Metropolitan Police Service

Metropolitan Police Service

Overview
The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the territorial police force
Territorial police force
The phrase Territorial Police Force varies in precise meaning according to the country to which it is related, generally distinguishing a force whose area of responsibility is defined by sub-national boundaries from others which deal with the entire country or a restricted range of...

 responsible for Greater London
Greater London
Greater London is the top-level administrative division of England covering London. It was created in 1965 and spans the City of London, including Middle Temple and Inner Temple, and the 32 London boroughs. This territory is coterminate with the London Government Office Region and the London...

, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London
City of London
The City of London is a small area within Greater London, England. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of...

 which is the responsibility of the City of London Police
City of London Police
The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, England, including the Middle and Inner Temple. The service responsible for law enforcement within the rest of Greater London is the Metropolitan Police Service, a separate...

. The MPS also has significant national responsibilities such as co-ordinating and leading on counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism is the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and imputed.The tactic of terrorism is available to insurgents and governments...

 matters and protection
Executive Protection
Executive Protection also known as Close Personal Protection or bodyguarding refers to security measures taken to ensure the safety of VIPs or other individuals who may be exposed to elevated personal risk because of their employment, celebrity status, wealth, associations or geographical...

 of the British Royal Family
British Royal Family
The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with...

 and senior figures of Her Majesty's Government
Government of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Government is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Government is led by the Prime Minister, who selects all the remaining Ministers...

.

At the end of July 2011, the MPS employed 49,534 (full-time) personnel. This included 31,920 sworn police officers, 13,727 non-police staff, and 3,887 non-sworn Police Community Support Officer
Police community support officer
A police community support officer , or community support officer is a uniformed non-warranted officer employed by a territorial police force or the British Transport Police in England and Wales. Police community support officers were introduced in September 2002 by the Police Reform Act 2002...

s.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Metropolitan Police Service'
Start a new discussion about 'Metropolitan Police Service'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the territorial police force
Territorial police force
The phrase Territorial Police Force varies in precise meaning according to the country to which it is related, generally distinguishing a force whose area of responsibility is defined by sub-national boundaries from others which deal with the entire country or a restricted range of...

 responsible for Greater London
Greater London
Greater London is the top-level administrative division of England covering London. It was created in 1965 and spans the City of London, including Middle Temple and Inner Temple, and the 32 London boroughs. This territory is coterminate with the London Government Office Region and the London...

, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London
City of London
The City of London is a small area within Greater London, England. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of...

 which is the responsibility of the City of London Police
City of London Police
The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, England, including the Middle and Inner Temple. The service responsible for law enforcement within the rest of Greater London is the Metropolitan Police Service, a separate...

. The MPS also has significant national responsibilities such as co-ordinating and leading on counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism is the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and imputed.The tactic of terrorism is available to insurgents and governments...

 matters and protection
Executive Protection
Executive Protection also known as Close Personal Protection or bodyguarding refers to security measures taken to ensure the safety of VIPs or other individuals who may be exposed to elevated personal risk because of their employment, celebrity status, wealth, associations or geographical...

 of the British Royal Family
British Royal Family
The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with...

 and senior figures of Her Majesty's Government
Government of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Government is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Government is led by the Prime Minister, who selects all the remaining Ministers...

.

At the end of July 2011, the MPS employed 49,534 (full-time) personnel. This included 31,920 sworn police officers, 13,727 non-police staff, and 3,887 non-sworn Police Community Support Officer
Police community support officer
A police community support officer , or community support officer is a uniformed non-warranted officer employed by a territorial police force or the British Transport Police in England and Wales. Police community support officers were introduced in September 2002 by the Police Reform Act 2002...

s. There were also 5,232 Special Constables
Metropolitan Special Constabulary
The Metropolitan Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer police force of Greater London's Metropolitan Police Service. Created nearly 180 years ago under the Special Constables Act of 1831, it currently consists of nearly 5,000 volunteer police officers...

, who work part-time (a minimum of 16 hours a month). This makes it the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, and one of the biggest forces in the world.

The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis is the head of London's Metropolitan Police Service, classing the holder as a chief police officer...

, known commonly as Commissioner, is the overall operational leader of the force, responsible and accountable to the Metropolitan Police Authority
Metropolitan Police Authority
The Metropolitan Police Authority is the police authority responsible for supervising the Metropolitan Police Service, the police force for Greater London ....

. The post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan
Charles Rowan
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Charles Rowan KCB was an officer in the British Army, serving in the Peninsular War and Waterloo and the joint first Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, head of the London Metropolitan Police....

 and Sir Richard Mayne
Richard Mayne
Sir Richard Mayne KCB was a barrister and the joint first Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police...

. The post is currently occupied by Bernard Hogan-Howe
Bernard Hogan-Howe
Bernard Hogan-Howe, QPM is the present Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis . He was previously Chief Constable of Merseyside Police, an Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, and more recently one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of Constabulary.On 18 July 2011, the Home Secretary...

, QPM.

A number of informal names and abbreviations exists for the Metropolitan Police Service, such as "the Met", "Met Pol", "MP" and "the MPS". In colloquial London (or Cockney) slang, it is referred to as the "Old Bill". In statute
Statute
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city, or county. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. The word is often used to distinguish law made by legislative bodies from case law, decided by courts, and regulations...

s it is referred to in the lower case as the "metropolitan police force" or the "metropolitan police", without the appendage "service". The MPS is also referred to by the metonym Scotland Yard
Scotland Yard
Scotland Yard is a metonym for the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service of London, UK. It derives from the location of the original Metropolitan Police headquarters at 4 Whitehall Place, which had a rear entrance on a street called Great Scotland Yard. The Scotland Yard entrance became...

 after the location of its original headquarters in and around Great Scotland Yard, Whitehall
Whitehall
Whitehall is a road in Westminster, in London, England. It is the main artery running north from Parliament Square, towards Charing Cross at the southern end of Trafalgar Square...

. The current headquarters of the MPS is New Scotland Yard
Scotland Yard
Scotland Yard is a metonym for the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service of London, UK. It derives from the location of the original Metropolitan Police headquarters at 4 Whitehall Place, which had a rear entrance on a street called Great Scotland Yard. The Scotland Yard entrance became...

.

History


The Metropolitan Police Service was founded in 1829, under the Metropolitan Police Act
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
The Metropolitan Police Act 1829 was an Act of Parliament introduced by Sir Robert Peel and passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act established the Metropolitan Police of London , replacing the previously disorganized system of parish constables and watchmen...

, and at that time merged with the River Thames Marine Police Force
Marine Police Force
The Marine Police Force, sometimes known as the Thames River Police and said to be England's first Police force, was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and a Master Mariner, John Harriott, in 1798 to tackle theft and looting from ships anchored in the Pool of London and the lower reaches of the...

 which had been formed in 1798.

Police area and other forces


The police area
Police area
A police area is the area for which a territorial police force in the United Kingdom is responsible for policing.Every location in the United Kingdom has a designated territorial police force with statutory responsibility for providing policing services and enforcing criminal law, which is set out...

 policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District
Metropolitan Police District
The Metropolitan Police District is the police area which is policed by London's Metropolitan Police Service. It currently consists of Greater London, excluding the City of London.-History:...

