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Jacksonville, Florida

Jacksonville, Florida

Overview
Jacksonville is the largest city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 in terms of both population and land area, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States are the 48 U.S. states on the continent of North America that are south of Canada and north of Mexico, plus the District of Columbia....

. It is the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Duval County
Duval County, Florida
Duval County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2010, the population was 864,263. Its county seat is Jacksonville, with which the Duval County government has been consolidated since 1968...

, with which the city government consolidated
Jacksonville Consolidation
The Jacksonville Consolidation was the city-county consolidation of the governments of the City of Jacksonville and Duval County, Florida. It was effected on October 1, 1968.-Background:...

 in 1968. The consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 within the city limits; with a population of 821,784, it is the most populous city proper
City proper
City proper is defined as a "locality with legally fixed boundaries and an administratively recognized urban status that is usually characterized by some form of local government", or the area within the corporate limits. This definition has been consistently used since the United Nations...

 in Florida and the eleventh most populous in the United States.
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Encyclopedia
Jacksonville is the largest city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 in terms of both population and land area, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States are the 48 U.S. states on the continent of North America that are south of Canada and north of Mexico, plus the District of Columbia....

. It is the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Duval County
Duval County, Florida
Duval County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2010, the population was 864,263. Its county seat is Jacksonville, with which the Duval County government has been consolidated since 1968...

, with which the city government consolidated
Jacksonville Consolidation
The Jacksonville Consolidation was the city-county consolidation of the governments of the City of Jacksonville and Duval County, Florida. It was effected on October 1, 1968.-Background:...

 in 1968. The consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 within the city limits; with a population of 821,784, it is the most populous city proper
City proper
City proper is defined as a "locality with legally fixed boundaries and an administratively recognized urban status that is usually characterized by some form of local government", or the area within the corporate limits. This definition has been consistently used since the United Nations...

 in Florida and the eleventh most populous in the United States. Jacksonville is the principal city in the Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan Area, with a population of 1,313,228.

Jacksonville is in the First Coast
First Coast
The First Coast is a region of Florida, in the United States. It extends along the Atlantic, or eastern, coast of the state, from the Georgia border, past the southern end of Anastasia Island, to Marineland....

 region of northeast Florida and is centered on the banks of the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant for commercial and recreational use. At long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. The drop in elevation from the headwaters to the mouth is less than ;...

, about 25 miles (40 km) south of the Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

 border and about 340 miles (547 km) north of Miami. The Jacksonville Beaches
Jacksonville Beaches
The Jacksonville Beaches, known locally as the "Beaches" or simply the "Beach", is the collective name for the towns and communities on the northern half of an unnamed barrier island on Florida's First Coast, all of which are suburbs or parts of the city of Jacksonville. These communities are...

 communities are along the adjacent Atlantic coast. The area was originally inhabited by the Timucua
Timucua
The Timucua were a Native American people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. They were the largest indigenous group in that area and consisted of about 35 chiefdoms, many leading thousands of people. The various groups of Timucua spoke several dialects of the...

 people, and in 1564 was the site of the French colony of Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. Established in what is now Jacksonville, Florida, on June 22, 1564, under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière, it was intended as a refuge for the Huguenots. It lasted one year before being obliterated by the...

, one of the earliest European settlements in what is now the continental United States. Under British rule, settlement grew at the narrow point in the river where cattle crossed, known as Wacca Pilatka to the Seminole
Seminole
The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida, who now reside primarily in that state and Oklahoma. The Seminole nation emerged in a process of ethnogenesis out of groups of Native Americans, most significantly Creeks from what is now Georgia and Alabama, who settled in Florida in...

 and the Cowford to the British. A platted town was established there in 1822, a year after the United States acquired the colony of Florida
Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of Florida, which formed part of the Captaincy General of Cuba, the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and the Spanish Empire. Originally extending over what is now the southeastern United States, but with no defined boundaries, la Florida was a component of...

 from Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

; it was named after Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States . Based in frontier Tennessee, Jackson was a politician and army general who defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend , and the British at the Battle of New Orleans...

, the first military governor of the Florida Territory
Florida Territory
The Territory of Florida was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 30, 1822, until March 3, 1845, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Florida...

 and seventh President of the United States
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

.

Harbor
Harbor
A harbor or harbour , or haven, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored for future use. Harbors can be natural or artificial...

 improvements since the late 19th century have made Jacksonville a major military and civilian deep-water port. Its riverine location facilitates two U.S. Navy bases and the Port of Jacksonville
Port of Jacksonville
The Port of Jacksonville is an international trade seaport on the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. The newest port in the United States, it carries over 21 million tons of cargo each year and has an annual impact of over $19 billion, including 65,000 jobs...

, Florida's third largest seaport. Significant factors in the local economy include services such as banking, insurance, and healthcare. As with much of Florida, tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 is also important to the Jacksonville area, particularly tourism related to golf
Golf
Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes....

.

History



The area of the modern city of Jacksonville has been inhabited for thousands of years. On Black Hammock Island in the national Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve
Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve
The Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve is located in the city of Jacksonville, Florida, in the United States. The park was established in 1988, and covers 46,000 acres...

