Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel L. Quezon

Overview
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina (August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Commonwealth of the Philippines
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was a designation of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth of the United States. The Commonwealth was created by the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1934. When Manuel L...

 from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines (as opposed to other historical states). Quezón is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

, after Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation...

 (1897–1901).

Quezón was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a national election, and the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution).
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Encyclopedia
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina (August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Commonwealth of the Philippines
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was a designation of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth of the United States. The Commonwealth was created by the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1934. When Manuel L...

 from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines (as opposed to other historical states). Quezón is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

, after Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation...

 (1897–1901).

Quezón was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a national election, and the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution). He is known as the "Father of the National Language
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

".

During his presidency, Quezón tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside. Other major decisions include reorganization of the islands military defense, approval of recommendation for government reorganization, promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, tackling foreign strangle-hold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform and the tackling of graft and corruption within the government. Quezón established an exiled government in the US with the outbreak of the war and the threat of Japanese invasion. During his exile in the US, Manuel Quezón died of tuberculosis in Saranac Lake, New York
Saranac Lake, New York
Saranac Lake is a village located in the state of New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,406. The village is named after Upper, Middle, and Lower Saranac Lakes, which are nearby....

.

Early life and career


Quezón, was born in Baler
Baler, Aurora
Baler is a 4th class municipality in the province of Aurora, Philippines. It is the provincial capital of Aurora. According to the latest census, it has a population of 34,492 people and 5.955 members per household....

, Tayabas (now Aurora
Aurora province
Aurora is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is Baler and borders, clockwise from the south, the provinces of Quezon, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, and Isabela. To the east of Aurora is the Philippine Sea.Before 1979, Aurora was part of...

). His Spanish mestizo parents were Lucio Quezón and María Dolores Molina. His father was a primary grade school teacher from Paco, Manila
Paco, Manila
Paco, is a district of Manila, Philippines. It is located south of Pasig River, and San Miguel, west of Santa Ana, southwest of Pandacan, north of Malate, northwest of San Andres, and east of Ermita. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 64,184 people in 13,438 households...

, and also a retired Sergeant in the Spanish colonial army
Spanish Army
The Spanish Army is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is one of the oldest active armies - dating back to the 15th century.-Introduction:...

, while his mother was a primary grade school teacher in their hometown.

Although both his parents must have contributed to his education, he received most of his primary education from the public school established by the Spanish government in his village, as part of the establishment of the system of free public education in the Philippines, as he himself testified during his speech delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States during the discussion of Jones Bill, in 1914.
He later boarded at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Letran College, or simply Letran is a private Roman Catholic institution of learning located in Intramuros, Manila, in the Philippines. The college was founded in 1620. Colegio de San Juan de Letran has the distinction of being the oldest college in the...

 where he completed secondary school.

In 1898, his father Lucio and his brother Pedro were ambushed and killed by armed men while on their way home to Baler from Nueva Ecija. Some historians believe they were murdered by bandits who also robbed their money, while others believe the killings could have been related to their loyalty to the Spanish government.

In 1899 Quezon cut short his law studies at the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines , is a private Roman Catholic university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on April 28, 1611 by archbishop of Manila Miguel de Benavides, it has the oldest extant university charter in the...

 in Manila, to participate in the struggle for independence against the United States, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. During the Philippine-American War
Philippine-American War
The Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection , was an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following...

 he was an ayuda-de-campo
Aide-de-camp
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state...

 to Emilio Aguinaldo. He rose to the rank of Major and fought in the Bataan
Bataan
Bataan is a province of the Philippines occupying the whole of the Bataan Peninsula on Luzon. The province is part of the Central Luzon region. The capital of Bataan is Balanga City and it is bordered by the provinces of Zambales and Pampanga to the north...

 sector. However, after Aguinaldo was captured in 1901, Quezón returned to the university and passed the bar examinations in 1903, achieving fourth place.

He worked for a time as a clerk and surveyor, entering government service as an appointed fiscal for Mindoro and later Tayabas. He became a councilor and was elected governor of Tayabas in 1906 after a hard-fought election.

House of Representatives


In 1907, he was elected to the first Philippine Assembly
Philippine Assembly
The Philippine Assembly was the lower house of the legislative body of the Philippines during the early part of American colonial period. It was created by the Philippine Organic Act, passed in 1902, which also established the Philippine Commission as the upper house of the Philippine Legislature,...

 – later became the House of Representatives – where he served as majority floor leader and chairman of the committee on appropriations. From 1909–1916, he served as one of the Philippines' two resident commissioner
Resident Commissioner
Resident Commissioner is the title of several, quite different types of Commissioner in overseas possession or protectorate of the British Crown or of the United States.-British English:...

s to the U.S. House of Representatives, lobbying for the passage of the Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law.

Senate


Quezón returned to Manila in 1916 to be elected into the Philippine Senate and later became Senate President, serving continuously until 1935 (19 years). He headed the first Independent Mission to the U.S. Congress in 1919 and securing passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Independence Law in 1934. In 1922, Quezón became the leader of Nacionalista Party.

Appointments 1935–1941

OFFICE NAME TERM
President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 
Manuel L. Quezón 1935–1941
Vice President
Vice President of the Philippines
-Description:The Vice-President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text...

 
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

1935–1941
Secretary of Public Instruction  Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

1935–1940
Jorge Bocobo 1940–1941
Secretary of Public Works and Communications  Mariano Jesús Cuenco
Mariano Jesús Cuenco
Mariano Jesús Diosomito Cuenco was a Filipino Cebuano politician and writer.-Early life:He was born in Carmen, Cebu on January 16, 1888, to Mariano Albao Cuenco and Remedios López Diosomito. He studied at the Colegio de San Carlos of Cebu, where he graduated in 1904 with a degree in Bachelor of...

Secretary of Justice  José Yulo
Jose Yulo
José Yulo was the Chief Justice of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation and was Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1939 until the World War II started in 1941.-Career:...

1935–1938
José Abad Santos
José Abad Santos
In 1919, Abad Santos would become instrumental in laying the legal groundwork as well as drafting the by-laws and constitution of the Philippine Women's University, the country's and Asia's first private non-sectarian institution for higher learning for women...