 (MPD). In terms of geographic policing the MPS is divided into a number of Borough Operational Command Units which directly align with the 32 London borough
London borough
The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. Inner London comprises twelve of these boroughs plus the City of London. Outer London comprises the twenty remaining boroughs of Greater London.-Functions:...

s covered. The City of London
City of London
The City of London is a small area within Greater London, England. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of...

 (which is not a London borough) is a separate police area and is the responsibility of the separate City of London Police
City of London Police
The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, England, including the Middle and Inner Temple. The service responsible for law enforcement within the rest of Greater London is the Metropolitan Police Service, a separate...

.

The Ministry of Defence Police
Ministry of Defence Police
The Ministry of Defence Police is a civilian police force which is part of the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence. The force is part of the larger government agency, the Ministry of Defence Police and Guarding Agency , together with the Ministry of Defence Guard Service...

 are responsible for policing of Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces....

 property throughout the United Kingdom, including its headquarters in Whitehall and other MoD establishments across the MPD.

The British Transport Police
British Transport Police
The British Transport Police is a special police force that polices those railways and light-rail systems in Great Britain for which it has entered into an agreement to provide such services...

 is responsible for policing of the rail network in the United Kingdom
Rail transport in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and previously consisted of Great Britain and the whole of Ireland. Rail transport systems developed independently on the two islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and most of the railway construction in the Republic of Ireland was...

, including London. Within London, they are also responsible for policing of the London Underground
London Underground
The London Underground is a rapid transit system serving a large part of Greater London and some parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Essex in England...

, Tramlink
Tramlink
Tramlink is a tramway system in south London in the United Kingdom which began operation in May 2000...

 and the Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
The Docklands Light Railway is an automated light metro or light rail system opened on 31 August 1987 to serve the redeveloped Docklands area of London...

.

The English part of the Royal Parks Constabulary
Royal Parks Constabulary
The Royal Parks Constabulary was the police force formerly responsible for the Royal Parks in London and a number of other locations in Greater London, England and Edinburgh, Scotland; it now only exists in Scotland as part of Historic Scotland....

, which patrolled a number of Greater London's major parks, was merged with the Metropolitan Police in 2004 and is now policed by the Royal Parks Operational Command Unit
Royal Parks Operational Command Unit
The Royal Parks Operational Command Unit is a unit of the Metropolitan Police which has responsibility for policing the Royal Parks found in central London....

. There is also a small park police force, the Kew Constabulary, responsible for the Royal Botanic Gardens
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, usually referred to as Kew Gardens, is 121 hectares of gardens and botanical glasshouses between Richmond and Kew in southwest London, England. "The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" and the brand name "Kew" are also used as umbrella terms for the institution that runs...

, whose officers have full police powers within the park. A few London borough councils maintain their own borough park constabularies, though their remit only extends to park by-laws, and although they are sworn as constables under laws applicable to parks, their powers are not equal to those of constables appointed under the Police Acts, meaning that they are not police officers.

It should be noted that despite these specialist police forces the MPS is statutorily responsible for law and order throughout the MPD and can take on primacy of any incident or investigation within it.

MPS officers have legal jurisdiction throughout all of England and Wales, including areas which have their own special police forces, such as the Ministry of Defence, as do all police officers of territorial police forces. Officers also have limited powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Within the MPD, the MPS will take over the investigation of any serious crime from the British Transport Police and Ministry of Defence Police if it is deemed appropriate. Terrorist incidents and complex murder enquiries will almost always be investigated by the MPS, with the assistance of any relevant specialist force, even if they are committed on railway or Ministry of Defence property. (A minor oddity to the normal jurisdiction of territorial police officers in England and Wales is that MPS officers involved in protection duties of the Royal Family and other VIPs have full police powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland in connection with those duties.)

Organisation and structure


The Metropolitan Police Service is organised into five main directorates, each with differing responsibilities. They are Territorial Policing, Specialist Crime Directorate, Specialist Operations, Central Operations, and administration and support. Each is overseen by an Assistant Commissioner, or in the case of administrative departments a director of police staff which is the equivalent civil staff grade. The management board is made up of the Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner and internal department heads.

Ranks


The Metropolitan Police Service uses the standard United Kingdom police ranks, indicated by shoulder boards, up to Chief Superintendent
Chief Superintendent
Chief superintendent is a senior rank in police forces organised on the British model.- United Kingdom :In the British police, a chief superintendent is senior to a superintendent and junior to an assistant chief constable .The highest rank below Chief Officer level, chief...

, but it has five ranks above that level instead of the standard three.

The MPS approved the use of name badges in October 2003, with new recruits wearing the Velcro badges from September 2004. The badge consists of the wearer's rank, followed by their surname.

Following controversy over assaults by uniformed officers with concealed shoulder identification numbers during the G20 summit
2009 G-20 London summit protests
The 2009 G-20 London summit protests occurred in the days around the G-20 summit on 2 April 2009, which was the focus of protests from a number of groups over various long-standing and topical issues...

, Commissioner Sir Paul Stephenson said, "the public has a right to be able to identify any uniformed officer whilst performing their duty" by their shoulder identification numbers.

The MPS rank structure, with shoulder badge features, is as follows:
  • Special Constable
    Special Constabulary
    The Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer section of a statutory police force in the United Kingdom or some Crown dependencies. Its officers are known as Special Constables or informally as Specials.Every United Kingdom territorial police force has a special constabulary except the...

    (SC or MSC): an SC Crown, Divisional call sign and shoulder number.
  • Police Constable (PC): Divisional call sign and shoulder number.
  • Sergeant (Sgt or PS): Three pointing-down chevrons above divisional call sign and shoulder number. An 'acting' sergeant, such as a substantive constable being paid an allowance to undertake the duties of a sergeant for a short period of time, displays two pointing-down chevrons above the divisional call sign, and shoulder number. The use of three chevrons by an acting sergeant is technically incorrect, and should only be used during a period of temporary promotion.
  • Inspector (Insp): Two Order of the Bath
    Order of the Bath
    The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate mediæval ceremony for creating a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as Knights of the Bath...

     stars, informally known as "pips".
  • Chief Inspector (C/Insp): Three pips.
  • Superintendent (Supt): Single crown.
  • Chief Superintendent (C/Supt): Single crown over one pip.
  • Commander (Cdr): Crossed tipstaves
    Tipstaff
    The Tipstaff is an officer of a court or, in some countries, a law clerk to a judge. The duties of the position vary from country to country.-History:...

     in a bayleaf wreath. This is the first ACPO
    Association of Chief Police Officers
    The Association of Chief Police Officers , established in 1948, is a private limited company that leads the development of policing practice in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.ACPO provides a forum for chief police officers to share ideas and coordinates the strategic...

     rank.
  • Deputy Assistant Commissioner
    Deputy Assistant Commissioner
    Deputy assistant commissioner is a rank in London's Metropolitan Police Service between assistant commissioner and commander. It is equivalent to deputy chief constable in other British police forces and wears the same insignia: a pip above crossed tipstaves within a wreath.The rank was introduced...

    (DAC): One pip over Commander's badge.
  • Assistant Commissioner
    Assistant Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
    Assistant Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, usually just Assistant Commissioner , is the third highest rank in London's Metropolitan Police, ranking below Deputy Commissioner and above Deputy Assistant Commissioner. There are usually four officers in the rank...

    (AC): Crown over Commander's badge.
  • Deputy Commissioner
    Deputy Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
    The Deputy Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, commonly referred to simply as the Deputy Commissioner, is the second-in-command of London's Metropolitan Police Service. The rank is senior to Assistant Commissioner, but junior by one rank to Commissioner...

