Kayin State

Kayin State

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Kayin State is a state of Burma (Myanmar). The capital city is Hpa-an
Hpa-An
-Education:* Computer University, Hpa-An* Hpa-An Education College* Hpa-An University* Technological University, Hpa-An* Hpa-An Nursing Training School-Religion:...

.

History


The region that forms today's Kayin State was part of successive Burmese kingdoms since the formation of the Pagan Empire in mid-11th century. During the 13th to 16th centuries, much of the region belonged to the Hanthawaddy Kingdom
Hanthawaddy Kingdom
The Hanthawaddy Kingdom was the dominant kingdom that ruled lower Burma from 1287 to 1539. The Mon-speaking kingdom was founded as Ramannadesa by King Wareru following the collapse of the Pagan Empire in 1287 as a nominal vassal state of Sukhothai Kingdom, and of the Mongol Yuan dynasty...

 while the northern part of the region belonged to Taungoo
Taungoo
-Administration:*Taungoo District Peace and Development Council - List of Six Townships*Taungoo Township Peace and Development Council*Taungoo Ward Peace and Development Council - 22 Wards*Taungoo Municipal*District and Township Immigration Dept...

, which was a vassal state of Ava Kingdom
Ava Kingdom
The Ava Kingdom was the dominant kingdom that ruled upper Burma from 1364 to 1555. Founded in 1364, the kingdom was the successor state to the petty kingdoms that had ruled central Burma since the collapse of Pagan Empire in the late 13th century...

. The region then became part of Taungoo Dynasty and Konbaung Dynasty
Konbaung dynasty
The Konbaung Dynasty was the last dynasty that ruled Burma from 1752 to 1885. The dynasty created the second largest empire in Burmese history, and continued the administrative reforms begun by the Toungoo dynasty, laying the foundations of modern state of Burma...

 from 16th to 19th centuries. The British
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 seized the southern third of today's Kayin State (below the Salween River) after the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826), and the rest after the Second Anglo-Burmese War
Second Anglo-Burmese War
The Second Anglo-Burmese War was the second of the three wars fought between the Burmese and the British Empire during the 19th century, with the outcome of the gradual extinction of Burmese sovereignty and independence....

 of 1852.

Towards the end of the British colonial era (1945-1948), the Karen leadership insisted on a separate state covering today's Kayin State and much of Mon State
Mon State
Mon State is an administrative division of Myanmar. It is sandwiched between Kayin State on the east, the Andaman Sea on the west, Bago Region on the north and Tanintharyi Region on the south, and has a short border with Thailand's Kanchanaburi Province at its south-eastern tip. The land area is...

 and Taninthayi Region, within the British Empire. They refused to sign the Panglong Agreement
Panglong Agreement
The Panglong Agreement was reached between the Burmese government under Aung San and the Shan, Kachin, and Chin peoples on 12 February 1947. The agreement accepted "Full autonomy in internal administration for the Frontier Areas" in principle and envisioned the creation of a Kachin State by the...

 of February 1947, which was the basis for the 1947 Constitution of Burma, and boycotted the pre-independence elections of April 1947. Nonetheless, the constitution granted the Karen a state, though with an area less than what the Karen leadership had asked for from the British. The constitution also guaranteed states with the right to secede from the Union after a period of 10 years. (The Panglong Agreement gave only the Shan and the Kachin a state each; the Chin
Chin people
The Chin , known as the Kuki in Assam, are one of the ethnic groups in Burma. The Chins are found mainly in western part of Burma and numbered circa 1.5 million. They also live in nearby Indian states of Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur and Assam. Owing to Mizo influence and Baptist missionaries'...

 who actually signed the agreement did not receive a state.)
The Karen National Union
Karen National Union
The Karen National Union is a political organisation with an armed wing, the Karen National Liberation Army that represents the Karen people of Burma. It operates in Eastern Burma, and has underground networks in other areas of Burma where Karen people live. In Karen, this Karen area is called...