1938–1941
Secretary of National Defense  Teofilo Sison
Teofilo Sison
Teofilo Sison is a Philippine legislator and the first Secretary of National Defense of the Philippine Commonwealth.-Early Life:Teofilo L. Sison was born on February 29, 1880 in Dagupan, Pangasinan, to Benito Sison and Escolastica Leuterio....

1939–1941
Serafin Marabut 1941
Basilio Valdes December 23, 1941
Secretary of Finance  Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Rivera Quirino was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines.A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931...

1935–1936
Antonio de las Alas 1936–1938
Manuel Roxas
Manuel Roxas
Manuel Acuña Roxas was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948...

1938–1941
Serafin Marabut 1941
Secretary of the Interior
United States Secretary of the Interior
The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior.The US Department of the Interior should not be confused with the concept of Ministries of the Interior as used in other countries...

 
Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Rivera Quirino was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines.A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931...

1935–1938
Rafael Alunan 1938–1940
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce  Benigno Aquino
Benigno Aquino, Sr.
Benigno Simeon Aquino, Sr. , also known as Benigno S. Aquino or Benigno S. Aquino, Sr., was a Filipino politician who served as Speaker of the Second Philippine Republic National Assembly from 1943 to 1944....

1935–1940
Rafael Alunan 1940–1941
Secretary of Labor  José Avelino
José Avelino
José Dira Avelino . The first President of the Senate of the First Republic of the Philippines under the presidency of Manuel Roxas. He was President Pro-tempore to President Manuel Quezon prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth.Avelino was born in a town called Calbayog in Samar to...

1935–1938
Sotero Baluyut 1938–1941
Secretary to the President  Jorge B. Vargas
Jorge B. Vargas
Jorge B. Vargas was a lawyer and youth advocate born in Bago City, Negros Occidental, Philippines. He graduated valedictorian from Negros Occidental High School in 1909 and obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1911 and a Bachelor of Law degree with honors in 1914, both from the University of the...

1935–1941
Auditor-General
Auditor-General
The Auditor-General is an office established by the 1996 Constitution of South Africa and is one of the Chapter nine institutions intended to support democracy, although its history dates back at least 95 years ....

 
Jaime Hernández
Jaime Hernandez
Jaime Hernandez is the co-creator of the black & white independent comic book Love and Rockets .-Early life:...

1935–1941
Commissioner of the Budget  Serafin Marabut 1935–1941
Commissioner of Civil Service  José Gil
José Gil
José Gil is a Portuguese philosopher.In his youth he lived in Lisbon, Portugal, but his experiences under António Salazar’s 1933-1974 dictatorship, made him decide to study in a free country...

1935–1941
Resident Commissioner
Resident Commissioner
Resident Commissioner is the title of several, quite different types of Commissioner in overseas possession or protectorate of the British Crown or of the United States.-British English:...

 
Quintin Paredes
Quintín Paredes
Quintín B. Paredes was a Filipino lawyer, politician, and statesman.He was born in Bangued, Abra, Philippines in 1884 to Juan Felix Paredes and Regine Babila.-Education and early career:...

1935–1938
Joaquín Miguel Elizalde
Joaquín Miguel Elizalde
Joaquín Miguel Elizalde was a Philippine politician.He was educated at St. Joseph's College, London, and Dr. Schmidt’s Institute in St. Gallen, Switzerland. Elizalde was an industrialist and financier and economic adviser to President Manuel L...

1938–1941

War Cabinet 1941–1944



The outbreak of World War II and the Japanese invasion resulted in periodic and drastic changes to the government structure. Executive Order 390, December 22, 1941 abolished the Department of the Interior and established a new line of succession. Executive Order 396, December 24, 1941 further reorganized and grouped the cabinet, with the functions of Secretary of Justice assigned to the Chief Justice of the Philippines.

OFFICE NAME TERM
President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 
Manuel L. Quezón 1941–1944 (extended, 1943)
Vice President
Vice President of the Philippines
-Description:The Vice-President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text...

 
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

1941–1944 (extended, 1943)
Secretary of Justice and Finance  José Abad Santos
José Abad Santos
In 1919, Abad Santos would become instrumental in laying the legal groundwork as well as drafting the by-laws and constitution of the Philippine Women's University, the country's and Asia's first private non-sectarian institution for higher learning for women...

December 24, 1941 – March 26, 1942
Secretary of Justice  José Abad Santos
José Abad Santos
In 1919, Abad Santos would become instrumental in laying the legal groundwork as well as drafting the by-laws and constitution of the Philippine Women's University, the country's and Asia's first private non-sectarian institution for higher learning for women...

March 26, 1942– May, 1942
Secretary of Finance, Agriculture, and Commerce  Andrés Soriano
Andrés Soriano
Andrés Soriano was an influential Spanish citizen businessman in the Philippines and the leader of the Philippine Falange, acting as an agent of Spanish ruler Francisco Franco of the Spanish Falange from the late 1930s. He served as finance minister of the Philippines during the Quezon administration...

March 26, 1942 – July 31, 1944
Secretary of National Defense, Public Works, Communications and Labor  Basilio Valdes December 24, 1941 – August 1, 1944
Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare  Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

December 24, 1941 – August 1, 1944
Secretary to the President  Manuel Roxas
Manuel Roxas
Manuel Acuña Roxas was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948...

December 24, 1941– May, 1942
Arturo Rotor May, 1942– August 1, 1944
Secretary to the Cabinet  Manuel Nieto
Manuel Nieto
Jose Manuel Nieto was a soldier from the Presidio of San Diego who was assigned to the Mission San Gabriel at the time his land was granted by the Spanish Empire in 1784.-Spanish soldier:...

May 19, 1944
Secretary without Portfolio  Andrés Soriano
Andrés Soriano
Andrés Soriano was an influential Spanish citizen businessman in the Philippines and the leader of the Philippine Falange, acting as an agent of Spanish ruler Francisco Franco of the Spanish Falange from the late 1930s. He served as finance minister of the Philippines during the Quezon administration...

