Ramón Castroviejo Briones
(1904–1987) was a famous Spanish and American eye surgeon remembered for his achievements in corneal transplantation.
Born in Logroño
Logroño is a city in northern Spain, on the Ebro River. It is the capital of the autonomous community of La Rioja, formerly known as La Rioja Province.The population of Logroño in 2008 was 153,736 and a metropolitan population of nearly 197,000 inhabitants...
, Spain he received his medical education at the University of Madrid
The Complutense University of Madrid is a public university in Madrid, Spain, and one of the oldest universities in the world.The University of Madrid may also refer to:* The Autonomous University of Madrid, a public university founded in 1968...
. He graduated in 1927 and worked at the Chicago Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital and the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit medical practice and medical research group specializing in treating difficult patients . Patients are referred to Mayo Clinic from across the U.S. and the world, and it is known for innovative and effective treatments. Mayo Clinic is known for being at the top of...
before, in 1931, he came to Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center
NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital is a prominent university hospital in New York City affiliated with two Ivy League medical schools: Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons and Cornell University's Weill Medical College. It is composed of two distinct medical centers, Columbia...
in New York. He became the director of Ophthalmology at St. Vincent's Hospital
Saint Vincent Catholic Medical Centers ' was a healthcare system, anchored by its flagship hospital, St. Vincent's Hospital Manhattan, locally referred to as "St. Vincent's". St. Vincent's was founded in 1849 and closed in 2010...
before he opened his own hospital when he bought the Hammond House. After his retirement he moved to Madrid where he died.
While not being the first to successfully graft human cornea, he improved the technique of the operation in the 1930s and 1940s, prompting the worldwide adoption of corneal transplantation as a standard way to deal with severe corneal pathology. His keratoplasty technique remained standard until more efficient suture materials became available.
Castroviejo designed the Castroviejo needle holder, an instrument used in eye and microsurgery
Microsurgery is a general term for surgery requiring an operating microscope. The most obvious developments have been procedures developed to allow anastomosis of successively smaller blood vessels and nerves which have allowed transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another and...
- Vladimir Filatov - a Soviet contemporary of Castroviejo that was also a pioneer in corneal transplantation.
Books, articles by Castroviejo