was a Tamil
Tamil people , also called Tamils or Tamilians, are an ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, India and the north-eastern region of Sri Lanka. Historic and post 15th century emigrant communities are also found across the world, notably Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, South Africa, Australia, Canada,...
king of the Early Cholas
The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period were one of the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. Their early capitals were Urayur and Kaveripattinam...
mentioned in Sangam Literature
Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years c. 600 BCE to 300 CE. This collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous The period during which these poems were composed is commonly referred to as the Sangam...
, and of a period close to that of Nedunkilli
Nedunkilli was a Tamil king of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. Nedunkilli is mentioned in context with a civil war between him and another Chola Nalankilli. We have no definite details about this Chola or his reign...
Nalankilli was one of the Tamil king's of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. Nalankilli is mentioned in context with a civil war between him and another Chola Nedunkilli. We have no definite details about this Chola or his reign...
. We have no definite details about this Chola or his reign. The only information we have is from the fragmentary poems of Sangam in the Purananuru
Purananuru is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 200 BCE – 100 CE. Purananuru is part of the Ettuthokai anthology which is the oldest available collection of poems of Sangam literature in Tamil....
The only source available to us on Killivalavan is the mentions in Sangam poetry. The period covered by the extant literature of the Sangam is unfortunately not easy to determine with any measure of certainty. Except the longer epics Cilappatikaram
Silappatikaram Silappatikaram has been dated to likely belong to the beginning of Christian era, although the author might have built upon a pre-existing folklore to spin this tale. The story involves the three Tamil kingdoms of the ancient era, the Chola, the Pandya and the Chera...
Manimekalai or Maṇimekalai , written by the Tamil Buddhist poet Seethalai Saathanar is one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature. It is considered to be one of the five great epics of Tamil literature. Manimekalai is a poem in 30 cantos...
, which by common consent belong to the age later than the Sangam age, the poems have reached us in the forms of systematic anthologies. Each individual poem has generally attached to it a colophon
In publishing, a colophon is either:* A brief description of publication or production notes relevant to the edition, in modern books usually located at the reverse of the title page, but can also sometimes be located at the end of the book, or...
on the authorship and subject matter of the poem, the name of the king or chieftain to whom the poem relates and the occasion which called forth the eulogy are also found.
It is from these colophons and rarely from the texts of the poems themselves, that we gather the names of many kings and chieftains and the poets and poetesses patronised by them. The task of reducing these names to an ordered scheme in which the different generations of contemporaries can be marked off one another has not been easy. To add to the confusions, some historians have even denounced these colophons as later additions and untrustworthy as historical documents.
Any attempt at extracting a systematic chronology and data from these poems should be aware of the casual nature of these poems and the wide difference between the purposes of the anthologist who collected these poems and the historian’s attempts are arriving at a continuous history.
More than one Killivalavan
There are a number of poems in Purananuru sung in praise of the Killivalavan who died at Kulamuttram (Kulamuttrathu Tunjiya Killivalavan
) and a solitary poem of another Killivalavan who died at Kurappalli. As Kovur Kilar is the poet who has written about these two Killis, it is reasonable to suppose that these two kings are identical.
The vimana of srirangam temple originally came out of “parkadal” with the powers of brahma dava. The incarnation of lord Vishnu called Ramavathara has performed poojas to this vimana. But as a symbol of love he gifted this vimana to vibishana (brother of Ravana). With a condition, to not to keep that on earth. While he took this vimana and was traveling towards srilanka, lord vinayaka played a trick and made that to stick on the region now called srirangam, on the banks of river cauvery. Then chola kings namely dharmavarcholan and KILLIVALAVAN
developed the shrine into big temple seen now. They have laid the Basic foundations and primary Buildings.
Killivalavan is celebrated in eighteen songs by ten different minstrels and himself figures as the author of a poem sung in praise of his friend Pannan who was the chieftain of Sirukudi (Purananuru
– 173). Urayur
Urayur , located near the city of Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu, India, was the capital of the early Cholas, who were one of the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. Sometimes spelled as Uraiyur, this location is also known as Thirukkozhi, Nikalaapuri, Uranthai, and Kozhiyur. It has a...
was the capital of Killivalavan (Purananuru
Killivalavan was a capable king and was both brave and generous, but somewhat headstrong. A great deal of good advice was very tactfully offered to him by the poets.
Siege of Karur
The siege and capture of the Chera
Chera Dynasty in South India is one of the most ancient ruling dynasties in India. Together with the Cholas and the Pandyas, they formed the three principle warring Iron Age Tamil kingdoms in southern India...
capital Karur was the standout military achievement of Killivalavan’s reign and has been the subject of a number of poems. The poet Alattur Kilar made an effort to divert Killivalavan’s attention from this enterprise in order to save Karur from destruction by gently chiding him for pitting himself against an enemy unworthy of his prowess (Purananuru
– 36). However this effort was futile and the city of karur fell to the Chola.
Defeat against Pandya
Purananuru poems are silent on Killivalavan’s campaigns in the south against the Pandyas, but the poet Nakkirar in a poem in Akananuru
Akananuru , a classical Tamil poetic work, is the seventh book in the Sangam literature anthology Ettuthokai. It contains 400 Akam poems dealing with matters of love and separation...
(poem 345) makes reference to the defeat suffered by the forces of Killivalavan in the hands of the Pandya commander Palayan Maran.
Killivalavan also waged a battle against the Malainadu chief Malayaman Tirumudikkari, who was famous for his liberal patronage of poets. The Malayaman
The Malayamān family dynasty of the Velir royal house were chiefs who ruled Nadu Naadu of Tamilakkam during the Sangam period and worked closely with the early Cholas of the Chola Dynasty and the Chera Dynasty. Chiefs of this dynasty readily took the title Chēdirāyan, and delighted in their rule...
chief was killed in battle and his two children were about to be condemned to a cruel death by the victorious Chola. The poet Kovur Kilar again pleaded for the lives of these children (Purananuru