    (D/Comm): Crown above two side-by-side small pips, above Commander's badge.
  • Commissioner
    Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
    The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis is the head of London's Metropolitan Police Service, classing the holder as a chief police officer...

    (Comm): Crown above one pip above Commander's badge.


The MPS also has several active Volunteer Police Cadet units, which maintain their own internal rank structure. The Metropolitan Special Constabulary
Metropolitan Special Constabulary
The Metropolitan Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer police force of Greater London's Metropolitan Police Service. Created nearly 180 years ago under the Special Constables Act of 1831, it currently consists of nearly 5,000 volunteer police officers...

 (MSC) is a contingent of part-time volunteer police officers and is attached to most Borough Operational Command Units. The MSC has its own internal rank structure.

The prefix "Woman" in front of female officers' ranks has been obsolete since 1999. Members of the Criminal Investigation Department
Criminal Investigation Department
The Crime Investigation Department is the branch of all Territorial police forces within the British Police and many other Commonwealth police forces, to which plain clothes detectives belong. It is thus distinct from the Uniformed Branch and the Special Branch.The Metropolitan Police Service CID,...

 (CID) up to and including the rank of Chief Superintendent prefix their ranks with "Detective". Detective ranks are equivalent in rank to their uniform counterparts. Other departments, such as Special Branch and Child Protection, award non-detectives "Branch Detective" status, allowing them to use the "Detective" prefix. None of these detective ranks confer on the holder any extra pay or supervisory authority compared to their uniformed colleagues.

Resources




MPS employees consist of uniformed police officers, Special Constables
Metropolitan Special Constabulary
The Metropolitan Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer police force of Greater London's Metropolitan Police Service. Created nearly 180 years ago under the Special Constables Act of 1831, it currently consists of nearly 5,000 volunteer police officers...

, civilian staff, and Police Community Support Officer
Police community support officer
A police community support officer , or community support officer is a uniformed non-warranted officer employed by a territorial police force or the British Transport Police in England and Wales. Police community support officers were introduced in September 2002 by the Police Reform Act 2002...

s. The MPS was the first force to introduce PCSOs.

Uniformed traffic wardens, who wear a uniform with yellow and black markings, are a distinct body from local authority civil enforcement officer
Civil enforcement officer
A civil enforcement officer is a person employed to enforce parking, traffic and other restrictions and laws in England & Wales. In England, they are employed by county councils, London Borough Councils, metropolitan district councils or Transport for London, and in Wales by county councils - or...

s. The former have greater powers that include being able to stop vehicles and redirect traffic at an incident.

Police numbers

  • Regular police officers: 31,920
  • Police Community Support Officers: 3,887
  • Special Constables: 5,232
  • Traffic wardens: 470
  • Horses
    Mounted police
    Mounted police are police who patrol on horseback or camelback. They continue to serve in remote areas and in metropolitan areas where their day-to-day function may be picturesque or ceremonial, but they are also employed in crowd control because of their mobile mass and height advantage and...

    : 120
  • Other police staff: 13,727

Historic numbers of police officers

  • 2010: 33,260 (this excludes Special Constables who work part-time, of which there were 3,125)
  • 2009: 32,543 (this excludes Special Constables who work part-time, of which there were 2,622)
  • 2004: 31,000 (approx)
  • 2003: 28,000 (approx)
  • 2001: 25,000 (approx)
  • 1984: 27,000 (approx)
  • 1965: 18,016
  • 1952: 16,400
  • 1912: 20,529

Fleet


The MPS operates and maintains a fleet of over 8,000 vehicles which are used for a range of duties, including:
  • Area cars, used for patrol and pursuit duties;
  • Incident Response Vehicles (IRVs), used for patrol and emergency response;
  • Traffic units, used to patrol the highways, reduce traffic offences and encourage road safety;
  • Protected carriers, used for public order duties;
  • Control units, used for incident command and control purposes;
  • Armoured multi-role vehicles, used for public order duties, airport duties or as required;
  • General purpose vehicles, used for general support and transportation duties of officers or equipment;
  • Training vehicles, used to train police drivers;
  • Miscellaneous vehicles, such as horseboxes and trailers.


A full list of the front-line vehicles in the MPS fleet is located here:
The majority of vehicles have a service life of three to five years; the MPS replaces or upgrades between 800 and 1,000 vehicles each year.

The MPS Air Support Unit
Metropolitan Police Air Support Unit
The Air Support Unit is a Central Operations branch of London's Metropolitan Police Service. The main responsibility of the unit is to provide aerial reconnaissance and other air support operations...

 operates three Eurocopter EC 145 helicopters, using the call signs India 97, India 98 and India 99. The helicopters are marked in police livery and used for a range of operations. They each cost £5.2 million and have a service life of ten years, meaning they will become due for replacement in 2017.

The Marine Policing Unit operates a total of 22 vessels, from its base in Wapping.

Cost of the service


Annual expenditure for single years, selected by quarter centuries.
  • 1829/30: £194,126
  • 1848: £437,441
  • 1873: £1,118,785
  • 1898: £1,812,735
  • 1923: £7,838,251
  • 1948: £12,601,263
  • 1973: £95,000,000
  • 1998/9: £2,033,000,000

Crime figures



Crimes reported within the Metropolitan Police District
Metropolitan Police District
The Metropolitan Police District is the police area which is policed by London's Metropolitan Police Service. It currently consists of Greater London, excluding the City of London.-History:...

, selected by quarter centuries.
  • 1829/30: 20,000
  • 1848: 15,000
  • 1873: 20,000
  • 1898: 18,838
  • 1923: 15,383
  • 1948: 126,597
  • 1973: 355,258
  • 1998/9: 934,254

Detection rates


The following table shows the percentage detection rates for the MPS by offence group for 2010/11.
Total Violence against the person Sexual offences Robbery Burglary Offences against vehicles Other theft offences Fraud and forgery Criminal damage Drug offences Other offences
Metropolitan Police 24 35 23 17 11 5 14 16 13 91 63
England and Wales 28 44 30 21 13 11 22 24 14 94 69

Stations


In addition to the headquarters at New Scotland Yard, there are 140 police station
Police station
A police station or station house is a building which serves to accommodate police officers and other members of staff. These buildings often contain offices and accommodation for personnel and vehicles, along with locker rooms, temporary holding cells and interview/interrogation rooms.- Facilities...

s in London. These range from large borough headquarters staffed around the clock every day to smaller stations which may be open to the public only during normal business hours, or on certain days of the week.


Most police stations can easily be identified from one or more blue lamps located outside the entrance, which were introduced in 1861.

The oldest police station, which opened in Bow Street
Bow Street
Bow Street is a thoroughfare in Covent Garden, Westminster, London. It features as one of the streets on the standard London Monopoly board....

 in 1881, closed in 1992 and the adjoining Bow Street Magistrates' Court
Bow Street Magistrates' Court
Bow Street Magistrates' Court was the most famous magistrates' court in England for much of its existence, and was located in various buildings on Bow Street in central London close to Covent Garden throughout its history.-History:...

 heard its last case on 14 July 2006. The oldest operational police station is in Wapping
Wapping
Wapping is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets which forms part of the Docklands to the east of the City of London. It is situated between the north bank of the River Thames and the ancient thoroughfare simply called The Highway...