, which dominated the Karen leadership, was not satisfied, and wanted outright independence. In 1949, the KNU raised a rebellion that continues up to today. The KNU celebrates January 31 as 'revolution day', marking the day they went underground at the battle of Insein

Much of the state has been a battlefield since then. The civilians have taken the brunt of the war. The KNU today forms the world's longest running resistance. The English name of the state was changed to Kayin State from Karen State in 1989 by the military government
State Peace and Development Council
The State Peace and Development Council was the official name of the military regime of Burma , which seized power in 1988. On 30 March 2011, Senior General Than Shwe signed a decree to officially dissolve the Council....

.

2010 Elections


During the 2010 elections of Burma three different Karen political parties participated. The Karen Peoples Party (KPP) gained 6 seats. The Ploung-Sgaw Democracy Party (PSDP) gained 9 seats. The Karen State Democracy and Development Party (KSDDP) gained 2 seats. . Final results show the pro-government USDP won 874 of the 1140 seats.

Administration


Kayin State consists of one city and nine towns. It has three districts, seven townships and 4092 villages.

Townships

  • Hpa-an Township
    Hpa-an Township
    Hpa-an Township is a township of Hpa-an District in the Kayin State of Myanmar.-References:...

  • Hlaignbwe Township
    Hlaignbwe Township
    Hlaingbwe Township is a township of Hpa-an District in the Kayin State of Myanmar....

  • Hpapun Township
    Hpapun Township
    Hpapun Township is a township of Hpa-an District in the Kayin State of Myanmar. It lies on the border of Thailand across the Salween River. The central part of the township is bounded on the west by the Yunzalin River. Hpapun Township's administrative center is Papun.-References:* in "13...

  • Thandang Township
    Thandang Township
    Thandaung Township is a township of Hpa-an District in the Kayin State of Myanmar....

  • Myawaddy Township
    Myawaddy Township
    Myawaddy Township is a township of Myawaddy District in the Kayin State of Burma . It is the only township in Myawaddy District. The administrative seat is the town of Myawaddy.-Boundaries:Myawaddy Township borders on:...

  • Kawkareik Township
    Kawkareik Township
    Kawkareik Township is a township of Kawkareik District in the Kayin State of Myanmar....

  • Kyain Seikgyi Township
    Kyain Seikgyi Township
    Kyain Seikgyi Township is a township of Kawkareik District in the Kayin State of Burma . The three main towns are Kyainseikgyi, Kyeikdon and Payathonsu. It is drained by the Zami and the Haungtharaw rivers.-External links:...


Cities and towns

  • Hpa-an
    Hpa-An
    -Education:* Computer University, Hpa-An* Hpa-An Education College* Hpa-An University* Technological University, Hpa-An* Hpa-An Nursing Training School-Religion:...

  • Hlaignbwe
  • Hpapun
    Hpapun
    Papun is a town in the Kayin State of southern Burma. It is on the east side of the Yunzalin River.-External links:*, Maplandia.com]...

  • Thandang
  • Thandanggyi
    Thandanggyi
    -External links:*...

  • Myawaddy
    Myawaddy
    Myawaddy is a town in south-eastern Myanmar in Kayin State close to the border with Thailand. Separated from the Thai border town of Mae Sot by the Moei River, the town is most important trading point between Myanmar and Thailand....

  • Kawkareik
    Kawkareik
    Kawkareik is a town in the Kayin State of south Burma. It is the capital of Kawkareik District. The Kawkareik Pass across the Tenasserim Hills is named after this town....

  • Kyaikdo
    Kyaikdo
    Kyeikdon is a town in the Kayin State of southern Burma . It is on the Haungtharaw River.-External links:* Maplandia World Gazetteer...

  • Kyain Seikgyi
    Kyain Seikgyi
    Kyain Seikgyi is a town in the Kayin State of southeastern Burma , located on the Zami River. It is the administrative seat for Kyain Seikgyi Township.-External links:* Maplandia World Gazetteer...