March 2–26, 1942
Treasurer of the Philippines  Andrés Soriano
Andrés Soriano
Andrés Soriano was an influential Spanish citizen businessman in the Philippines and the leader of the Philippine Falange, acting as an agent of Spanish ruler Francisco Franco of the Spanish Falange from the late 1930s. He served as finance minister of the Philippines during the Quezon administration...

February 19, 1942 – March 26, 1942
Manuel Roxas
Manuel Roxas
Manuel Acuña Roxas was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948...

March 26, 1942 – May 8, 1942
Auditor-General
Auditor-General
The Auditor-General is an office established by the 1996 Constitution of South Africa and is one of the Chapter nine institutions intended to support democracy, although its history dates back at least 95 years ....

 
Jaime Hernández (Filipino) December 30, 1941 – August 1, 1944
Resident Commissioner
Resident Commissioner
Resident Commissioner is the title of several, quite different types of Commissioner in overseas possession or protectorate of the British Crown or of the United States.-British English:...

 
Joaquín Miguel Elizalde
Joaquín Miguel Elizalde
Joaquín Miguel Elizalde was a Philippine politician.He was educated at St. Joseph's College, London, and Dr. Schmidt’s Institute in St. Gallen, Switzerland. Elizalde was an industrialist and financier and economic adviser to President Manuel L...

December 30, 1941 – August 1, 1944 (given cabinet rank, May, 1942)
Secretary of Information and Public Relations  Carlos P. Rómulo
Carlos P. Rómulo
Carlos Peña Rómulo was a Filipino diplomat, politician, soldier, journalist and author. He was a reporter at 16, a newspaper editor by the age of 20, and a publisher at 32...

1943–1944

Sources:

The Sixth Annual Report of the United States High Commission to the Philippine Island to the President and Congress of the United States, Covering the Fiscal Year July 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942 Washington D.C. October 20, 1942

Executive Orders of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Manila, Bureau of Printing 1945

Supreme Court appointments


President Quezón was given the power under the reorganization act, to appoint the first all-Filipino Supreme Court of the Philippines
Supreme Court of the Philippines
The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the Philippines' highest judicial court, as well as the court of last resort. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice...

 in 1935. From 1901 to 1935, although a Filipino was always appointed chief justice, the majority of the members of the Supreme Court were Americans. Complete Filipinization was achieved only with the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. Claro M. Recto and José P. Laurel were among Quezón's first appointees to replace the American justices. The membership in the Supreme Court increased to 11: a chief justice and ten associate justices, who sat en banc or in two divisions of five members each.
  • Ramón Avanceña
    Ramon Avanceña
    Ramón Avanceña was a Chief Justice of the Philippines. He served from 1925-1941, when he resigned during the nearing of the Japanese Occupation...

     – 1935 (Chief Justice
    Chief Justice of the Philippines
    The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines presides over the Supreme Court of the Philippines and is the highest judicial officer of the government of the Philippines...

    ) – 1935–1941
  • José Abad Santos
    José Abad Santos
    In 1919, Abad Santos would become instrumental in laying the legal groundwork as well as drafting the by-laws and constitution of the Philippine Women's University, the country's and Asia's first private non-sectarian institution for higher learning for women...

     – 1935
  • Claro M. Recto
    Claro M. Recto
    Claro Mayo Recto, Jr. , was a Filipino politician, jurist, poet and one of the foremost statesmen of his generation...

     1935–1936
  • José P. Laurel
    Jose P. Laurel
    José Paciano Laurel y García was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945...

     – 1935
  • José Abad Santos
    José Abad Santos
    In 1919, Abad Santos would become instrumental in laying the legal groundwork as well as drafting the by-laws and constitution of the Philippine Women's University, the country's and Asia's first private non-sectarian institution for higher learning for women...

     (Chief Justice
    Chief Justice of the Philippines
    The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines presides over the Supreme Court of the Philippines and is the highest judicial officer of the government of the Philippines...

    ) – 1941–1942

First Term (1935–1941)


In 1935 Quezón won the Philippine's first national presidential election under the banner of the Nacionalista Party
Nacionalista Party
The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today and was responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907...

. He obtained nearly 68% of the vote against his two main rivals, Emilio Aguinaldo and Gregorio Aglipay
Gregorio Aglipay
Gregorio Labayan Aglipay was the first Filipino Supreme Bishop of the Philippine Independent Church.-Early life:...

. Quezón was inaugurated in November 1935. He is recognized as the second President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

. However, in January 2008, House Representative Rodolfo Valencia of Oriental Mindoro
Oriental Mindoro
Oriental Mindoro is a province of the Philippines located in the island of Mindoro under MIMAROPA region in Luzon, about 140 km southwest of Manila...

 filed a bill seeking instead to declare General Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar y Carpio was a Filipino commander who served during the Philippine Revolution and subsequently during the Philippine–American War. He assumed command of the Philippine revolutionary forces during the latter conflict following the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo in 1901...

 as the second Philippine President, having directly succeeded Aguinaldo in 1901.

Government Reorganization


To meet the demands of the newly established government set-up and in compliance with the provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie law, as well as the requirements of the Constitution, President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 Quezon, true to his pledge of "More Government and less politics", initiated a reorganization of the government bodies. To this effect, he established the Government Survey Board to study the existing institutions and in the light of the changed circumstances, make the necessary recommendations.

Early results were seen with the revamping of the Executive Department. Offices and bureaus were either merged with one another or outrightly abolished. Some new ones, however, were created. President Quezon ordered the transfer of the Philippines Constabulary
Philippine National Police
The Philippine National Police is the national police force of the Republic of the Philippines. It is both a national and a local police force in that it does provides all law enforcement services throughout the Philippines...

 for the Department of Interior, were placed under the Department of Finance
Department of Finance (Philippines)
The Philippines' Department of Finance is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the formulation, institutionalization and administration of fiscal policies, management of the financial resources of the government, supervision of the revenue operations of all local...

. Among the innovations in the Executive Departments by the way of modification in functions ore new creations, were those of the National Defense
Department of National Defense (Philippines)
The Department of National Defense is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for guarding against external and internal threats to peace and security in the country...

