The prize was awarded to the Russian who achieved the highest standard of literary excellence. The prize was discontinued during the Soviet period. It was...


Foundation


The Academy was founded in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

 by Peter the Great
Peter I of Russia
Peter the Great, Peter I or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are Old Style. All other dates in this article are New Style. ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother, Ivan V...

,
inspired and advised by Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German philosopher and mathematician. He wrote in different languages, primarily in Latin , French and German ....

, and implemented in the Senate decree
Decree
A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state , according to certain procedures . It has the force of law...

 of February 8 (January 28 old style), 1724. It was originally called The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences . The name varied over the years, becoming The Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences (Императорская Академия наук и художеств; 1747–1803), The Imperial Academy of Sciences (Императорская Академия Наук; 1803— 1836), and finally, The Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Императорская Санкт-Петербургская Академия Наук, from 1836 and until the end of the empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 in 1917).

Among the foreign scholars invited to work at the academy were the mathematicians Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion...

, Anders Johan Lexell
Anders Johan Lexell
Anders Johan Lexell was a Swedish-born Russian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist who spent most of his life in Russia where he is known as Andrei Ivanovich Leksel .Lexell made important discoveries in polygonometry and celestial mechanics; the latter led to a comet named in...

, Christian Goldbach
Christian Goldbach
Christian Goldbach was a German mathematician who also studied law. He is remembered today for Goldbach's conjecture.-Biography:...

, Georg Bernhard Bilfinger
Georg Bernhard Bilfinger
Georg Bernhard Bilfinger , German philosopher, mathematician and statesman, son of a Lutheran minister, was born at Cannstatt in Württemberg....

, Nicholas and Daniel Bernoulli
Daniel Bernoulli
Daniel Bernoulli was a Dutch-Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics, and for his pioneering work in probability and statistics...

, botanist Johann Georg Gmelin
Johann Georg Gmelin
Johann Georg Gmelin was a German naturalist, botanist and geographer.- Early life and education :Gmelin was born in Tübingen, the son of an professor at the University of Tübingen. He was a gifted child and begun attending university lectures at the age of 14. In 1727, he graduated with a medical...

, embryologists Caspar Friedrich Wolff
Caspar Friedrich Wolff
Caspar Friedrich Wolff was a German physiologist and one of the founders of embryology.-Life:Wolff was born in Berlin, Brandenburg. In 1230 he graduated as an M.D...

, astronomer
Astronomer
An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

 and geographer
Geographer
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.Although geographers are historically known as people who make maps, map making is actually the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography...

 Joseph-Nicolas Delisle
Joseph-Nicolas Delisle
Joseph-Nicolas Delisle was a French astronomer.-Life:He was one of the 11 sons of Claude Delisle . Like many of his brothers, among them Guillaume Delisle, he initially followed classical studies. Soon however, he moved to astronomy under the supervision of Joseph Lieutaud and Jacques Cassini...

, physicist Georg Wolfgang Kraft, and historian
Historian
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is...

 Gerhard Friedrich Müller.

Expeditions to explore remote parts of the country had Academy scientists as their leaders or most active participants. These included Vitus Bering
Vitus Bering
Vitus Jonassen Bering Vitus Jonassen Bering Vitus Jonassen Bering (also, less correNavy]], a captain-komandor known among the Russian sailors as Ivan Ivanovich. He is noted for being the first European to discover Alaska and its Aleutian Islands...

's Second Kamchatka
Kamchatka Peninsula
The Kamchatka Peninsula is a peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of . It lies between the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Sea of Okhotsk to the west...

 Expedition of 1733–43, expeditions to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from eight locations in Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

, and Peter Simon Pallas
Peter Simon Pallas
Peter Simon Pallas was a German zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia.- Life and work :Pallas was born in Berlin, the son of Professor of Surgery Simon Pallas. He studied with private tutors and took an interest in natural history, later attending the University of Halle and the University...

's expeditions to Siberia
Siberia
Siberia is an extensive region constituting almost all of Northern Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, it was part of the Soviet Union from its beginning, as its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, conquered it during the 16th...

.

