Martins, proposal B
However, Epps considers Hup and Yahup to be distinct languages, and maintains that the inclusion of the poorly attested Nukak and Kakwa has not been demonstrated and is in fact highly dubious:
In addition, Kuri-Dou (qpz
) is extinct
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers., or that is no longer in current use. Extinct languages are sometimes contrasted with dead languages, which are still known and used in special contexts in written form, but not as ordinary spoken languages for everyday communication...
; it had two dialects, Kurikuriaí and Dou.
Dâw and Hup—especially Hup—have undergone grammatical restructuring under Tucano
Tucano is a Tucanoan language spoken in Amazonas, Brazil and Colombia.Many speakers of the endangered Tariana language are switching to Tucano.-Bibliography:* Campbell,...
influence. They have lost prefixes but acquired suffixes from grammaticalized verb roots. They also have heavily monosyllabic roots, as can be seen by the reduction of Portuguese loan words to their stressed syllable, as in Dâw yẽl’
"money", from Portuguese dinheiru.
Nadëb and Nïkâk, on the other hand, have polysyllabic roots. Nïkâk allows a single prefix per word, whereas Nadëb, which lies outside the Vaupés language area, is heavily prefixing and polysynthetic: Up to nine prefixes per word (which is highly unusual for the Amazon), with incorporation
Incorporation is a phenomenon by which a word, usually a verb, forms a kind of compound with, for instance, its direct object or adverbial modifier, while retaining its original syntactic function....
of nouns, prepositions, and adverbs.
Rivet (from 1920), Kaufman (1994) and Pozzobon (1997) include Puinave within the family. However, many of the claimed cognate sets are spurious.
Henley, Mattéi-Müller and Reid (1996) present evidence that the Hodï language
The Hodï language, also known as Yuwana , Waruwaru, or Chikano , is a small unclassified language of Venezuela...
( Yuwana) is related.
Puinavean forms part of a hypothetical Macro-Puinavean
Macro-Puinavean is a hypothetical proposal linking some very poorly attested languages to the Nadahup family. The Puinave language is sometimes linked specifically with the Nadahup languages , as Puinave–Maku, and the Borowa language is sometimes connected to the Arutani–Sape languages in a...
family along with the Katukinan
Katukinan is a language group consisting of three languages in Brazil.*Kanamarí*Katawixi*Katukína-References:*Alain Fabre, 2005, Diccionario etnolingüístico y guía bibliográfica de los pueblos indígenas sudamericanos: KATUKINA...
and Arutani–Sape families and the Maku
The Borówa language, commonly known as Macu, Makú, Macó, or, to distinguish it from other languages given this name, Máku, is an unclassified language spoken on the Brazil–Venezuela border in Roraima along the Uraricoera River. The Borowa territory was formerly between the Padamo and Cunucunuma...
isolate (not to be confused with the Maku languages above).
Macro-Puinavean is included in Joseph Greenberg
Joseph Harold Greenberg was a prominent and controversial American linguist, principally known for his work in two areas, linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.- Early life and career :...
's larger Macro-Tucanoan
stock, but this is generally rejected. Another larger grouping is Morris Swadesh
Morris Swadesh was an influential and controversial American linguist. In his work, he applied basic concepts in historical linguistics to the Indigenous languages of the Americas...