, Agriculture
Department of Agriculture (Philippines)
The Philippines' Department of Agriculture , abbreviated as DA, is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for boosting the income of farmers as well as reducing the incidence of poverty in the rural sector, as stipulated inthe Government's Medium Term Philippine...

 and Commerce
Department of Trade and Industry (Philippines)
The Philippines’ Department of Trade and Industry , abbreviated as DTI is the executive department of the Philippine Government tasked to expand Philippine trade, industries and investments as the means to generate jobs and raise incomes for Filipinos...

, Public Works
Department of Public Works and Highways (Philippines)
The Philippines’ Department of Public Works and Highways , abbreviated as DPWH, is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for all safety of projects in the field of public works...

 and Communications
Department of Transportation and Communications (Philippines)
The Department of Transportation and Communications is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the maintenance and expansion of viable, efficient, and dependable transportation and communications systems as effective instruments for national recovery and economic...

, and Health
Department of Health (Philippines)
The Philippines’ Department of Health is the principal health agency in the Philippines. It is the executive department of the Philippine Government responsible for ensuring access to basic public health services to all Filipinos through the provision of quality health care and the regulation of...

 and Public Welfare
Department of Social Welfare and Development (Philippines)
The Philippines Department of Social Welfare and Development is the executive department of the Philippine Government responsible for the protection of the social welfare rights of Filipinos and to promote social development.-History:...

.

In Keeping with other exigencies posed by the Constitution, new offices and boards were created either by Executive Order or by appropriate legislative action. Among these were the Council of National Defense
National Security Council (Philippines)
National Security Council is the Philippine President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials.-History:Commonwealth Act No...

, the Board of National Relief, the Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

 and Sulu
Sulu
Sulu is an autonomous island province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao . Its capital is Jolo and occupies the middle group of islands of the Sulu Archipelago, between Basilan and Tawi-Tawi...

 Commission, and the Civil Service
Civil Service Commission (Philippines)
The Civil Service Commission of the Philippines is a government agency which deals with civil service matters and conflict resolution. It is tasked with the responsibility of overseeing the integrity of government actions and processes. The commission was originally founded in 1900 through Act...

 Board of Appeals.

Social justice program


Pledged to improve the lot of the Philippine working class and seeking the inspiration from the social doctrines of Leo XIII and Pius XI, aside from the authoritative treatises of the world's leading sociologists, President Quezon started a vigorous program of social justice
Social justice
Social justice generally refers to the idea of creating a society or institution that is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that recognizes the dignity of every human being. The term and modern concept of "social justice" was coined by...

, which he traduced into reality through appropriate executive measures and legislation obtained from the National Assembly
National Assembly of the Philippines
The National Assembly of the Philippines refers to the legislature of the Philippine Commonwealth from 1935 to 1941, and the Second Philippine Republic. The National Assembly of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was created under the 1935 Constitution, which served as the Philippines' fundamental...

.

Thus, a court of Industrial Relations was established by law to take cognizance disputes, under certain conditions, minimizing in this wise the inconveniences of the strikes and lockouts. A minimum wage law was enacted, as well as a law providing for a maximum of eight hours daily work and a Tenancy law for the Filipino
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

 farmers. Another effective measure was the creation of the position of Public Defenders to help indigent litigants in their court suits.

Commonwealth Act No. 20 authorize President Quezon to institute expropriation proceedings and/or acquire large landed estates to re-sell them at nominal cost and under easy terms to tenants thereon, thus enabling them to possess a lot and a home of their own. It was by virtue of this law that the Buenavista estate was acquired by the Commonwealth Government. President Quezon also launched a cooperative system of agriculture among the owners of the subdivided estates in order to alleviate their situation and provide them grater earnings.

In all these, President Quezon showed an earnest desire to follow the constitutional mandate on the promotion of social justice.

Economy



Upon the advent of the Commonwealth fortunately the economic condition of the country was stable and promising. With foreign trade reaching a peak of four hundred million pesos, the upward trend in business was accentuated and assumed the aspect of a boom. Exports crops were generally good and, with the exemption of tobacco, they were all in excellent demand in foreign trade markets. Indeed the value of the Philippine exports reached an all high of 320,896,000 pesos, the highest since 1929.

On the other hand, government revenues amounted to 76,675,000 pesos in 1936, as compared with the 1935 revenue of 65,000,000 pesos. Even the government companies, with the exemption of the Manila Railroad
Philippine National Railways
The Philippine National Railways , or PNR, is a state-owned railway company in the Philippines, operating a single line of track on Luzon. As of 2010, it operates one commuter rail service in Metro Manila and a second in the Bicol Region. PNR restored its intercity service to the Bicol region in 2011...

, managed to earn profits. Gold production increased about 37% and iron nearly 100%, while cement production augmented some 14%.

Notwithstanding this prosperous situation, the government had to meet certain economic problems besetting the country and which, if attended to, might jeopardize the very prosperity then being enjoyed. For this Purpose the National Economic Council was created by law. This body advised the government in economic and financial questions, including promotion of industries, diversification of crops and enterprises, tariffs, taxation, and formulation of an economic program in the contemplation of the future independent Republic of the Philippines.

Again, a law reorganized the National Development Company, the National Rice and Corn Company (NARIC) was created by law. It was given a capital of four million pesos.

Upon the recommendation of the National Economic Council, agricultural colonies were established in the country, especially in Korondal, Malig, and other appropriate sites in Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

. The government, moreover, offered facilities of every sort to encourage migration and settlement in those places. The Agricultural and Industrial Bank was established to aid small farmers with the convenient loans on easy terms. Attention was also devoted to soil survey, as well as to the proper disposition of lands of t the public domain
Public domain
Works are in the public domain if the intellectual property rights have expired, if the intellectual property rights are forfeited, or if they are not covered by intellectual property rights at all...

. These steps and measures held much promise for our economic welfare.