The Russian Academy



A separate organization, called the Russian Academy
Russian Academy
The Russian Academy or Imperial Russian Academy was established in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1783 by Empress Catherine II of Russia and princess Dashkova as a research center for Russian language and Russian literature, following the example of the Académie française...

 (Академия Российская), was created in 1783 to work on the study of the Russian language
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

. Presided over by Princess Ekaterina Dashkova (who at the same time was the Director of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences, i.e., the country's "main" academy), the Russian Academy was engaged in compiling the six-volume Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language (1789–1794). The Russian Academy was merged into the Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1841.

USSR Academy of Sciences


In December 1917, Sergey Fedorovich Oldenburg
Sergey Oldenburg
Sergey Fyodorovich Oldenburg was a Russian orientalist who specialized in Buddhist studies. He is remembered as the founder of Russian Indology and the teacher of Fyodor Shcherbatskoy....

, a leading ethnographer and political activist in the Kadet party, met with Lenin to discuss the future of the Academy. They agreed that the expertise of the Academy would be applied to addressing questions of state construction, while in return the Soviet regime would give the Academy financial and political support. By early 1918 it was agreed that the Academy would report to the Department of the Mobilisation of Scientific Forces of the People's Commissariat for Education which replaced the Provisional Government's Ministry of Education.

In 1925 the Soviet government recognized the Russian Academy of Sciences as the "highest all-Union scientific institution" and renamed it the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. However starting in 1928 the Politburo
Politburo
Politburo , literally "Political Bureau [of the Central Committee]," is the executive committee for a number of communist political parties.-Marxist-Leninist states:...

 started to interfere in the affairs of the Academy. By the summer of 1929, Yuri Petrovich Figatner
Yuri Petrovich Figatner
Yuri Petrovich Figatner was a Soviet party functionary who investigated the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1929.Figatner was born in Odessa to Jewish parents.-References:...

 headed a special government commission to investigate the academy and purge it of "counter-revolutionaries," turning it into a Stalinist organization. Figatner's commission originally included Sergey Oldenburg, but he was sacked for "obstructing the reconstruction of the Academy of Sciences". By the end of 1929 its had sacked 128 members of staff out of 960 with a further 520 supernumeraries from 830 also being dismissed. In the following year over 100 people (mainly scholars and humanists, including many historians) were charged in what is called the Academics' Case. Former Academicians such as G.S. Gabaev, A.A. Arnoldi, Nikolai Antsiferov, had already been exiled or imprisoned, but were also put on trial. On 8 August 1931 the Collegium of Joint State Political Administration Board condemned 29 people, including S.V. Bakhrushin, V.N. Beneshevich
Vladimir N. Beneshevich
Vladimir Nicolayevich Beneshevich was a scholar of Byzantine history and canon law, and a philologer and paleographer of the manuscripts in that sphere....

, D.N. Egorov, Y.V. Gautier, N.V. Izmaylov, Nikolai Likhachev, M.K. Lyubavsky, A.M. Mervart, Sergey Platonov
Sergey Platonov
Sergey Fyodorovich Platonov was a Russian historian who led the official St Petersburg school of imperial historiography before and after the Russian Revolution.Platonov was born in Chernigov and attended a private gymnasium in St...

, S.V. Rozhdestvensky, Yevgeny Tarle
Yevgeny Tarle
Yevgeny Viktorovich Tarle was a Soviet historian and academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is known for his books about Napoleon's invasion of Russia and on the Crimean War, and many other works...

. In 1931 the Joint State Political Administration Board imposed another wave of punishments on research officers of various establishments of the Academy of Sciences, Russian Museum, Central Archives and others. This included A.A. Byalynitsky-Birulya, A.A. Dostoevsky, B.M. Engelgardt, N.S. Platonova, M.D. Priselkov, A.A. Putilov, S.V. Sigrist, F.F. Skribanovich, S.I. Tkhorzhevsky and A.I. Zaozersky). Some former Guards officers, who worked for the Academy of Sciences such as A.A. Kovanko and Y. A. Verzhbitsky, were executed by shooting. N.V. Raevsky, P.V. Wittenburg and D.N. Khalturin who had organized various expeditions, the priests A.V. Mitrotsky, M.V. Mitrotsky, and M.M. Girs (the church group), Professor E.B. Furman, Pastor A.F. Frishfeld (the German group) and F.I. Vityazev-Sedenko, S.S. Baranov-Galperson and E.G. Baranov-Galperson (the publishers group) were also punished.

