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The National Garden Festivals
were part of the cultural regeneration of large areas of derelict land in Britain's industrial district
Industrial district was initially introduced as a term to describe an area where workers of a monolithic heavy industry live within walking-distance of their places of work...
s during the 1980s and early 1990s. Five were held in total - one every two years, each in a different town or city - after the idea was pushed by environment secretary Michael Heseltine
Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC is a British businessman, Conservative politician and patron of the Tory Reform Group. He was a Member of Parliament from 1966 to 2001 and was a prominent figure in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major...
in 1980. They were based on the German post-war Bundesgartenschau
The Bundesgartenschau is the biennial Federal horticulture show in Germany. It also covers topics like landscaping. Taking place in different cities, the location changes in a two-year cycle....
concept for reclaiming large areas of derelict land in cities, and cost from £25-million to £70 million each. They reclaimed the contaminated ex-sites of large industrial concerns such as steelworks. A good general reference on the subject is Grounds for Review: The Garden Festival in Urban Planning and Design
by Andrew Theokas.
- Liverpool Garden Festival, 1984. Now a mix of housing and derelict sites.
- Stoke-on-Trent Garden Festival
The Stoke-on-Trent National Garden Festival was the second of Britain's National Garden Festivals. It was held in the city from 1 May to 26 October 1986, and was opened by the Queen. Preparation of the site involved the reclamation of land formerly occupied by the Shelton Bar steelworks , about...
, 1986. Now mostly maturing garden parkland, with some retail and offices.
- Glasgow Garden Festival
The Glasgow Garden Festival was the third of the United Kingdom's five National Garden Festivals, and the only one to take place in Scotland.It was held in Glasgow between 26 April and 26 September 1988...
, 1988. Now the Glasgow Science Centre
Glasgow Science Centre is a visitor attraction located on the south bank of the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. It is a purpose-built science centre composed of three principal buildings which are the Science Mall, an IMAX cinema and the Glasgow Tower...
, and a digital media village on the banks of the River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....
- Gateshead Garden Festival
The Gateshead Garden Festival was the fourth of the United Kingdom's five National Garden Festivals. Held between May and October 1990, in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, it lasted 157 days, and received over three million visitors. Attractions included public art displays, a Ferris wheel, and dance,...
, 1990. Now a housing estate.
- Ebbw Vale Garden Festival
The Ebbw Vale Garden Festival of Wales attracted over two million visitors to this small town in South Wales.- What were the National Garden Festivals?:...
, 1992. Now mostly housing, in parkland and woodland.