Agrarian reform


When the Commonwealth Government was established, President Quezon implemented the Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933. The purpose of this act was to regulate the share-tenancy contracts by establishing minimum standards. Primarily, the Act provided for better tenant-landlord relationship, a 50–50 sharing of the crop, regulation of interest to 10% per agricultural year, and a safeguard against arbitrary dismissal by the landlord. But the Act could only be implemented by petition of majority of the municipal councils was overwhelming, no petition for the Rice Share Tenancy Act was ever presented.

The major flaw of this law was that it could be used only when the majority of municipal councils
Sangguniang Bayan
The Sangguniang Bayan is the legislature of municipal governments in the Philippines. It passes ordinances and resolutions for the effective administration of the municipality...

 in a province petitioned for it. Since landowners usually controlled such councils, no province ever asked that the law be applied. Therefore, Quezon ordered that the act be mandatory in all Central Luzon
Central Luzon
Central Luzon , also known as Region III , is an administrative division or region of the Republic of the Philippines, primarily serve to organize the 7 provinces of the vast central plain of the island of Luzon , for administrative convenience...

 provinces. However, contracts were good only for one year. By simply refusing the renew their contract, landlords were able to ejects tenants. As a result, peasant organizations agitated in vain for a law that would make the contract automatically renewable for as long as the tenants fulfilled their obligations.

In 1936, this Act was amended to get rid of its loophole, but the landlords made its application relative and not absolute. Consequently, it was never carried out in spite of its good intentions. In fact, by 1939, thousands of peasants in Central Luzon
Central Luzon
Central Luzon , also known as Region III , is an administrative division or region of the Republic of the Philippines, primarily serve to organize the 7 provinces of the vast central plain of the island of Luzon , for administrative convenience...

 were being threatened with wholesale eviction.

The desire of Quezon to placate both landlords and tenants pleased either. By early 1940s, thousands of tenants in Central Luzon were ejected from their farmlands and the rural conflict was more acute than ever.

Indeed, during the Commonwealth period, agrarian problems persisted. This motivated the government to incorporate a cardinal principle on social justice in the 1935 Constitution. Dictated by the social justice program of the government, expropriation of landed estates and other landholdings commenced. Likewise, the National Land Settlement Administration (NSLA) began an orderly settlement of public agricultural lands. At the outbreak of the Second World War, major settlement areas containing more than 65,000 hectares were already established.

Educational reforms


Turning his attention to the matter of education in the country, President Quezon by virtue of Executive Order No. 19, dated February 19, 1936, created the National Council of Education, with Rafael Palma
Rafael Palma
Rafael Palma was a Filipino politician, Rizalian, reporter, writer, educator and a famous mason in Philippines. He also became the fourth President of the University of the Philippines.- Honors :...

, former President of the University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
The ' is the national university of the Philippines. Founded in 1908 through Act No...

, as its first chairman. Funds retained from the early approved Residence Certificate Law were devoted to the maintenance of the public schools all over the nation and the opening of many more to meet the needs of the young people. Indeed, by this time there were already 6,511 primary schools; 1039 intermediate schools; 133 secondary and special schools; and five junior colleges. The total number of pupils enrolled was 1,262,353, who were placed under charge of 28,485 schools teachers This year's appropriation for public education amounted to 14,566,850 pesos
Pesos
Pesos may refer to** Peso, the currency, in plural form* Fenfluramine, by the trade name Pesos...

. The private institutions of learning, for their part, accommodated more than ninety seven thousand students, thus considerably aiding the government in solving the annual school crisis. To implement the pertinent constitutional provision, the Office of Adult Education was likewise created.

Women's suffrage


President Quezón initiated women's suffrage in the Philippines during the Commonwealth Era. As a result of the prolonged debate between the proponents of women's suffrage and their opponents, the Constitution finally provided that the issue be resolved by the women themselves in a plebiscite. If no less than 300,000 of them were to affirmatively vote in favour of the grant within two years would be deemed granted the country's women. Complying with this mandate, the government ordered a plebiscite to be held for the purpose on April 3, 1937.

Following a rather vigorous campaign, on the day of the plebiscite, the turnout of female voters was impressive. The affirmative votes numbered 447,725, as against 44,307 who opposed the grant.

National language


Another constitutional provision to be implemented by President Quezón's administration dealt with the question of The Philippines' national language. Following a year's study, the Institute of the National Language – established on 1936 – recommended that Tagalog
Tagalog language
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a third of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by most of the rest. It is the first language of the Philippine region IV and of Metro Manila...

 be adopted as the basis for the national language. The proposal was well received, considering that the Director – the first to be appointed – at the time Jaime C. de Veyra
Jaime C. de Veyra
Jaime Carlos de Veyra, a Resident Commissioner from the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands; born in Tanauan, Province of Leyte, Philippine Islands, born November 4, 1873; attended public and private schools; was graduated from the College of San Juan de Letran in Manila in 1893; studied law,...

, was an ethnic Visayan.

On December 1937, Quezón issued a proclamation approving the constitution made by the Institute and declaring that the adoption of the national language would take place two years hence. With the presidential approval, the Institute of National Language started to work on a grammar and dictionary of the language.

Council of State


In 1938, President Quezon enlarged the composition of the Council of State through Executive Order No. 44. This highest of advisory bodies to President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 was henceforth to be composed of the President
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

, Vice-President, Senate President
President of the Senate of the Philippines
The President of the Senate of the Philippines, or more popularly known as the Senate President, is the presiding officer and the highest ranking-official of the Senate of the Philippines. He/she is elected by the entire body to be their leader...

, House Speaker, Senate President pro tempore
President pro tempore of the Senate of the Philippines
The President Pro-Tempore of the Senate of the Philippines is the second highest-ranking official of the Senate of the Philippines. During the absence of the Senate President, the Senate President pro tempore presides over the Senate....

, House Speaker pro tempore, Majority Floor leader of both chambers of Congress
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

, former Presidents of the Philippines, and some three to five prominent citizens.

1938 midterm election



The Elections for the Second National Assemblywere held on November 8, 1938, under a new law that allowed block voting
Block voting
Block voting and Bloc voting may refer to:*Plurality-at-large voting, a voting system with multiple winners and a checkbox ballot*Preferential block voting, a voting system with multiple winners and a preferential ballot...

 which favored the governing Nacionalista Party
Nacionalista Party
The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today and was responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907...