Smaller commissions investigated institutions, thus the Commission for the Reorganisation of KIPS
Commission for the Study of the Tribal Composition of the Population of the Borderlands of Russia
The Commission for the Study of the Tribal Composition of the Population of the Borderlands of Russia was set up in February 1917 by Sergey Oldenburg under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences...

 and the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography subjected these organisations to "socialist criticism".

In 1934 the Academy headquarters moved from Leningrad
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

 (formerly Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

) to the Russian capital, Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, together with a number of academic institutes.

At the end of and first year after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the Academy consisted of 8 divisions (Physico-Mathematical Science, Chemical Sciences, Geological-Geographical Sciences, Biological Science, Technical Science, History and Philosophy, Economics and Law, Literature and Languages); 3 committees (one for coordinating the scientific work of the Academies of the Republics, one for scientific and technical propaganda, and one for editorial and publications), two commissions (for publishing popular scientific literature, and for museums and archives), a laboratory for scientific photography and cinematography and Academy of Science Press departments external to the divisions; 7 filials (Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

, Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

, Ural
Ural (region)
Ural is a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European and West Siberian plains. It extends approximately from north to south, from the Arctic Ocean to the bend of Ural River near Orsk city. The boundary between Europe and Asia runs along the eastern side of...

s, and West Siberian), and 8 independent of central Academies in Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

, Belorussia, Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

, Georgia
Georgia (country)
Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

, Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

, Latvia
Latvia
Latvia , officially the Republic of Latvia , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Estonia , to the south by Lithuania , to the east by the Russian Federation , to the southeast by Belarus and shares maritime borders to the west with Sweden...

, and Estonia
Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

.

The USSR Academy of Sciences helped to establish national Academies of Sciences in all Soviet republics (with the exception of the Russian SFSR and the Ukrainian State), in many cases delegating prominent scientists to live and work in other republics. In case of Ukraine, its academy was formed by local Ukrainian scientists and prior to the occupation of the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
The Ukrainian People's Republic or Ukrainian National Republic was a republic that was declared in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura.-Revolutionary Wave:...

 by Bolshevik
Bolshevik
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists , derived from bol'shinstvo, "majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903....

s. These academies were:
RepublicLocal NameEstablishedsuccessor
Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic or in short, the Ukrainian SSR was a sovereign Soviet Socialist state and one of the fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union lasting from its inception in 1922 to the breakup in 1991...

Українська академія наук 1918 National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was one of fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union. It was one of the four original founding members of the Soviet Union in 1922, together with the Ukrainian SSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic...

Акадэмія Навукаў Беларускай ССР 1929 National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus is the national academy of Belarus.-History:...

Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Uzbek SSR for short, was one of the republics of the Soviet Union since its creation in 1924...

Ўзбекистон ССР Фанлар академияси 1943 Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan
Kazakh SSR
Kazakh SSR
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Kazakh SSR for short, was one of republics that made up the Soviet Union.At in area, it was the second largest constituent republic in the USSR, after the Russian SFSR. Its capital was Alma-Ata . Today it is the independent state of...

Қазақ ССР Ғылым Академиясы 1946 National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Georgian SSR საქართველოს სსრ მეცნიერებათა აკადემია 1941 Georgian Academy of Sciences
Georgian Academy of Sciences
The Georgian National Academy of Sciences is a main learned society of the Georgia. It was named Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences until November 1990...

Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Azerbaijan SSR for short, was one of the republics that made up the former Soviet Union....

Азәрбајҹан ССР Елмләр Академијасы 1935 National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan
Lithuanian SSR
Lithuanian SSR
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Lithuanian SSR, was one of the republics that made up the former Soviet Union...

