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Mpande

Mpande

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Mpande uMsimude owavela ngesiluba phakathi kwamaNgisi namaQadasi, as he was praised, was king
Monarch
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

 of the Zulu
Zulu Kingdom
The Zulu Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or, rather imprecisely, Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north....

 nation from 1840 to 1872, making him the longest reigning Zulu king. He was a half-brother of Shaka
Shaka
Shaka kaSenzangakhona , also known as Shaka Zulu , was the most influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom....

 and Dingane
Dingane
Dingane kaSenzangakhona Zulu —commonly referred to as Dingane or Dingaan—was a Zulu chief who became king of the Zulu Kingdom in 1828...

, who both preceded him as kings of the Zulu. He was born in Babanango, Zululand
Zulu Kingdom
The Zulu Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or, rather imprecisely, Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north....

.
He was considered a weak man in comparison to his contemporaries, and while other half-brothers were removed he was allowed to live. When Dingane instructed his chief inDuna
InDuna
InDuna is a Zulu title meaning advisor, great leader, ambassador, headman, or commander of group of warriors. It can also mean spokesperson or mediator as the izinDuna often acted as a bridge between the people and the king...

 Ndlela kaSompisi
Ndlela kaSompisi
Ndlela kaSompisi was a key general to Zulu Kings Shaka and Dingane.-Upbringing:Ndlela grew up in the Zulu household where his father Sompisi ka Gugqa was an influential advisor to King Senzangakona. His sister Bibi was one of Senzangakona's wives...

 to assassinate him, Ndlela repeatedly delayed, as he realised that Mpande was the only son to have had any children, and Ndlela considered the continuation of the blood line crucial to the stability of the Zulu nation. Ndlela was tortured to death by Dingane for his inaction. Mpande had many sons, among which was Cetshwayo, his successor, Mbuyazwe, Dabulamanzi, Ndabuko, Sitheku, to name but a few.

In January 1840 Andries Pretorius
Andries Pretorius
Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic, in present-day South Africa....

 helped Mpande in his revolt against his half-brother Dingane, who was killed on an expedition north in the Hlatikhulu Forest
Hlatikhulu Forest
Hlatikulu Forest is a Coastal Scarp Forest in the Lebombo Mountains of South Africa, between Ingwavuma and the Pongola Gorge. The forest is also known as the Gwaliweni Forest.-History:...

.

Rules of succession in the Zulu monarchy were sketchy at best, but tradition had it that the first son of the Great wife be successor. Unfortunately, the king could pick which of his wives was the Great wife, and even change his mind - which Mpande did.

Succession was eventually settled by the Battle of Ndondakusuka between rivals Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo kaMpande was the King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1872 to 1879 and their leader during the Anglo-Zulu War . His name has been transliterated as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo and Ketchwayo.- Early life :...

 and Mbulazi, who was supported by John Dunn
John Dunn (1834-1895)
John Robert Dunn was a South African settler, hunter, and diplomat of Scottish descent. Born in either Port Elizabeth or Port Natal in 1834, he spent his childhood in Port Natal/Durban....

, on the banks of the Tugela River
Tugela River
The Tugela River is the largest river in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. The river originates in the Drakensberg Mountains, Mont-aux-Sources, and plunges 947 metres down the Tugela Falls...

. Cetshwayo won, and though Mpande did not relinquish power for over a year, Cetshwayo was effectively in control.
|-
| colspan=3 align=center | King of the Zulu Nation
|-
| align="center" | Preceded by:
Dingane
Dingane
Dingane kaSenzangakhona Zulu —commonly referred to as Dingane or Dingaan—was a Zulu chief who became king of the Zulu Kingdom in 1828...


| align="center" | Reign
1840-1872
| align="center" | Succeeded by:
Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo
Cetshwayo kaMpande was the King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1872 to 1879 and their leader during the Anglo-Zulu War . His name has been transliterated as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo and Ketchwayo.- Early life :...