, and opened in 1908. It is the headquarters of the Marine Policing Unit (formerly known as Thames Division), which is responsible for policing the River Thames
River Thames
The River Thames flows through southern England. It is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom. While it is best known because its lower reaches flow through central London, the river flows alongside several other towns and cities, including Oxford,...

. It also houses a mortuary and the River Police Museum.

Paddington Green Police Station
Paddington Green Police Station
Paddington Green Police Station is located in Paddington, central London, England. The station is operated by the Metropolitan Police Service, and is a conventional police station, open to members of the public twenty-four hours a day. It also serves as the most important high-security station in...

 is an MPS station that has received much publicity for its housing of terrorism suspects in an underground complex.
MPS stations may house a variety of roles and ranks of police staff, such as:
  • Uniformed police officers and Special Constables who are responsible for attending emergency calls
    999 (emergency telephone number)
    999 is an official emergency telephone number in a number of countries which allows the caller to contact emergency services for urgent assistance....

    ;
  • Uniformed police officers and Special Constables who make up a "safer neighbourhood team", policing a specific area;
  • Police Community Support Officer
    Police community support officer
    A police community support officer , or community support officer is a uniformed non-warranted officer employed by a territorial police force or the British Transport Police in England and Wales. Police community support officers were introduced in September 2002 by the Police Reform Act 2002...

    s responsible for a general presence in the community and assisting in policing duties;
  • MPS-employed traffic wardens who enforce parking regulations;
  • Non-police Crime Reduction Officers who are responsible for attending public functions with advice, visiting households, and handing out items such as personal alarms;
  • Non-police Firearms Enquiry Officers responsible for issuing firearms certificates and related duties;
  • Non-police Station Reception Officer or Station PCSO who are responsible for interaction with members of the public who enter the front office of the station, along with general administration;
  • Non-police fingerprint
    Fingerprint
    A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human hand. A print from the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges...

    ing and identification staff who are responsible for maintaining criminal identity archives;
  • Police cadets assisting police officers, PCSOs or other police staff in non-confrontational duties; and
  • CID
    Criminal Investigation Department
    The Crime Investigation Department is the branch of all Territorial police forces within the British Police and many other Commonwealth police forces, to which plain clothes detectives belong. It is thus distinct from the Uniformed Branch and the Special Branch.The Metropolitan Police Service CID,...

     detectives concerned with criminal investigations.


Most stations have temporary holding cells where an arrested person can be held until either being released without charge, bailed to appear at court on a later date, or remanded until escort to a court.

In 2004 there was a call from the Institute for Public Policy Research
Institute for Public Policy Research
The IPPR is the leading progressive think-tank in the UK. It produces research and policy ideas committed to upholding values of social justice, democratic reform and environmental sustainability. IPPR is based in London and IPPR North has branches in Newcastle and Manchester.It was founded in...

 for more imaginative planning of police stations to aid in improving relations between police forces and the wider community.

Notable incidents and investigations


Notable major incidents and investigations in which the MPS has been involved include:
  • 1888–1891: Whitechapel murders: Suspected to have been carried out by Jack the Ripper
    Jack the Ripper
    "Jack the Ripper" is the best-known name given to an unidentified serial killer who was active in the largely impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888. The name originated in a letter, written by someone claiming to be the murderer, that was disseminated in the...

     who killed at least five prostitutes. No suspect was ever charged with the murders, and the identity of the killer remains unknown.

  • 1911: Siege of Sidney Street
    Siege of Sidney Street
    The Siege of Sidney Street, popularly known as the "Battle of Stepney", was a notorious gunfight in London's East End on the 2nd of January 1911. Preceded by the Houndsditch Murders, it ended with the deaths of two members of a supposedly politically-motivated gang of burglars supposedly led by...

    :
    Members of a Latvia
    Latvia
    Latvia , officially the Republic of Latvia , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Estonia , to the south by Lithuania , to the east by the Russian Federation , to the southeast by Belarus and shares maritime borders to the west with Sweden...

    n gang took a couple hostage on 2 January 1911 after an unsuccessful attempt to rob a jeweller's; Home Secretary Winston Churchill
    Winston Churchill
    Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

     later arrived at the scene and authorised a detachment of Scots Guards
    Scots Guards
    The Scots Guards is a regiment of the Guards Division of the British Army, whose origins lie in the personal bodyguard of King Charles I of England and Scotland...

     to assist police from the Tower of London
    Tower of London
    Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London, England. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the City of London by the open space...

    .

  • 1970-1990s: Provisional IRA bombing campaign
    Provisional IRA campaign 1969–1997
    From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Army conducted an armed paramilitary campaign in Northern Ireland and England, aimed at ending British rule in Northern Ireland in order to create a united Ireland....

    :
    Throughout the last quarter of the 20th century, a number of bombings were carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army
    Provisional Irish Republican Army
    The Provisional Irish Republican Army is an Irish republican paramilitary organisation whose aim was to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and bring about a socialist republic within a united Ireland by force of arms and political persuasion...

    . A list of bombings carried out within the Metropolitan Police District
    Metropolitan Police District
    The Metropolitan Police District is the police area which is policed by London's Metropolitan Police Service. It currently consists of Greater London, excluding the City of London.-History:...

    , and those planted in central London, can be found here.

  • 1975: Balcombe Street Siege
    Balcombe Street Siege
    The Balcombe Street Siege was an incident involving members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army and the Metropolitan Police Service of London, England lasting from 6 December to 12 December 1975. The siege ended with the surrender of the four IRA volunteers and the release of their two hostages...

    :
    From 6 to 12 December 1975, Provisional IRA members took a couple hostage in their home, while on the run from police.

  • 1975: Spaghetti House siege
    Spaghetti House siege
    The Spaghetti House Siege began on the late evening of 28 September 1975, at the Spaghetti House restaurant in Knightsbridge, London. Franklin Davies, a Nigerian, led two other gunmen in an attempted armed robbery of the Spaghetti House, where managers of the chain had assembled to pay in the...

    :
    The Spaghetti House siege occurred on 18 September 1975 when alleged members of the Black Liberation Army
    Black Liberation Army
    The Black Liberation Army was an underground, black nationalist-Marxist militant organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981...

     attempted to commit an armed robbery at the Spaghetti House restaurant to gain publicity for their cause. However, the robbery was discovered by police, and the would-be robbers initiated a siege by taking hostages.

  • 1975: Moorgate tube crash
    Moorgate tube crash
    The Moorgate tube crash was a railway disaster on the London Underground, which occurred on 28 February 1975 at 08.46 am.A southbound train on the Northern Line crashed into the tunnel end beyond the platform at Moorgate station...

    :
    A London Underground
    London Underground
    The London Underground is a rapid transit system serving a large part of Greater London and some parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Essex in England...

     train failed to stop and crashed into the buffers
    Buffer stop
    A buffer stop or bumper is a device to prevent railway vehicles from going past the end of a physical section of track.The design of the buffer stop is dependent in part upon the kind of couplings that the railway uses, since the coupling gear is the first part of the vehicle that the buffer stop...

     at the end of a tunnel, resulting in the largest loss of life during peacetime on the Tube with over 42 people killed.

  • 1976: Notting Hill Carnival riot: After MPS officers attempted to arrest an alleged pickpocket at the Notting Hill Carnival
    Notting Hill Carnival
    The Notting Hill Carnival is an annual event which since 1964 has taken place on the streets of Notting Hill, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea , London, UK each August, over two days...

     on 30 August 1976, a riot ensued leading to over 100 officers being admitted to hospital.