. As expected all the 98 seats of the National Assembly went to the Nacionalistas. Jose Yulo
Jose Yulo
José Yulo was the Chief Justice of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation and was Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1939 until the World War II started in 1941.-Career:...

 who was Quezon's Secretary of Justice from 1934 to 1938, was elected Speaker.

The Second National Assembly embarked on passing legislations strengthening the economy, unfortunately the cloud of the Second World War loomed over the horizon. Certain laws passed by the First National Assembly were modified or repealed to meet existing realities. A controversial immigration law
Immigration law
Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country.Immigraton law, regarding foreign citizens, is related to nationality law, which governs the legal status of people, in matters such as citizenship...

 that set an annual limit of 50 immigrants per country which affected mostly Chinese and Japanese nationals escaping the Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

 was passed in 1940. Since the law bordered on foreign relations it required the approval of the U.S. President which was nevertheless obtained. When the result of the 1939 census
Demographics of the Philippines
Demographics of the Philippines are records of human population in the country, including its population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. According to the 2007 Census, the population of the Philippines was...

 was published, the National Assembly updated the apportionment of legislative districts, which became the basis for the 1941 elections
Philippine general election, 1941
Presidential, legislative and local elections were held on November 11, 1941 in the Philippines. Incumbent President Manuel Luis Quezon won an unprecedented second partial term as President of the Philippines via a landslide. His running mate, Vice President Sergio Osmeña also won via landslide...

.

1939 plebiscite


On August 7, 1939, the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 enacted a law embodying the recommendations submitted by the Joint Preparatory Commission on Philippine Affairs. Because the new law required an amendment of the Ordinance appended to the Constitution, a plebiscite was held on August 24, 1939. The amendment was carried by 1,339,453 votes against 49,633.

Third official language



On April 1, 1940, President Quezon officially authorized the printing and publication of the grammar and dictionary prepared by the Institute of the National Language. Likewise, the Chief Executive decreed that the national language was to be compulsorily taught in all the schools during the forthcoming academic term. For its part, the National Assembly
National Assembly of the Philippines
The National Assembly of the Philippines refers to the legislature of the Philippine Commonwealth from 1935 to 1941, and the Second Philippine Republic. The National Assembly of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was created under the 1935 Constitution, which served as the Philippines' fundamental...

 enacted Law No. 570 raising the national language elaborated by the institute to the status of official language of the Philippines, at par with English and Spanish, effective July 4, 1946, upon the establishment of the Philippine Republic.

1940 plebiscite



Coincident with the local elections for the 1940, another plebiscite was held this time to ratify the proposed amendments to the Constitution regarding the restoration of the bicameral legislature, the presidential term, which was to be fixed at four years with one re-election; and the establishment of an independent Commission on Elections
Commission on Elections (Philippines)
The Commission on Elections, or COMELEC, is one of the three constitutional commissions of the Philippines. Its principal role is to enforce all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of elections, initiatives, referendums, and recalls....

. With the Nacionalista Party
Nacionalista Party
The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today and was responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907...

, which had proposed said amendment in their convention, working hard under the leadership of its President, Speaker Jose Yulo
Jose Yulo
José Yulo was the Chief Justice of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation and was Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1939 until the World War II started in 1941.-Career:...

, the amendments were overwhelmingly ratified by the electorate. Speaker Yulo and Assemblyman Dominador Tan traveled to the United States to obtain President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

's approval, which was given on December 2, 1940. Two days later President Quezon proclaimed the amendments.

1941 presidential election



Quezón had originally been barred by the Philippine constitution from seeking re-election. However, in 1940, constitutional amendments were ratified allowing him to seek re-election for a fresh term ending in 1943. In the 1941 presidential elections
Philippine general election, 1941
Presidential, legislative and local elections were held on November 11, 1941 in the Philippines. Incumbent President Manuel Luis Quezon won an unprecedented second partial term as President of the Philippines via a landslide. His running mate, Vice President Sergio Osmeña also won via landslide...

, Quezón was re-elected over former Senator
Senate of the Philippines
The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines...

 Juan Sumulong with nearly 82% of the vote.

Jewish refugees


In a notable humanitarian act, Quezón, in cooperation with United States High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt
Paul V. McNutt
Paul Vories McNutt was an American politician who served as the 34th Governor of Indiana during the Great Depression, high commissioner to the Philippines, administrator of the Federal Security Agency, chairman of the War Manpower Commission and ambassador to the Philippines.-Family and...

, facilitated the entry into the Philippines of Jewish refugees fleeing fascist regimes in Europe. Quezón was also instrumental in promoting a project to resettle the refugees in Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

.

Government-in-exile


After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines during World War II he evacuated to Corregidor
Corregidor
Corregidor Island, locally called Isla ng Corregidor, is a lofty island located at the entrance of Manila Bay in southwestern part of Luzon Island in the Philippines. Due to this location, Corregidor was fortified with several coastal artillery and ammunition magazines to defend the entrance of...

, then the Visayas
Visayas
The Visayas or Visayan Islands and locally known as Kabisay-an gid, is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Mindanao and Luzon. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast...

 and Mindanao, and upon the invitation of the US government, was further evacuated to Australia and then to the United States, where he established the Commonwealth government in exile
Government in exile
A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a country's legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually operate under the assumption that they will one day return to their...

 with headquarters in Washington, D.C.. There, he served as a member of the Pacific War Council
Pacific War Council
The Pacific War Council was an inter-governmental body established in 1942 and intended to control the Allied war effort in the Pacific and Asian campaigns of World War II....

, signed the declaration of the United Nations against the Axis Powers
Axis Powers
The Axis powers , also known as the Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries, or just the Axis, was an alignment of great powers during the mid-20th century that fought World War II against the Allies. It began in 1936 with treaties of friendship between Germany and Italy and between Germany and...

, and wrote his autobiography (The Good Fight, 1946).