  • Payathonsu
    Payathonsu
    -External links:*...


Education



Major universities in Kayin state include Computer University, Hpa-An
Computer University, Hpa-An
Computer University locates in Hpa-an District of Kayin State, Myanmar. It was formerly opened as Government Computer College on 3rd September 2001. The university was then promoted to university level on 20th January 2007....

 and Technological University, Hpa-An
Technological University, Hpa-An
Technological University is a university under the Ministry of Science and Technology. It is located in Hpaan township, Kayin State, Myanmar...

.

Educational opportunities in Burma are extremely limited outside the main cities of Yangon
Yangon
Yangon is a former capital of Burma and the capital of Yangon Region . Although the military government has officially relocated the capital to Naypyidaw since March 2006, Yangon, with a population of over four million, continues to be the country's largest city and the most important commercial...

 and Mandalay
Mandalay
Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Burma. Located north of Yangon on the east bank of the Irrawaddy River, the city has a population of one million, and is the capital of Mandalay Region ....

. It is especially a problem in Kayin State where constant fighting between the government and insurgents for over 60 years has produced thousands of refugees and internally displaced people. According to official statistics, less than 10% of primary school students in Kayin State reach high school. All the institutions of higher education are located in Hpa-An.
AY 2002-2003 Primary Middle High
Schools 1139 78 31
Teachers 3400 1200 400
Students 148,000 47,000 12,000

Health care


The general state of health care in Burma is poor. The military government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world. Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment.

In general, the health care infrastructure outside of Yangon
Yangon
Yangon is a former capital of Burma and the capital of Yangon Region . Although the military government has officially relocated the capital to Naypyidaw since March 2006, Yangon, with a population of over four million, continues to be the country's largest city and the most important commercial...

 and Mandalay
Mandalay
Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Burma. Located north of Yangon on the east bank of the Irrawaddy River, the city has a population of one million, and is the capital of Mandalay Region ....

 is extremely poor but is especially worse in conflict ridden areas like Kayin State. The public health care system in the state is almost non-existent. The entire Kayin State has fewer hospital beds than the Yangon General Hospital
Yangon General Hospital
The Yangon General Hospital is a major public hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. Located in a 14-hectare compound, the 1500-bed hospital consists of three Medical Wards, three Surgical Wards, one Trauma and Orthopaedic Ward, and 24 Specialist Departments for inpatient care. The hospital also runs an ER...

. The following is a summary of the public health care system in the state.
2002–2003 # Hospitals # Beds
Specialist hospitals 0 0
General hospitals with specialist services 1 200
General hospitals 7 275
Health clinics 17 272
Total 25 747

See also

  • Annual Dry Season Offensive
    Annual Dry Season Offensive
    An Annual Dry Season Offensive is a type of low intensity warfare typically practiced by national governments against ethnic insurgent groups fighting for independence or autonomy...

  • Karen Human Rights Group
    Karen Human Rights Group
    The Karen Human Rights Group is a grassroots Karen-led human rights organization, established in Karen State during 1992 and it is now operating across rural eastern Burma. Twice nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, the KHRG is recognized internationally as an authority on major issues such as...

  • Democratic Karen Buddhist Army
    Democratic Karen Buddhist Army
    The Democratic Karen Buddhist Army is a breakaway group of Buddhist former soldiers and officers of the Karen National Liberation Army , one of the larger insurgent armies in Burma...

  • Karen National Union
    Karen National Union
    The Karen National Union is a political organisation with an armed wing, the Karen National Liberation Army that represents the Karen people of Burma. It operates in Eastern Burma, and has underground networks in other areas of Burma where Karen people live. In Karen, this Karen area is called...

  • Karen National Liberation Army
    Karen National Liberation Army
    The Karen National Liberation Army is the military branch of the Karen National Union , which campaigns for the self-determination of the Karen people of Burma. The KNLA has been fighting the Burmese government since 1949....


External links