  • 1978–1983: Muswell Hill murders: Serial killer Dennis Nilsen
    Dennis Nilsen
    Dennis Andrew Nilsen also known as the Muswell Hill Murderer and the Kindly Killer is a British serial killer who lived in London....

     murdered at least 15 men and boys over a period of five years. He was known for retaining corpses for sex acts, and disposing of body parts by burning them or dumping them in drains. Some remains were found in his home at Muswell Hill when MPS officers apprehended him.

  • 1979: Death of Blair Peach
    Blair Peach
    Clement Blair Peach was a New Zealand-born teacher who was fatally assaulted by a police officer during an anti-racism demonstration in London, England....

    :
    Teacher Peach was fatally injured in April 1979 during a demonstration in Southall by the Anti-Nazi League against a National Front election meeting taking place in the town hall. He was knocked unconscious and died the next day in hospital. Police brutality was never proven to be a contributory factor in his death, but it was claimed that he had fallen to a blow from a rubberised police radio belonging to the MPS's now disbanded Special Patrol Group. In 2010, a police report was disclosed which stated that it was likely an MPS officer "struck the fatal blow" and attributed "grave suspicion" to one unnamed officer, who it says may also have been involved in a cover-up along with two colleagues.

  • 1980: Iranian Embassy Siege
    Iranian Embassy Siege
    The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in South Kensington, London. The gunmen took 26 people hostage—mostly embassy staff, but several visitors and a police officer, who had been guarding the embassy, were also...

    :
    Members of a terrorist group calling themselves the Democratic Revolutionary Movement for the Liberation of Arabistan (DRMLA) took staff hostage in the Iranian embassy. The MPS were heavily involved in negotiations but after six days they were terminated, and the British Army
    British Army
    The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

    's Special Air Service
    Special Air Service
    Special Air Service or SAS is a corps of the British Army constituted on 31 May 1950. They are part of the United Kingdom Special Forces and have served as a model for the special forces of many other countries all over the world...

     (SAS) stormed the building. Five separatists and one hostage died.

  • 1981: Brixton riot: – During the early 1980s the MPS began Operation Swamp which was implemented to cut street crime by the use of the Sus law
    Sus law
    In England and Wales, the sus law was the informal name for a stop and search law that permitted a police officer to stop, search and potentially arrest people on suspicion of them being in breach of section 4 of the Vagrancy Act 1824.-1824 legislation:The power to act on "sus" was found in part...

     which legally allowed officers to stop people on the suspicion of wrongdoing. Tensions rose within the black community after a black youth was stabbed, leading to severe rioting on 11 April 1981.

  • 1982–86: The Railway Rapists: John Duffy and David Mulcahy
    John Duffy and David Mulcahy
    John Duffy and David Mulcahy are two British rapists and serial killers who together attacked numerous women at railway stations in the south of England through the 1980s...

     committed 18 rapes of women and young girls at or near railway stations in London and South East England
    South East England
    South East England is one of the nine official regions of England, designated in 1994 and adopted for statistical purposes in 1999. It consists of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, Oxfordshire, Surrey and West Sussex...

    , murdering three of their victims. MPS officers worked with neighbouring forces to solve the crimes. Duffy was convicted in 1988, but Mulcahy was not brought to justice until almost ten years later.

  • 1985: Brixton riot: Rioting erupted in Brixton on 28 September 1985, sparked by the shooting of Dorothy Groce by police seeking her son Michael Groce in relation to a suspected firearms offence who believed to be hiding in his mother's home. He was not there at the time, and Groce was part-paralysed by the bullet.

  • 1985: Broadwater Farm riot
    Broadwater Farm riot
    The Broadwater Farm riot occurred around the Broadwater Farm area of Tottenham, North London, on 6 October 1985.The events of the day were dominated by two deaths. The first was that of Cynthia Jarrett, an African-Caribbean woman who died the previous day from a stroke during a police search of her...

    :
    A week after the Brixton riot, while tensions among the black community were still high, riots broke out in Tottenham, north London, after the mother of a black man whose house was being searched died of a heart attack during the operation. During the riot, PC Keith Blakelock was murdered. Blakelock's murder remains unsolved.

  • 1986: The Stockwell Strangler: Kenneth Erskine
    Kenneth Erskine
    Kenneth Erskine is an English serial killer who became known as the Stockwell Strangler.-Early life:Erskine was born in July 1963 to an English mother and Antiguan father...

     carried out a series of attacks in Stockwell on elderly men and women, breaking into their homes and strangling them to death. Most were sexually assaulted before being murdered. In 2009, Erskine's murder convictions were reduced to manslaughter on the grounds of diminished responsibility after an appeal.

  • 1987: King's Cross fire
    King's Cross fire
    The King's Cross St. Pancras tube station fire was a fatal fire on the London Underground. It broke out at approximately 19:30 on 18 November 1987, and killed 31 people....

    :
    Fire broke out under a wooden escalator leading from one of the Underground station platforms to the surface at King's Cross. The blaze and resulting smoke claimed 31 lives, including that of a senior firefighter.

  • 1988: Clapham Junction rail crash
    Clapham Junction rail crash
    The Clapham Junction rail crash was a serious railway accident involving two collisions between three commuter trains at 08:10 on the morning of Monday, 12 December 1988....

    :
    A packed commuter train passed a defective signal and ran into the back of a second train, derailing it into the path of a third oncoming train. 35 people were killed and 69 injured.

  • 1989: Marchioness disaster
    Marchioness disaster
    The Marchioness disaster occurred on the River Thames in London in the early hours of 20 August 1989. The pleasure boat Marchioness sank after being run down by the dredger Bowbelle, near Cannon Street Railway Bridge. There were 131 people on the Marchioness. Some were members of the crew, some...

    :
    The pleasure boat Marchioness was struck by a dredger and sank, killing 30 people.

  • 1990: Poll Tax Riots
    Poll Tax Riots
    The UK Poll Tax Riots were a series of mass disturbances, or riots, in British towns and cities during protests against the Community Charge , introduced by the Conservative government led by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher...

    :
    Rioting triggered by growing unrest against the Community Charge, and grew from a legitimate demonstration which had taken place earlier. An estimated £400,000 worth of damage was caused.

  • 1991: Cannon Street station rail crash
    Cannon Street station rail crash
    The Cannon Street station rail crash was an accident on the British railway system which occurred on 8 January 1991 at Cannon Street station. The accident killed two people and injured 524 others...

    :
    Two people were killed and over 500 injured.

  • 1993: The Gay Slayer: Former soldier Colin Ireland
    Colin Ireland
    Colin Ireland is a British serial killer known as the "Gay Slayer" because he specifically murdered gay men. His victims were five men....

     murdered five gay men in a deliberate bid to gain notoriety (he had read an article that said to be a 'serial killer' one must have killed five times or more).

  • 1993: Murder of Stephen Lawrence: A series of operations failed to convict the killers of schoolboy Stephen Lawrence, despite substantial evidence. The resulting MacPherson inquiry found that the MPS was "institutionally racist".

  • 1995: Brixton riot: A large gathering protested outside Brixton police station over the death of a local man in police custody, leading to a riot. Three police officers were injured and a two-mile exclusion zone was set up around Brixton. Later reports showed that the male in custody died of heart failure, said to be brought on because of difficulties restraining him.

