Jannat al-Baqi

Jannat al-Baqi

Overview
Maqbaratu l-Baqī' is a cemetery in Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, located to the southeast of the Masjid al-Nabawi. The mosque is built where the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 used to live, built a mosque and is currently buried. The cemetery therefore holds much significance. It contains many of Muhammad's relatives and companions. Many traditions relate Muhammad issuing a prayer every time he passed it.

The cemetery is also known as Jannatu l-Baqi "The Garden of Heaven" and Baqi'u l-Qarqad "Orchard of the Boxthorn
Boxthorn
Boxthorn is a genus of the nightshade family , containing about 90 species of plants native throughout much of the temperate and subtropical zones of the world...

 Trees".

A Jewish graveyard was once located behind Jannatu l-Baqi'.
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Encyclopedia
Maqbaratu l-Baqī' is a cemetery in Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, located to the southeast of the Masjid al-Nabawi. The mosque is built where the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 used to live, built a mosque and is currently buried. The cemetery therefore holds much significance. It contains many of Muhammad's relatives and companions. Many traditions relate Muhammad issuing a prayer every time he passed it.

The cemetery is also known as Jannatu l-Baqi "The Garden of Heaven" and Baqi'u l-Qarqad "Orchard of the Boxthorn
Boxthorn
Boxthorn is a genus of the nightshade family , containing about 90 species of plants native throughout much of the temperate and subtropical zones of the world...

 Trees".

A Jewish graveyard was once located behind Jannatu l-Baqi'. The Umayyad rulers took down the wall of the Jewish cemetery and widened the Muslim graveyard to enclose the tomb of Uthman ibn Affan within it.

History



When Muhammad arrived at Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 from Makkah in September 622, Al-Baqi was a land covered with Lycium shawii boxthorn trees.

During the construction of the al-Masjid al-Nabawi, on the site he purchased from two orphan children when he arrived after his migration from Mecca to Medina, Asa'ad Bin Zararah, one of Muhammad's companions died. Muhammad chose the spot to be a cemetery and Asa'ad was the first individual to be buried in Al-Baqi cemetery among the Ansar
Ansar (Islam)
Ansar is an Islamic term that literally means "helpers" and denotes the Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad and the Muhajirun on the arrival to the city after the migration to Medina...

.

While Muhammad was outside Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 for the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
The Battle of Badr , fought Saturday, March 13, 624 AD in the Hejaz region of western Arabia , was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca...

, his daughter Ruqayyah
Ruqayyah bint Muhammad
Ruqayyah bint Muhammad was the second daughter of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadija. She was amongst the earliest converts to Islam. She had married Utbah ibn Abu Lahab, but he divorced her after her conversion to Islam, after which she married Uthman bin Affan...

 fell sick and died in 624.

Shortly after Muhammad arrived from Badr, Uthman bin Maz'oon
Uthman bin Maz'oon
-Biography:He was married to Khawlah bint Hakim, both being two of the earliest converts to Islam.-References:...

 died and was buried in al-Baqi'. He was considered the first companion of Muhammad from the Muhajirun
Muhajirun
Muhajirun are the early, initial Muslims who followed Muhammad on his Hijra . The early Muslims from Medina are called the Ansar .-List:*Muhammad*Ali*Umar *Abu Bakr .*Salman the Persian*Bilal ibn Ribah...

 to be buried in Al-Baqi' Cemetery.

The first enlargement of the cemetery in history was made by Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah is brother-in-law to Muhammad who married his sister Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan in 1AH...

, the first Umayyad
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

 leader. He bought the huge neighbouring farm where Uthman ibn Affan was buried inside Al-Baqi' cemetery. The Umayyad Caliphate built the first dome in Al-Baqi' over his grave. During different times of history many domes and structures were built or rebuilt over many famous graves in Al-Baqi'.

Demolition


On May 1, 1925, mausoleums in al-Baqi' were demolished by King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia
Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia
King Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia was the first monarch of the Third Saudi State known as Saudi Arabia. He was commonly referred to as Ibn Saud....

. In the same year, he also demolished the tombs of holy personalities at Jannatul Mualla
Jannatul Mualla
Jannatul Mualla also known as Al-Hajun, is a famous cemetery located in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.-History:...

 in Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 where Muhammad's mother, wife, grandfather and other ancestors are buried. This happened despite protest by the international Islamic community.

The destruction of sacred sites in the Hejaz
Hejaz
al-Hejaz, also Hijaz is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. Defined primarily by its western border on the Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina...

 initiated by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab continues today to prevent what some consider to be the practice of grave-worshipping, revering the dead and asking favours of the dead buried there. Many of these mausoleums, domes and structures, originally intended to identify famous companions of Muhammad, were destroyed upon the urging of Wahhabi scholars who argued, in accordance with Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's ideology, that Muhammad forbade the building of structures over any grave. According to these scholars, adornment or beautification of graves is forbidden in order to prevent people from seeking a means of approach to God through the dead and to directly seek help from the dead. Despite this, the graves of many historic figures continue to be visited by numerous pilgrims, and burials continue at the cemetery to this day.

Many Shi'i Muslims continue to mourn the day the House of Saud
House of Saud
The House of Saud , also called the Al Saud, is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia and one of the wealthiest and most powerful dynasties in the world. The family holds thousands of members...

 demolished shrines in al-Baqi'. They remember it as yaum e gham
Yaum e gham
Yaum-e Gham, Persian for "Day of Sorrow", is a day commemorated by some Shi'i Muslims after the day in 1925 that Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia destroyed al-Baqi', the cemetery which contained the tomb of Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad....

 or Day of Sorrow. Shi'i Muslims continue to protest the Saudi government's demolition of these shrines.