To carry on the government duties in exile, President Quezon hired the entire floor of one of the wing of the Shoreham Hotel to accommodate his family and his office. On the other hand, the offices of the government were established at the quarters of the Philippine Resident Commissioner, Joaquin Elizalde. The latter was made a member of President's wartime Cabinet. Others likewise appointed were Brigadier-General Carlos P. Romulo
Carlos P. Rómulo
Carlos Peña Rómulo was a Filipino diplomat, politician, soldier, journalist and author. He was a reporter at 16, a newspaper editor by the age of 20, and a publisher at 32...

, as Secretary of the Department of Information and Public Relations, and Jaime Hernandez as Auditor General.

On June 2, 1942, President Quezon addressed the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

, impressing upon them the vital necessity of relieving the Philippine front. Before the Senate, later, the Philippine President reiterated the same message and urged the senators to adopt the slogan "Remember Bataan
Bataan
Bataan is a province of the Philippines occupying the whole of the Bataan Peninsula on Luzon. The province is part of the Central Luzon region. The capital of Bataan is Balanga City and it is bordered by the provinces of Zambales and Pampanga to the north...

". Despite his precarious state of health, President Quezon roamed the States to deliver timely and rousing speeches calculated to keep the Philippine war uppermost in the minds of the American nation.

Talks of Post-war Philippines


On the occasion of his first birthday celebration in the United States, President Quezon broadcast as radio message to the Philippine residents in Hawaii, who contributed to the celebration by purchasing four million pesos worth of World War II bonds
Bond (finance)
In finance, a bond is a debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and, depending on the terms of the bond, is obliged to pay interest to use and/or to repay the principal at a later date, termed maturity...

. Further showing the Philippine government's cooperation with the war effort, President Quezon officially offered the U.S Army a Philippine infantry regiment, which was authorized by the U.S. Department of War
United States Department of War
The United States Department of War, also called the War Department , was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army...

 to train in California. He also had the Philippine government acquire Elizalde's yacht, which, renamed "Bataan" and totally manned by the Philippine officers and crew, was donated to the United States for use in the war.

Early in November 1942, President Quezon held conferences with President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 Roosevelt to work out a plan for the creation of a joint commission to study the economic conditions of post-war Philippines. Eighteen months later, the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 would pass an Act creating the Philippine Rehabilitation Commission as an outcome of such talks between the two Presidents.

Quezon-Osmeña Impasse


By 1943, the Philippine Government-in-exile was faced with a serious crisis. According to the 1935 Constitution, the official term of President Quezon was to expire on the December 30, 1943 and Vice-President Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

 would automatically succeed him in the Presidency. This eventuality was brought to the attention of President Quezon by Osmeña himself, who wrote the former to this effect. Aside from replying to this letter informing Vice-President Osmeña that it would not be wise and prudent to effect any such change under the circumstances, President Quezon issued a press release along the same line. Osmeña then requested the opinion of U.S. Attorney General Homer Cummings, who upheld Osmeña's view as more in keeping the law. Quezon, however, remained adamant. He accordingly sought President Roosevelt's decision. The latter choose to remain aloof from the controversy, suggesting instead that the Philippine officials themselves solve the impasse.

A cabinet meeting was then convened by President Quezon. Aside from Quezon and Osmeña, others present in this momentous meeting were Resident Commissioner Joaquin Elizalde, Brig.Gen.Carlos P. Romulo
Carlos P. Rómulo
Carlos Peña Rómulo was a Filipino diplomat, politician, soldier, journalist and author. He was a reporter at 16, a newspaper editor by the age of 20, and a publisher at 32...

, and Cabinet Secretaries Andres Soriano and Jaime Hernandez. Following a spirited discussion, the Cabinet adopted Elizalde's opinion favorable the decision and announced his plan to retire in California.

After the meeting, however, Vice-President Osmeña approached the President and broached his plan to ask the American Congress to suspend the constitutional provisions for presidential succession until after the Philippines should have been liberated. This legal way out was agreeable to President Quezon and the members of his Cabinet. Proper steps were taken to carry out the proposal. Sponsored by Senator Tydings and Congressman Bell, the pertinent Resolution was unanimously approved by the Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 on a voice vote
Voice vote
A voice vote is a voting method used by deliberative assemblies in which a vote is taken on a topic or motion by responding verbally....

 and passed the House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 by the a vote of 181 to 107 on November 10, 1943.

Death


Quezón suffered from tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

 and spent his last years in a "cure cottage"
Cure Cottages of Saranac Lake
Between 1873 and 1945, Saranac Lake, New York became a world renowned center for the treatment of tuberculosis, using a treatment that involved exposing patients to as much fresh air as possible under conditions of complete bed-rest...

 in Saranac Lake
Saranac Lake, New York
Saranac Lake is a village located in the state of New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,406. The village is named after Upper, Middle, and Lower Saranac Lakes, which are nearby....

, New York, where he died on August 1, 1944. He was initially buried in Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, is a military cemetery in the United States of America, established during the American Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, formerly the estate of the family of Confederate general Robert E. Lee's wife Mary Anna Lee, a great...

. His body was later carried by the USS Princeton
USS Princeton (CV-37)
USS Princeton was one of 24 s built during and shortly after World War II for the United States Navy. The ship was the fifth US Navy ship to bear the name, and was named for the Revolutionary War Battle of Princeton...

 and re-interred in Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 at the Manila North Cemetery
Manila North Cemetery
The Manila North Cemetery , which measures 54 hectares, is considered the biggest and one of the oldest cemeteries in Metro Manila. Beside it are two other important cemeteries, namely the La Loma Cemetery and the Manila Chinese Cemetery...

 before being moved to Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

 within the monument at the Quezon Memorial Circle
Quezon Memorial Circle
The Quezon Memorial Circle is a national park and shrine located in Quezon City, former capital of the Philippines . The park is an ellipse bounded by the Elliptical Road. Its main feature is a mausoleum containing the remains of Manuel L...

.