  • 1999: The London Nailbomber: David Copeland
    David Copeland
    David John Copeland is a former member of the British National Party and the National Socialist Movement, who became known as the "London Nail Bomber" after a 13-day bombing campaign in April 1999 aimed at London's black, Bangladeshi and gay communities.Over three successive weekends between 17...

     carried out a series of hate attacks on ethnic minority areas and on a pub frequented by the gay community.

  • 1999: Carnival Against Capitalism
    Carnival Against Capitalism
    The Global Carnival Against Capital took place on Friday, 18th June, 1999. It was an international day of protest timed to coincide with the 25th G8 Summit in Cologne, Germany. The carnival was inspired by the 1980s Stop the City protests and the Global Street Party, which happened at the same time...

    :
    Previously peaceful anti-capitalist demonstrations ended with disorder in the City of London
    City of London
    The City of London is a small area within Greater London, England. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of...

    , which caused widespread damage, particularly to businesses identified with global capitalism.

  • 2001: May Day protest: In an attempt to control crowds, the MPS employed the tactic of "kettling
    Kettling
    Kettling is a police tactic for controlling large crowds during demonstrations or protests. It involves the formation of large cordons of police officers who then move to contain a crowd within a limited area. Protesters are left only one choice of exit, determined by the police, or are completely...

    ", and were criticised for detaining innocent bystanders for long periods of time.

  • 2001: Thames murder case: The dismembered body of a young boy believed to have been between the ages of four and seven was spotted floating in the River Thames, named by police as Adam in the absence of a confirmed identity. During the investigation a police commander and a detective chief inspector met with Nelson Mandela. The case was never solved.

  • 2004: Pro-hunting protests: Demonstrators protesting against the Hunting Act 2004
    Hunting Act 2004
    The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The effect of the Act is to outlaw hunting with dogs in England and Wales from 18 February 2005...

     outside parliament were involved in violent confrontations with the MPS.

  • 2005: 7 July bombings
    7 July 2005 London bombings
    The 7 July 2005 London bombings were a series of co-ordinated suicide attacks in the United Kingdom, targeting civilians using London's public transport system during the morning rush hour....

    :
    Four suicide bombings across London, in which MPS officers worked to a major incident plan to provide coordination, control and forensic and investigative resources.

  • 2005: 21 July attempted bombings
    21 July 2005 London bombings
    On 21 July 2005, four attempted bomb attacks disrupted part of London's public transport system two weeks after the 7 July 2005 London bombings. The explosions occurred around midday at Shepherd's Bush, Warren Street and Oval stations on London Underground, and on a bus in Shoreditch...

     and death of Jean Charles de Menezes
    Jean Charles de Menezes
    Jean Charles de Menezes was a Brazilian man shot in the head seven times at Stockwell tube station on the London Underground by the London Metropolitan police, after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous day's failed bombing attempts...

    :
    Multiple attempted bombings across London, in which MPS officers worked to a similar plan to that used two weeks previously. In the aftermath of these events, Jean Charles de Menezes was mistakenly targeted as a potential terrorist and shot dead in a deployment of Operation Kratos
    Operation Kratos
    Operation Kratos referred to tactics developed by London's Metropolitan Police Service for dealing with suspected suicide bombers, most notably firing shots to the head without warning....

    .

  • 2006: Transatlantic aircraft bomb plot
    2006 transatlantic aircraft plot
    The 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot was a terrorist plot to detonate liquid explosives carried on board at least 10 airliners travelling from the United Kingdom to the United States and Canada...

    :
    Alleged plot to detonate liquid explosives on transatlantic aircraft and other related terrorist activities by militant Islamists were foiled by British police, including MPS officers.

  • 2006: Operation Mokpo: Officers from Operation Trident made the MPS's largest ever seizure of firearms after a series of raids in Dartford, Kent.

  • 2007: Attempted car bombings
    2007 London car bombs
    On 29 June 2007, in London, two car bombs were discovered and disabled before they could be detonated. The first device was left near the Tiger Tiger nightclub in Haymarket at around 01:30, and the second was in Cockspur Street, in the same area of the city....

    :
    Attempted car bombings in central London. One of the devices, in a car outside a nightclub, was initially reported by a London Ambulance Service paramedic dealing with an unrelated incident nearby. MPS bomb disposal officers defused this device and another located in an underground car park. Subsequent investigation led to convictions of those involved.


  • 2008: National Black Police Association boycott: Declared against the police force on the grounds of racial discrimination. This followed high profile controversies involving high-ranking black officers, including allegations of racism made by Tarique Ghaffur
    Tarique Ghaffur
    Tarique Ghaffur, CBE QPM is a former high-ranking British police officer in London's Metropolitan Police Service. His last post was that of Assistant Commissioner–Central Operations.-Biography:...

     – the highest ranking Asian officer in the MPS – against commissioner Ian Blair
    Ian Blair
    Ian Warwick Blair, Baron Blair of Boughton, QPM is a retired British Police officer who held the position of commissioner of police of the metropolis from 2005 to 2008 and was the highest ranking officer within the Metropolitan Police Service.On 2 October 2008 Blair announced that he would...

    .

  • 2009: G-20 summit protests
    2009 G-20 London summit protests
    The 2009 G-20 London summit protests occurred in the days around the G-20 summit on 2 April 2009, which was the focus of protests from a number of groups over various long-standing and topical issues...

     and Death of Ian Tomlinson
    Death of Ian Tomlinson
    Ian Tomlinson was an English newspaper vendor who collapsed and died in the City of London after coming into contact with the police while on his way home from work during the 2009 G-20 summit protests. A first postmortem examination indicated he had suffered a heart attack and had died of natural...

    :
    The MPS used the "kettling" technique to contain large numbers of demonstrators during the G-20 protests. Ian Tomlinson
    Death of Ian Tomlinson
    Ian Tomlinson was an English newspaper vendor who collapsed and died in the City of London after coming into contact with the police while on his way home from work during the 2009 G-20 summit protests. A first postmortem examination indicated he had suffered a heart attack and had died of natural...

    , a bystander to the protests, died from internal bleeding after he was struck with a baton and pushed to the ground by a police constable of the Territorial Support Group. The jury at the inquest into Tomlinson's death returned a verdict of unlawful killing. Following a separate incident, a sergeant in the Territorial Support Group was suspended after being filmed striking a woman's face with his hand and her leg with a baton, but was later cleared of any wrongdoing.

  • 2010: Pope Benedict XVI's visit
    Pope Benedict XVI's visit to the United Kingdom
    Pope Benedict XVI's visit to the United Kingdom from 16 to 19 September 2010 was the first state visit by a pope to the United Kingdom...

    :
    In September 2010, Pope Benedict XVI became the first pope to undertake a state visit to the UK. Around 10,000 people demonstrated on the streets of London when the pope's tour of England and Scotland arrived in the capital.

  • 2011: Anti-cuts protest
    2011 anti-cuts protest in London
    The 2011 anti-cuts protest in London, also known as the March for the Alternative, was a demonstration held in central London on 26 March 2011...

    :
    201 people were arrested, and 66 were injured, including 31 police officers, as up to 500,000 people demonstrated in central London against planned public spending cuts. It was described as the largest protest in the United Kingdom since the 15 February 2003 anti-Iraq War protest and the largest union-organised rally in London since the Second World War.