Lietuvos TSR Mokslų akademija 1941 Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
The Lithuanian Academy of Sciences or LAS, founded in 1941 as the Lithuanian SSR Academy of Sciences , as an autonomous, state-subsidized establishment serving as a scientific advisory body to the government of Lithuanian SSR...

Moldavian SSR
Moldavian SSR
The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic , commonly abbreviated to Moldavian SSR or MSSR, was one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union...

Академия де Штиинце а РСС Молдовенешть 1946 Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Academy of Sciences of Moldova
The Academy of Sciences of Moldova , established in 1946, is the main scientific organization of the Republic of Moldova and coordinates research in all areas of science and technology.- Presidents :...

Latvian SSR
Latvian SSR
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Latvian SSR for short, was one of the republics that made up the Soviet Union. Established on 21 July 1940 as a puppet state during World War II in the territory of the previously independent Republic of Latvia after it had been occupied by...

Latvijas PSR Zinātņu akadēmija 1946 Latvian Academy of Sciences
Latvian Academy of Sciences
The Academy of Sciences is the official science academy of Latvia and is an association of the country's foremost scientists. The academy was founded as the Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences . It is located in Riga...

Kirghiz SSR Кыргыз ССР Илимдер академиясы 1954 National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic
Tajik SSR
Tajik SSR
The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Tajik SSR for short, was one of the 15 republics that made up the Soviet Union. Located in Central Asia, the Tajik SSR was created on 5 December 1929 as a national entity for the Tajik people within the Soviet Union...

Академияи Фанҳои РСС Тоҷикистон 1953 Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan
Armenian SSR
Armenian SSR
The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet...

Հայկական ՍՍՀ գիտությունների ակադեմիա 1943 National Academy of Sciences of Armenia
Turkmen SSR
Turkmen SSR
The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Turkmen SSR for short, was one of republics of the Soviet Union in Central Asia. It was initially established on 7 August 1921 as the Turkmen Oblast of the Turkestan ASSR. On 13 May 1925 it was transformed into Turkmen SSR and became a...

Түркменистан ССР Ылымлар Академиясы 1951 Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan
Estonian SSR Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia 1946 Estonian Academy of Sciences
Estonian Academy of Sciences
Founded in 1938, the Estonian Academy of Sciences is Estonia's national academy of science. As with other national academies, it is an independent group of well-known scientists whose stated aim is to promote research and development, encourage international scientific cooperation, and...


Post-Soviet period


After the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was the disintegration of the federal political structures and central government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , resulting in the independence of all fifteen republics of the Soviet Union between March 11, 1990 and December 25, 1991...

, by decree of the President of Russia of December 2, 1991, the institute once again became the Russian Academy of Sciences, inheriting all facilities of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the territory of Russia.

near the academy building there the central monument of Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He was the first human to journey into outer space, when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth on April 12, 1961....

 in the square by his name.

Presidents of the Saint Petersburg, USSR, and Russian Academies of Sciences


The following persons occupied the position of the Academy's President (or, sometimes, Director):
  • Laurentius Blumentrost (Лаврентий Лаврентьевич Блюментрост), 1725—1733
  • Hermann-Karl von Keyserlingk (Герман Карл фон Кейзерлинг) 1733—1734
  • Johann Albert von Korff (Иоганн Альбрехт Корф), 1734—1740
  • Karl von Brevern (Карл фон Бреверн), 1740—1741
  • (Post vacant, April 1741—October 1766)
  • Count Kirill Razumovsky
    Kirill Razumovsky
    Count Kirill Grigorievich Razumovsky was a Ukrainian Registered Cossack from the Kozelets regiment in north-eastern Ukraine, who served as the last Hetman of Left- and Right-Bank Ukraine until 1764; Razumovsky was subsequently elected Hetman of the sovereign Zaporozhian Host in 1759, a position...

    , 1746—1766 (nominally, till 1798)
  • Count Vladimir Grigorievich Orlov
    Orlov
    Orlov is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. The family first gained distinction in the person of four Orlov brothers, of whom the senior was Catherine the Great's paramour, and the two junior were notable military...