Notable interments


Direct kin of Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

:
  • All of the wives of Muhammad (also known as Mothers of the Believers), including Hafsa, Zainab etc., except for Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
    Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
    Khadījah bint Khuwaylid or Khadījah al-Kubra was the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad and Fatimah bint Za'idah and belonged to the clan of Banu Asad. She is important in Islam as Muhammad's first wife, and one of the "mothers of the believers"...

     and Maymuna bint al-Harith
    Maymuna bint al-Harith
    Maymuna bint al-Harith was a wife of Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.-Family:Her original name was Burrah, but Muhammad changed it to Maimunah....

  • Ibrahim, Muhammad's son by Maria al-Qibtiyya
    Maria al-Qibtiyya
    Maria al-Qibtiyya , or Maria the Copt, was an Egyptian Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628. Some sources say she became his wife, taking the title "Mother of the Believers"...

    , died in infancy
  • Roqayyah
    Ruqayyah bint Muhammad
    Ruqayyah bint Muhammad was the second daughter of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadija. She was amongst the earliest converts to Islam. She had married Utbah ibn Abu Lahab, but he divorced her after her conversion to Islam, after which she married Uthman bin Affan...

    , Muhammad's daughter (Shia say that she's not his biological daughter, but Khadijah's niece)
  • Fatima bint al-Asad, aunt of Muhammad and mother of Ali
    Ali
    ' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

    ; other aunts including Safiya and Aatika
  • Fatima
    Fatima
    -People:* Fatima , a female given name of Arabic origin* Fatima bint Muhammad, daughter of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad* Fatima Jinnah, the younger sister of Muhammad Ali Jinnah...

     Zahra, Muhammad's daughter by first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
    Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
    Khadījah bint Khuwaylid or Khadījah al-Kubra was the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad and Fatimah bint Za'idah and belonged to the clan of Banu Asad. She is important in Islam as Muhammad's first wife, and one of the "mothers of the believers"...

    , in an unknown grave as she didn't want the people who hurt her to know where she was buried
  • ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad
  • Fatima bint Hizam, known as Umm ul-Banin, who married Ali
    Ali
    ' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

     after the death of Fatimah
    Fatimah
    Fatimah was a daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. She is regarded by Muslims as an exemplar for men and women. She remained at her father's side through the difficulties suffered by him at the hands of the Quraysh of Mecca...

    ; mother of four children who died defending Hussain ibn Aliin Al-Taff Battle in Karbala
  • Hasan ibn Ali
    Hasan ibn Ali
    Al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib ‎ is an important figure in Islam, the son of Fatimah the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib. Hasan is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt and Ahl al-Kisa...

    , grandson of Muhammad, son of Fatimah
    Fatimah
    Fatimah was a daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. She is regarded by Muslims as an exemplar for men and women. She remained at her father's side through the difficulties suffered by him at the hands of the Quraysh of Mecca...

     and Ali
    Ali
    ' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

    . The Prophet said that Hasan and Husayn bin Ali are the Masters of Youth of Paradise
  • ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn, known as Zayn al-Abidin, grandson of Fatima Zahra who is the only adult male that survived Al-Taff Battle because he was sick and couldn't fight.
  • Muhammad al-Baqir
    Muhammad al-Baqir
    Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī al-Bāqir was the Fifth Imām to the Twelver Shi‘a and Fourth Imām to the Ismā‘īlī Shī‘a. His father was the previous Imām, ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn, and his mother was Fatimah bint al-Hasan...

    , son of ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn, the fifth Imam according to Shia
  • Ja’far as-Sadiq, son of Muhammad al-Baqir, the sixth Imam according to Shia


Other important personalities
  • Uthman ibn Affan, companion of Muhammad and third Caliph; originally buried outside of Baqi, but cemetery later expanded to include his grave
  • Uthman Bin Mazoun
    Uthman bin Maz'oon
    -Biography:He was married to Khawlah bint Hakim, both being two of the earliest converts to Islam.-References:...

    , companion of Muhammad
  • Malik ibn Anas
    Malik ibn Anas
    Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik ibn Abī 'Āmir al-Asbahī is known as "Imam Malik," the "Sheikh of Islam", the "Proof of the Community," and "Imam of the Abode of Emigration." He was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in Sunni Islam...

    , Islamic jurist
  • Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi
    Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi
    Imam Mohammad Hayyat ibn Ibraaheem al-Sindi امام الشيخ محمد حياة بن ابراهيم السندي ): was a prominent Muslim scholar in Medina in the eighteen-century....

    , scholar
  • Imam Shamil
    Imam Shamil
    Imam Shamil also spelled Shamyl, Schamil, Schamyl or Shameel was an Avar political and religious leader of the Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus...

    , Muslim leader and freedom fighter from the Caucuses
  • Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy
    Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy
    Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy was an influential Islamic scholar in Egypt. From 1986 to 1996, he was the grand Mufti of Egypt...

    , scholar
  • Idris of Libya, King of Libya
  • Hasan as-Senussi, Crown Prince of Libya

See also

  • Destruction of sites associated with early Islam
    Destruction of sites associated with early Islam
    The destruction of sites associated with early Islam is an on-going phenomenon that has occurred mainly in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, particularly around the holy cities of Mecca and Medina...

  • Aisha
    Aisha
    Aisha bint Abu Bakr also transcribed as was Muhammad's favorite wife...

  • Jannatul Mualla
    Jannatul Mualla
    Jannatul Mualla also known as Al-Hajun, is a famous cemetery located in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.-History:...

  • Baab Sagheer
    Bab Saghir
    Bāb Saghīr , also called "Goristan-e-Ghariban", is an ancient cemetery and street in Damascus, Syria, with tombs on either side of the road...

  • Holiest sites in Islam

External links