  • 2011: Conviction of the Night Stalker: Operation Minstead concluded after 12 years on 24 March 2011 with the conviction of the Night Stalker. Delroy Grant raped and assaulted elderly victims over a period of 17 years from 1992 to 2009 across south London, Kent and Surrey. He was found guilty of 29 charges, including burglaries, rapes and sexual assaults, but MPS officers linked him to over 200 different offences during the 1990s and 2000s. Grant was given four life sentences and ordered to serve a minimum of 27 years in prison.

  • 2011: Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton: 5,000 MPS officers were deployed to police the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey on 29 April 2011. In advance of the event, Assistant Commissioner Lynne Owens said "People who want to come to London to peacefully protest can do that but they must remember that it is a day of national celebration". In fact, approximately one hundred people were pre-emptively arrested in advance of the wedding and were detained without charge for the duration of the wedding, with the apparent aim of suppressing protest. Other protestors were arrested on the day of the wedding; some were detained at railway stations on arrival. The Metropolitan Police claim that one million people were physically present in London to watch the wedding procession.

  • 2006–2011: News International phone hacking scandal: Part of the scandal revolves around the allegations that some police officers accepted payment from journalists in exchange for information.

  • 2011: 2011 London riots: Dozens of officers were injured in a series of public disturbances initially in the Tottenham
    Tottenham
    Tottenham is an area of the London Borough of Haringey, England, situated north north east of Charing Cross.-Toponymy:Tottenham is believed to have been named after Tota, a farmer, whose hamlet was mentioned in the Domesday Book; hence Tota's hamlet became Tottenham...

     area, following an incident in which a suspect was shot dead by MPS officers. The MPS launched Operation Withern, a major investigation into the disturbances which spread into many other areas of the city and included instances of arson and looting
    Looting
    Looting —also referred to as sacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging—is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as during war, natural disaster, or rioting...

    .

Officers killed in the line of duty



The Police Memorial Trust
Police Memorial Trust
The Police Memorial Trust is a charitable organisation founded in 1984 and based in London. The trust's objective is to erect memorials to British police officers killed in the line of duty, at or near the spot where they died, thereby acting as a permanent reminder to the public of the sacrifice...

 lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty, and since its establishment in 1984 has erected over 38 memorials to some of those officers.

Since 1900, the following officers of the Metropolitan Police Service are listed by the Trust as having been killed while attempting to prevent, stop or solve a criminal act in progress:
Rank Name Year of death Circumstances
PC Ernest Thompson 1900 Stabbed by a suspect causing a street disturbance
PC Arthur John Wilkins Healey 1902 Fell through roof while searching a premises
PC James Frederick Macey 1904 Collapsed and died after an arrest
PC Leonard Russell 1904 Collapsed and died during an arrest
Sgt Thomas William Perry 1905 Collapsed and died after an arrest
PC William Percy Croft 1905 Fatally injured in a fall while pursuing burglars
PC William Frederick Tyler 1909 Shot dead while pursuing robbery suspects
Insp Alfred Edward Deeks 1912 Collapsed and died while dispersing a nuisance crowd
DC Alfred Young, KPM
Queen's Police Medal
The Queen's Police Medal is awarded to police officers in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth for gallantry or distinguished service. Recipients may use the post-nominal letters "QPM", although the right to use these was only granted officially on 20 July 1969...

1915 Shot dead attempting an arrest
PC Herbert Berry 1918 Fatally injured during an arrest
Sgt Henry William Sawyer 1918 Fatally injured during an arrest
Sgt Thomas Green 1919 Bludgeoned during a mob attack on a police station
PC Thomas Eldred B. Rowland 1919 Died from injuries sustained during an arrest
PC James Kelly 1920 Shot dead while pursuing a burglar
PC David Fleming Ford 1929 Fell through a roof while pursuing burglars
PC Arthur Lawes 1930 Run over while attempting to stop a stolen vehicle
PC George William Allen 1931 Fatally injured with Cautherley when his vehicle crashed during a police pursuit
PC Harry Cautherley 1931 Fatally injured with Allen when his vehicle crashed during a police pursuit
PC George Thomas Shepherd 1938 Dragged by a stolen vehicle while attempting to arrest the driver
WRC Jack William Avery 1940 Stabbed while questioning a suspect
PC Nathanael Edgar 1948 Shot dead while questioning a suspect
PC Sidney George Miles 1952 Shot dead by Christopher Craig
PC Edgar Gerald Allen 1958 Fatally injured when his vehicle crashed during a police pursuit
PC Raymond Henry Summers 1958 Stabbed while intervening in a street affray
DS Raymond William Purdy 1959 Shot dead while detaining a suspect
PC Ronald Alan Addison 1960 Collapsed and died while pursuing suspects
PC Edward Roy Dorney 1960 Struck by a train while pursuing suspects
Insp Philip Pawsey, QPM
Queen's Police Medal
The Queen's Police Medal is awarded to police officers in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth for gallantry or distinguished service. Recipients may use the post-nominal letters "QPM", although the right to use these was only granted officially on 20 July 1969...

1961 Shot dead with Hutchins by a suspect
PC Frederick George Hutchins, QPM
Queen's Police Medal
The Queen's Police Medal is awarded to police officers in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth for gallantry or distinguished service. Recipients may use the post-nominal letters "QPM", although the right to use these was only granted officially on 20 July 1969...

1961 Shot dead with Pawsey by a suspect
DS Christopher Head 1966 Shot dead in the Massacre of Braybrook Street
PC Geoffrey Fox 1966 Shot dead in the Massacre of Braybrook Street
DC David Wombwell 1966 Shot dead in the Massacre of Braybrook Street
PC Desmond Morgan Acreman 1967 Accidentally run over while pursuing suspects
PC Douglas Frederick Beckerson 1971 Fell through a roof while pursuing a suspect
PC Michael Anthony Whiting, QPM
Queen's Police Medal
The Queen's Police Medal is awarded to police officers in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth for gallantry or distinguished service. Recipients may use the post-nominal letters "QPM", although the right to use these was only granted officially on 20 July 1969...

1973 Dragged by a vehicle while attempting to arrest the driver
Insp David George Gisborne 1974 Collapsed and died after being assaulted in a riot
CEO Roger Philip Goad, GC
George Cross
The George Cross is the highest civil decoration of the United Kingdom, and also holds, or has held, that status in many of the other countries of the Commonwealth of Nations...

1975 Killed attempting to defuse a bomb
PC Clifford Lancaster 1975 Collapsed and died while searching for suspects
PC Stephen Andrew Tibble, QPM
Queen's Police Medal
The Queen's Police Medal is awarded to police officers in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth for gallantry or distinguished service. Recipients may use the post-nominal letters "QPM", although the right to use these was only granted officially on 20 July 1969...

1975 Shot dead off-duty attempting to stop a suspect pursued by police
PC Alan Baxter 1977 Fatally injured when his vehicle crashed during a police pursuit)
PC Kevin Kelliher 1979 Fatally injured when his vehicle crashed during a police pursuit
PC Francis Joseph O'Neill 1980 Stabbed while questioning a suspect
CEO Kenneth Robert Howorth
Kenneth Howorth
Kenneth Robert Howorth, GM, , was a British explosives officer with London's Metropolitan Police Service who was killed whilst attempting to defuse a bomb planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in Oxford Street....