     (Владимир Григорьевич Орлов), 1766—1774 (Director)
  • Aleksey Rzhevsky (Алексей Андреевич Ржевский), 1771—1773 (Director)
  • Sergey Domashnev (Сергей Герасимович Домашнев), 1775—1783 (Director)
  • Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova
    Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova
    Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment...

    , 1783—1796 (Director; sent into de facto retirement in 1794. Simultaneously served as the President of the Russian Academy
    Russian Academy
    The Russian Academy or Imperial Russian Academy was established in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1783 by Empress Catherine II of Russia and princess Dashkova as a research center for Russian language and Russian literature, following the example of the Académie française...

    )
  • Pavel Bakunin (Павел Петрович Бакунин), 1794—1796 (acting Director), 1796—1798 (Director). Simultaneously served as the President of the Russian Academy
    Russian Academy
    The Russian Academy or Imperial Russian Academy was established in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1783 by Empress Catherine II of Russia and princess Dashkova as a research center for Russian language and Russian literature, following the example of the Académie française...

  • Ludwig Heinrich von Nicolai
    Ludwig Heinrich von Nicolai
    Ludwig Heinrich von Nicolai was a poet of the Enlightenment, librarian, secretary, academician and the President of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.- Biography :...

    , 1798–1803
  • Nikolay Nikolayevich Novosiltsev
    Nikolay Nikolayevich Novosiltsev
    Count Nikolay Nikolayevich Novosiltsev was a Russian statesman and a close aide to Alexander I of Russia.He was a natural son of a wealthy nobleman, married to the aunt of Count Pavel Stroganov. This relationship secured for him a place in the Privy Committee that outlined the Government reform...

    , 1803—1810
  • (Post vacant, April 1810–Jan 1818)
  • Count Sergey Uvarov
    Sergey Uvarov
    Count Sergey Semionovich Uvarov was a Russian classical scholar best remembered as an influential imperial statesman....

    , 1818–1855
  • Dmitry Bludov
    Dmitry Bludov
    Count Dmitry Nikolayevich Bludov was a Russian imperial official who filled a variety of posts under Nicholas I - Deputy Education Minister , Minister of Justice , Minister of the Interior , Chief of the Second Section...

     (Дмитрий Николаевич Блудов), 1855–1864
  • Fyodor Petrovich Litke
    Fyodor Petrovich Litke
    Count Fyodor Petrovich Litke , born Friedrich Benjamin Lütke, was a Russian navigator, geographer, and Arctic explorer. He became a count in 1866, and an admiral in 1855. He was a Corresponding Member , Honorable Member , and President of the Russian Academy of Science in St.Petersburg...

    , 1864–1882
  • Count Dmitry Tolstoy
    Dmitry Tolstoy
    Count Dmitry Andreyevich Tolstoy was a Russian statesman, a member of the State Council of Imperial Russia . He belonged to the comital branch of the Tolstoy family....

    , 1882–1889
  • Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich of Russia
    Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich of Russia
    Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich of Russia was a grandson of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, and a poet and playwright of some renown...

    , 1889–1915
  • (Post vacant, June 1915–May 1917)
  • Alexander Karpinsky, 1917–1936
  • Vladimir Leontyevich Komarov
    Vladimir Leontyevich Komarov
    Vladimir Leontyevich Komarov was a Russian botanist.Until his death in 1945, he was senior editor of the Flora SSSR , in full comprising 30 volumes published between 1934–1960...

    , 1936–1945
  • Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov
    Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov
    Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov -Biography:Vavilov founded the Soviet school of physical optics, known by his works in luminescence. In 1934 he co-discovered the Vavilov-Cherenkov effect, a discovery for which Pavel Cherenkov was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1958...

    , 1945–1951
  • Alexander Nesmeyanov
    Alexander Nesmeyanov
    Alexander Nikolayevich Nesmeyanov was a prominent Soviet chemist and academician specializing in organometallic chemistry...

    , 1951–1961
  • Mstislav Keldysh
    Mstislav Keldysh
    Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh was a Soviet scientist in the field of mathematics and mechanics, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences , President of the USSR Academy of Sciences , three times Hero of Socialist Labor , fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh . He was one of the key figures...

