Historically, the first military communications
had the form of sending/receiving simple signals (often hidden or encoded
Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties...
to be unrecognizable for the enemy). Respectively, the first distinctive tactics of military communications were called Signals
, while units specializing in those tactics received the Signal Corps
name. Later Signals
In the armed forces, a signaller or signaleer is a specialist soldier or seaman or airman responsible for military communications. Signallers, aka Combat Signallers or signalmen or women, are commonly employed as radio or telephone operators, relaying messages for field commanders at the front line...
became a highly-distinct military occupation dealing rather with general communications methods (similar to those in civil
A civilian under international humanitarian law is a person who is not a member of his or her country's armed forces or other militia. Civilians are distinct from combatants. They are afforded a degree of legal protection from the effects of war and military occupation...
use) than with weapons.
Present-day militaries of an informational society conduct very intense and complicated communicating activities on a daily basis, using modern high-tech telecommunications and computing
Computing is usually defined as the activity of using and improving computer hardware and software. It is the computer-specific part of information technology...
methods. Only a small part of these activities is immediately related to the combat actions. That's why some prefer the term "military communications".
In 1934, the USSR invented the first military based equipment inside an automotive vehicle.
Network-centric warfare, also called network-centric operations, is a military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense in the 1990's....
(NCW) relies on network
A telecommunications network is a collection of terminals, links and nodes which connect together to enable telecommunication between users of the terminals. Networks may use circuit switching or message switching. Each terminal in the network must have a unique address so messages or connections...
-oriented methods of communications and control to make existing forces vastly more effective.
Military communications equipment
Many pieces of military communications equipment are built to encrypt and decode transmissions
Transmission, in telecommunications, is the process of sending, propagating and receiving an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless...
and survive rough treatment in hostile climates. They use many frequencies
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency.The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency...
to send signals to other radios and to satellites.
Military comms are activities, equipments, techniques and tactics used by the Military in some of the most hostile areas of the earth not only geographically but also from the point of view of the conditions of operations and equipment functionality like in battle fields, on land, underwater, air and whatever other conditions one can encounter. Military comms includes Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence which is also known as the C3I model. The Command here refers to the communication with the Highest Command in the country.
The first military comms tool was the communication automobile designed by the Soviet Union in 1934. The basics of the communications in the beginning was the sending and receiving of signals – which were encoded so that the enemy would not be able to get hold of any top secret communication. Then the advent of distinctive signals which lead to the formation of the Signal Corps, this corp., specialised in tactics of military comms. They evolved into a distinctive occupation where the signaller became a highly technical job where they dealt with all available communications methods including the civil methods.
In today’s world where war is to be avoided at all costs the role of the military comms is more intense, complicated, hi-tech, bordering on futuristic with the communication satellites, reconnaissance drones and aircraft. Computers and their varied uses have revolutionised military comms. Fortunately these activities are not only related to action in combat but also gathering intelligence to prevent war.
There are 6 categories of military comms, the alert measurement systems, cryptography, military radio systems, nuclear command control and the signal corps. Another new concept is network-centric warfare.
The alert measurement systems – these are various state of alert or readiness for the armed forces used world over – be it a state of war, terrorism or military attack against a state. They are known by different acronyms or example – DEFCON, INFOCON and REDCON in the US military comms and BIKINI states in the British protocol.
Cryptography is the study of methods of converting readable messages into guised unreadable information, unless one knows of the methods of decryption. This military comms method ensured that the messages reached the correct hands and eyes or ears. Nowadays digital cash, signatures, digital rights management and intellectual property rights and secure electronic commerce are its new purviews. It is also being used in computing, telecommunications and infrastructure.
There are close to 97 different categories of military comms by radio. To name a few are ACP-131, AN/ARC-164, AN/ARC-5, HWU transmitter, Hallicrafters SX-28, SCR-197, SCR-203, SCR-270 radar, etc.
- Command and control
- Signal Corps
The Signal Corps is a military branch, usually subordinate to a country's army, responsible for the military communications .Many countries have a Signal Corps, whose main function is usually communication .* Arma de Comunicaciones, signals branch of the Argentine Army* Arma delle...
- Communications protection
In telecommunications, communications protection is the application of communications security measures to telecommunications systems in order to: deny unauthorized access to sensitive unclassified information of value, prevent disruption of telecommunications services, or ensure the...
- Electronic warfare
Electronic warfare refers to any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to control the spectrum, attack an enemy, or impede enemy assaults via the spectrum. The purpose of electronic warfare is to deny the opponent the advantage of, and ensure friendly...
- Signals intelligence (SIGINT)
Signals intelligence is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether between people , whether involving electronic signals not directly used in communication , or combinations of the two...
- Defence Information Infrastructure
Defence Information Infrastructure is a secure military network owned by the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence MoD. It covers the various branches of the armed forces, including the Royal Navy, British Army and Royal Air Force as well as MOD Civil Servants...
- Kiev Military Institute of Control and Signals
Kiev Military Institute of Control and Signals is an institution of higher military education in Ukraine, located in its capital city of Kiev. Subordinated to the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the Institute is training officers specializing in signals, combat control, radio reconnaissance and...
Bowman is the name of the tactical communications system used by the British Armed Forces.The Bowman C4I system consists of a range of HF radio, VHF radio and UHF radio sets designed to provide secure integrated voice, data services to dismounted soldiers, individual vehicles and command HQs up to...
(British Army Communications System)
Parakeet is an Australian Army mobile battlefield communication system. It was introduced into service in the mid 1990s through project JP65. Parakeet was considered advanced military communications. This included secure voice and data trunking services. Project JP2072 has been recently raised to...
(Australian Army Communications System)
- Military Wireless Museum in the Midlands
The Military Wireless Museum in the Midlands is presently a Virtual Museum operated from Kidderminster, Worcestershire which displays the collection of military wireless equipment from around the world...