Personal life


Quezón was married to his first cousin, Aurora Aragón Quezón, and had four children: María Aurora "Baby" Quezón (1919–1949), María Zeneida "Nini" Quezón-Avancena (born 1921), Luisa Corazón Paz "Nenita" Quezón (1923–1923) and Manuel L. "Nonong" Quezón, Jr. (1926–1998). His grandson, Manuel L. "Manolo" Quezón III
Manuel L. Quezon III
Manuel Luis "Manolo" Quezon III is a Filipino writer, television host and grandson of President Manuel L. Quezon.Quezon's adopted father was Manuel L. "Nonong" Quezon, Jr. He is a columnist and editorial writer for the Philippine Daily Inquirer and the host and writer of The Explainer on the...

 (born 1970), a prominent writer and current undersecretary of the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office, was named after him.

In their column on the pronunciation of names, The Literary Digest
Literary Digest
The Literary Digest was an influential general interest weekly magazine published by Funk & Wagnalls. Founded by Isaac Kaufmann Funk in 1890, it eventually merged with two similar weekly magazines, Public Opinion and Current Opinion.-History:...

 wrote "The President and his wife pronounce the name keh'-zon. The pronunciation keh-son', although widely heard in the Philippine Islands, is incorrect." (Charles Earle Funk, What's the Name, Please?, Funk & Wagnalls, 1936.)

Electoral history


Quotes


"My loyalty to my party ends where my loyalty to my country begins."

"Social Justice is far more beneficial when applied as a matter of sentiment, and not of law."

"I would rather have a country run like hell by Filipinos than a country run like heaven by the Americans, because however a bad Filipino government might be, we can always change it."

"Pray for me so that I can return to the Philippines. I feel so weak that I'm afraid I cannot make it"

"I'd rather be called "Quezón the Letranite" than "Quezón the President"."

Civics and Ethics Code


As promulgated by the Manuel L. Quezón
The First President of the Philippine Commonwealth

1. Have faith in Divine Providence that guides the destinies of men and nations.

2. Love your country for it is the home of your people, the seat of your affections, and the sources of your happiness and well-being. It's defense is your primary duty. Be ready at all times to sacrifice and die for it if necessary.

3. Respect the Constitution which is the expression of your sovereign will. The government is your government. It has been established for your safety and welfare. Obey the laws and see that they are observed by all and that public officials comply with their duties.

4. Pay your taxes willingly and promptly. Citizenship implies not only rights but also obligations.

5. Safeguard the purity of suffrage and abide by the decisions of the majority.

6. Love and respect your parents. It is your duty to serve them gratefully and well.

7. Value your honor as you value your life. Poverty with honor is preferable to wealth with dishonor.

8. Be truthful and be honest in thought and in action. Be just and charitable, courteous but dignified in your dealings with your fellowmen.

9. Lead a clean and frugal life. Do not indulge in frivolity or pretense. Be simple in your dress and modest in your behavior.

10. Live up to the noble traditions of our people. Venerate the memory of our heroes. Their lives point the way to duty and honor.

11. Be industrious. Be not afraid or ashamed to do manual labor. Productive toil is conductive to economic security and adds to the wealth of the nation.

12. Rely on your own efforts for your progress and happiness. Be not easily discouraged. Persevere in the pursuit of your legitimate ambitions.

13. Do your work cheerfully, thoroughly, and well. Work badly done is worse than work undone. Do not leave for tomorrow what you can do today.

14. Contribute to the welfare of your community and promote social justice. You do not live for yourselves and family alone. You are part of society to which you owe definite responsibilities.

15. Cultivate the habit of using goods made in the Philippines. Patronize the products and trades of your countrymen.

16. Use and develop our natural resources and conserve them for posterity. They are the inalienable heritage of our people. Do not traffic with your citizenship.

The vital lesson we must learn from our past is that we can triumph if we only persevere. The Filipino people, by grit, hard work, and faith in God, will march forward to fulfill their destiny.

Legacy


  • A province
    Quezon
    -History:Originally, what now forms Quezon was divided among the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, and Nueva Ecija. The area was first explored by Juan de Salcedo in 1571-1572, during his expedition from Laguna to Camarines provinces....

    , a city
    Quezon City
    Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

    , a bridge
    Quezon Bridge
    The Puente Colgante, originally called Puente de Claveria, was a suspension bridge that connected the Manila districts of Quiapo and Ermita across the Pasig River in the Philippines. Designed by the Basque engineer Matias Menchacatorre and completed in 1852, it was the first suspension bridge in...

    , a private university in Manila
    Manuel L. Quezon University
    The Manuel L. Quezon University is a private university in Quiapo, Manila, Philippines. It is a member of the Colleges and Universities Sports Association . It offers academic programs at the pre-school, elementary, high school, tertiary, and graduate levels. It is named for Philippine president...

     and many streets are named after him. The highest honor conferred by the Republic of the Philippines is the Quezon Service Cross
    Quezon Service Cross
    The Quezon Service Cross is the highest national recognition of the Republic of the Philippines. It has been awarded to only five Filipinos since its creation in 1946.-Background:...

    . He is also memorialized on Philippine currency
    Philippine peso
    The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

    . He appears on the Philippine twenty peso bill
    Philippine twenty peso bill
    The Philippine twenty-peso bill is a denomination of Philippine currency. Philippine president Manuel L. Quezon is currently featured on the front side of the bill, while the Banaue Rice Terraces and the palm civet is featured on the reverse side....

    . He also appears on two commemorative one peso coins, one alongside Frank Murphy
    Frank Murphy
    William Francis Murphy was a politician and jurist from Michigan. He served as First Assistant U.S. District Attorney, Eastern Michigan District , Recorder's Court Judge, Detroit . Mayor of Detroit , the last Governor-General of the Philippines , U.S...

     and another with Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Recording of speech


President Quezón delivered a speech entitled "Message to My People" in English and in Spanish. According to Manuel L. Quezón III
Manuel L. Quezon III
Manuel Luis "Manolo" Quezon III is a Filipino writer, television host and grandson of President Manuel L. Quezon.Quezon's adopted father was Manuel L. "Nonong" Quezon, Jr. He is a columnist and editorial writer for the Philippine Daily Inquirer and the host and writer of The Explainer on the...

, the speech was "recorded in the 1920s, when he was first diagnosed with tuberculosis and assumed he didn't have much longer to live."

External links



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