    , 1961–1975
  • Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov
    Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov
    Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov was a Russian physicist, director of the Kurchatov Institute, academician and the President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences...

    , 1975–1986
  • Gury Marchuk
    Gury Marchuk
    Gury Ivanovich Marchuk is a prominent Soviet/Russian scientist in the fields of computational mathematics, and physics of atmosphere. Academician ; the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1986–1991...

    , 1986–1991
  • Yury Osipov
    Yury Osipov
    Yury Sergeevich Osipov is a Soviet and Russian mathematician. He is a full member and the president of the Russian Academy of Sciences.- Biography :...

    , since 1991


Nobel Prize laureates affiliated with the Academy


  • Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, medicine, 1904
  • Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov
    Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov
    Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was a Russian biologist, zoologist and protozoologist, best remembered for his pioneering research into the immune system. Mechnikov received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1908, shared with Paul Ehrlich, for his work on phagocytosis...

    , medicine, 1908
  • Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin
    Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin
    Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin was the first Russian writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature for the strict artistry with which he carried on the classical Russian traditions in the writing of prose and poetry...

    , literature, 1933
  • Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov, chemistry, 1956
  • Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm, physics, 1958
  • Ilya Mikhailovich Frank, physics, 1958
  • Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov
    Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov
    Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov was a Soviet physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in physics in 1958 with Ilya Frank and Igor Tamm for the discovery of Cherenkov radiation, made in 1934.-Biography:...

    , physics, 1958
  • Lev Davidovich Landau, physics, 1962
  • Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov, physics, 1964
  • Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
    Alexander Mikhaylovich Prokhorov was a Russian physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov....

    , physics, 1964
  • Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov, literature, 1965
  • Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, literature, 1970
  • Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich, economics, 1975
  • Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, peace, 1975
  • Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, physics, 1978
  • Zhores Ivanovich Alferov
    Zhores Ivanovich Alferov
    Zhores Ivanovich Alferov is a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He is an inventor of the heterotransistor and the winner of 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics. He is also a Russian politician and has...

    , physics, 2000
  • Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov
    Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov
    Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov is a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist whose main contributions are in the field of condensed matter physics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2003.- Biography :...

    , physics, 2003
  • Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, physics, 2003
  • Andre Geim
    Andre Geim
    Andre Konstantin Geim, FRS is a Dutch-Russian-British physicist working at the University of Manchester. Geim was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Konstantin Novoselov for his work on graphene...

    , physics, 2010


See also



  • Akademgorodok in Krasnoyarsk
    Akademgorodok (Krasnoyarsk)
    Akademgorodok – a major scientific center of Siberia; located in the west of the city Krasnoyarsk . Set up during the Soviet times, it was a healthier, privileged enclave for academics to live in, with plenty of trees and vegetation throughout, while the dirtier industrial areas were...

  • Akademgorodok in Novosibirsk
    Akademgorodok
    Akademgorodok , is a part of the Russian city Novosibirsk, located 20 km south of the city center. It is the educational and scientific centre of Siberia...

  • Akademgorodok in Tomsk
    Akademgorodok (Tomsk)
    Tomsk Akademgorodok is an estate in the Soviet area of Tomsk, Siberian Federal District, in which are research institutes, and have employees of the Tomsk Scientific Center Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences . Tomsk Akademgorodok is located in the eastern part of the Tomsk and on all...

  • Lev Davidovich Belkind
    Lev Davidovich Belkind
    Prof. Lev Davidovich Belkind was a Soviet scientist, engineer and historian; author of numerous publications on the history of science and technology....

     has released a number of books on the unique contribution of Russian scientists and engineers to the technological progress.
  • Constitutional economics
    Constitutional economics
    Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as extending beyond the definition of 'the economic analysis of constitutional law' in explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the...

  • Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • List of Russian explorers
  • List of Russian inventors
  • List of Russian scientists
  • Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory
    Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory
    Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory is a Russian radio astronomy observatory. It was developed by Lebedev Physical Institute , Russian Academy of Sciences within a span of twenty years...

  • Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records
    Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records
    Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records encompasses the key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the modern Russian Federation....



External links