1981 Killed attempting to defuse a bomb
PC Robert Benjamin Mercer 1982 Fatally injured when his vehicle crashed during a police pursuit
WPC Jane Philippa Arbuthnot 1983 Killed in the Harrods bombing
Harrods bombing
The Harrods bombing was a car bombing that occurred at Harrods department store in London on 17 December 1983. The bomb had been planted by members of the Provisional IRA, although the IRA Army Council claimed that it had not authorised the attack. The IRA members had sent a warning 37 minutes...

Insp Stephen John Dodd 1983 Killed in the Harrods bombing
Harrods bombing
The Harrods bombing was a car bombing that occurred at Harrods department store in London on 17 December 1983. The bomb had been planted by members of the Provisional IRA, although the IRA Army Council claimed that it had not authorised the attack. The IRA members had sent a warning 37 minutes...

Sgt Noel Joseph Lane 1983 Killed in the Harrods bombing
Harrods bombing
The Harrods bombing was a car bombing that occurred at Harrods department store in London on 17 December 1983. The bomb had been planted by members of the Provisional IRA, although the IRA Army Council claimed that it had not authorised the attack. The IRA members had sent a warning 37 minutes...

PC Stephen Paul Walker 1983 Accidentally run over while pursuing suspects
PC Grant Clifford Sunnucks 1984 Fatally injured when his vehicle crashed during a police pursuit
PC Ronald Ian Leeuw 1984 Collapsed and died while struggling with a violent prisoner
WPC Yvonne Joyce Fletcher 1984 Shot dead while policing a political demonstration
PC Stephen John Jones 1984 Run over while attempting to stop a drunk-driver
PC Keith Henry Blakelock, QGM
Queen's Gallantry Medal
The Queen's Gallantry Medal is the third level civil decoration of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth.It was instituted on 20 June 1974 to replace the Order of the British Empire for Gallantry, the British Empire Medal for Gallantry, and the Colonial Police Medal for Gallantry...

1985 Stabbed during the Broadwater Farm riot
Broadwater Farm riot
The Broadwater Farm riot occurred around the Broadwater Farm area of Tottenham, North London, on 6 October 1985.The events of the day were dominated by two deaths. The first was that of Cynthia Jarrett, an African-Caribbean woman who died the previous day from a stroke during a police search of her...

DC John William Fordham 1985 Stabbed while on surveillance duty
PC Philip Michael Olds 1986 Died after being shot and left paralysed in 1980 while attempting an arrest
PC Martin Bickersteth Bell 1986 Run over during a police pursuit
PC Ronan Konrad McCloskey 1987 Dragged by a vehicle while attempting to arrest the drunk driver
PC Laurence Peter Brown 1990 Shot dead as he approached a suspect
PC Robert Chenery Gladwell 1991 Died after being assaulted during an arrest
DC James Morrison, QGM
Queen's Gallantry Medal
The Queen's Gallantry Medal is the third level civil decoration of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth.It was instituted on 20 June 1974 to replace the Order of the British Empire for Gallantry, the British Empire Medal for Gallantry, and the Colonial Police Medal for Gallantry...

1991 Stabbed attempting an arrest off-duty
Sgt Alan Derek King 1991 Stabbed attempting an arrest
PC Patrick Dunne 1993 Shot dead while investigating reports of gunfire in the street
Sgt Derek John Carnie Robertson 1994 Stabbed attempting an arrest during a robbery
PC George Pickburn Hammond 1995 Died from injuries sustained in a stabbing in 1985
PC Phillip John Walters
Death of Phillip Walters
PC Phillip John Walters was a police officer in London's Metropolitan Police Service who was shot dead while investigating a domestic disturbance in Ilford, east London, on 18 April 1995.-Background:...

1995 Shot dead attempting an arrest
PC Nina Alexandra Mackay
Death of Nina Mackay
WPC Nina Alexandra Mackay was a police officer in London's Metropolitan Police Service who was fatally stabbed on 24 October 1997 by a paranoid schizophrenic man she was attempting to arrest...

1997 Stabbed attempting an arrest
PC Kulwant Singh Sidhu 1999 Fell through a roof while pursuing suspects
PC Christopher Roberts 2007 Collapsed and died after a violent arrest
PC Gary Andrew Toms 2009 Run over when attempting to stop escaping suspects

Key to rank abbreviations: PC = Police Constable · WPC = Woman Police Constable · WRC = War Reserve Constable · DC = Detective Constable · Sgt = Sergeant · DS = Detective Sergeant · Insp = Inspector · CEO = Civilian Explosives Officer.

See also


  • 999 (emergency telephone number)
    999 (emergency telephone number)
    999 is an official emergency telephone number in a number of countries which allows the caller to contact emergency services for urgent assistance....

  • Aerial roof markings
    Aerial roof markings
    Aerial roof markings are symbols, letters or numbers on the roof of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire engines and ambulances to enable aircraft to identify them. These markings can be used to identify a specific vehicle, vehicle type or agency...

  • Crimint
    Crimint
    Crimint is a database run by the Metropolitan Police Service of Greater London which stores information on criminals, suspected criminals and protesters. It was created in 1994 and supplied by Memex Technology Limited. It supports the recording and searching of items of intelligence by both police...

  • London Emergency Services Liaison Panel
    London Emergency Services Liaison Panel
    The London Emergency Services Liaison Panel consists of representatives from the following agencies:*Metropolitan Police Service*London Fire Brigade*City of London Police*British Transport Police*London Ambulance Service...

  • Police National E-Crime Unit
    Police National E-Crime Unit
    The Police National E-Crime Unit is a part of the Specialist Crime Directorate of the Metropolitan Police Service in London, dedicated to combating e-crime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland...

  • Hendon Police College
    Hendon Police College
    Hendon Police College is the principal training centre for London's Metropolitan Police Service. Founded with the official name of the Metropolitan Police College, the college is today officially called the Peel Centre, although its original name is still used frequently...

  • Project Griffin
    Project Griffin
    Project Griffin was originally introduced by the City of London Police and Metropolitan Police in April, 2004 to help "London's financial sector better protect itself against terrorist threats"...

  • Royal National Lifeboat Institution
    Royal National Lifeboat Institution
    The Royal National Lifeboat Institution is a charity that saves lives at sea around the coasts of Great Britain, Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, as well as on selected inland waterways....

  • Table of police forces in the United Kingdom
    Table of police forces in the United Kingdom
    This table of police forces in the United Kingdom includes territorial police forces and special police forces. It does not include non-police law enforcement agencies or bodies of constables not constituted as police forces.-Table:-England and Wales:...


Other London emergency services:
  • London Ambulance Service
    London Ambulance Service
    The London Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the largest "free at the point of contact" emergency ambulance service in the world. It responds to medical emergencies in Greater London, England, with the ambulances and other response vehicles and over 5,000 staff at its disposal.It is one of 12...

  • London Air Ambulance
    London Air Ambulance
    London's Air Ambulance, also known as London HEMS , is an air ambulance service that responds to seriously ill or injured casualties in and around London, England....

  • London Fire Brigade
    London Fire Brigade
    The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London.Founded in 1865, it is the largest of the fire services in the United Kingdom and the fourth-largest in the world with nearly 7,000 staff, including 5,800 operational firefighters based in 112 fire...

  • City of London Police
    City of London Police
    The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, England, including the Middle and Inner Temple. The service responsible for law enforcement within the rest of Greater London is the Metropolitan Police Service, a separate...



External links