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was a title in Indian Buddhism awarded to scholars who have mastered the five sciences
Pañcavidyā , five classes of knowledge of ancient India. The five sciences are: science of language , science of logic , science of medicine , science of fine arts and crafts , and science of spirituality .The first four are common for all schools and the latter is the theory of each...
; Tib. rigné chenpo nga
; Wyl. rig gnas chen po lnga
) in which a learned person was traditionally supposed to be well-versed.
The five sciences are: science of language (śabdavidyā
), science of logic (hetuvidyā
), science of medicine (cikitsāvidyā
), science of fine arts and crafts (śilakarmasthānavidyā
), and science of spirituality (adhyātmavidyā
). The stipulation can be traced to (but may well predate) the Mahāyāna-sūtrālamkāra-kārikā
, which states: "Without becoming a scholar in the five sciences, not even the supreme sage can become omniscient. For the sake of refuting and supporting others, and for the sake of knowing everything himself, he makes an effort in these [five sciences]
The first (and one of the only) Tibetans afforded the title was Sakya Pandita
. For other notable Buddhists afforded the title, see Pandita
Paṇḍita is a Sanskrit word meaning learned master. The word pundit is derived from pandit or pandita...