A lighter is a portable device used to generate a flame
A flame is the visible , gaseous part of a fire. It is caused by a highly exothermic reaction taking place in a thin zone...

. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with a flammable fluid or pressurized liquid gas, a means of ignition
Combustion or burning is the sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species. The release of heat can result in the production of light in the form of either glowing or a flame...

, and some provision for extinguishing the flame.
The first lighters were invented in the 16th century and were converted flintlock pistols that used gunpowder. One of the first lighters was invented by the German chemist named Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was a German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements.- Life and work :...

 in 1823 and was often called Döbereiner's lamp
Döbereiner's lamp
Döbereiner's lamp is a lighter invented in 1823 by the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, the lighter is based on the Fürstenberger lighter and was in production until ca. 1880. In the jar, zinc metal reacts with sulfuric acid to produce hydrogen gas. When a valve is opened, a jet of...