, a University of North Florida
University of North Florida
The University of North Florida is a public university located in Jacksonville, Florida. A member institution of the State University System of Florida, the university is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master’s...

 team discovered some of the oldest remnants of pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BC. In the 16th century, the beginning of the historical era, the region was inhabited by the Mocama
Mocama
The Mocama were a Native American people who lived in the coastal areas of what are now northern Florida and southeastern Georgia. A Timucua group, they spoke the dialect known as Mocama, the best-attested dialect of the Timucua language. Their territory extended from about the Altamaha River in...

, a coastal subgroup of the Timucua
Timucua
The Timucua were a Native American people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. They were the largest indigenous group in that area and consisted of about 35 chiefdoms, many leading thousands of people. The various groups of Timucua spoke several dialects of the...

 people. At the time of contact with Europeans, all Mocama villages in present-day Jacksonville were part of the powerful chiefdom known as the Saturiwa
Saturiwa
The Saturiwa were a Timucua chiefdom centered around the mouth of the St. Johns River in what is now Jacksonville, Florida. They were the largest and best attested chiefdom of the Timucua subgroup known as the Mocama, who spoke the Mocama dialect of Timucuan and lived in the coastal areas...

, centered around the mouth of the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant for commercial and recreational use. At long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. The drop in elevation from the headwaters to the mouth is less than ;...

. One early map shows a village called Ossachite at the site of what is now downtown Jacksonville; this may be the earliest recorded name for that area.

Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an explorers first arrived in the area 1562, when French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Huguenot
Huguenot
The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the 16th and 17th centuries. Since the 17th century, people who formerly would have been called Huguenots have instead simply been called French Protestants, a title suggested by their German co-religionists, the...

 explorer Jean Ribault
Jean Ribault
Jean Ribault was a French naval officer, navigator, and a colonizer of what would become the southeastern United States. He was a major figure in the French attempts to colonize Florida...

 charted the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant for commercial and recreational use. At long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. The drop in elevation from the headwaters to the mouth is less than ;...

. In 1564, René Goulaine de Laudonnière
René Goulaine de Laudonnière
René Goulaine de Laudonnière was a French Huguenot explorer and the founder of the French colony of Fort Caroline in what is now Jacksonville, Florida...

 established the first European settlement, Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. Established in what is now Jacksonville, Florida, on June 22, 1564, under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière, it was intended as a refuge for the Huguenots. It lasted one year before being obliterated by the...

, on the St. Johns near the main village of the Saturiwa. On September 20, 1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Augustine
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine is a city in the northeast section of Florida and the county seat of St. Johns County, Florida, United States. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, it is the oldest continuously occupied European-established city and port in the continental United...

 attacked Fort Caroline, and killed nearly all the French soldiers defending it. The Spanish renamed the fort San Mateo, and following the ejection of the French, St. Augustine's position as the most important settlement in Florida was solidified.

Spain ceded Florida to the British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 in 1763, after the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is the common American name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756, the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war...

, and the British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia
Province of Georgia
The Province of Georgia was one of the Southern colonies in British America. It was the last of the thirteen original colonies established by Great Britain in what later became the United States...

. The road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole
Seminole
The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida, who now reside primarily in that state and Oklahoma. The Seminole nation emerged in a process of ethnogenesis out of groups of Native Americans, most significantly Creeks from what is now Georgia and Alabama, who settled in Florida in...

 called Wacca Pilatka and the British named the "Cow Ford", both names ostensibly reflecting the fact that cattle
Cattle
Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

 were brought across the river there. Britain ceded control of the territory back to Spain in 1783, after its defeat in the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

, and The settlement at the Cow Ford continued to grow. After Spain ceded the Florida Territory
Florida Territory
The Territory of Florida was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 30, 1822, until March 3, 1845, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Florida...

 to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 in 1821, American settlers on the north side of the Cow Ford decided to plan a town, laying out the streets and plats. They soon named the town "Jacksonville", after Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States . Based in frontier Tennessee, Jackson was a politician and army general who defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend , and the British at the Battle of New Orleans...

. Led by Isaiah D. Hart
Isaiah Hart
Isaiah David Hart was an American plantation owner and the founder of Jacksonville, Florida. Originally from Georgia, he began setting out the plans for the town in 1822 after moving to the area named Cowford. The Isaiah D. Hart Bridge over the St. Johns River in Jacksonville is named after...

, residents wrote a charter for a town government, which was approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832.

During the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle being shipped from Florida to aid the Confederate
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

 cause. The city was blockaded by Union
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty free states and five border slave states. It was opposed by 11 southern slave states that had declared a secession to join together to form the...

 forces, who gained control of the nearby Fort Clinch
Fort Clinch
Fort Clinch is a 19th century brick fortress located on a peninsula near the northernmost point of Amelia Island, along the Amelia River. The fort lies to the northeast of Fernandina Beach at the entrance to the Cumberland Sound and lies within Fort Clinch State Park.-History:The site of Fort...

. From 1862, they controlled the city and most of the First Coast
First Coast
The First Coast is a region of Florida, in the United States. It extends along the Atlantic, or eastern, coast of the state, from the Georgia border, past the southern end of Anastasia Island, to Marineland....

 for the duration of the war. Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville proper, the city changed hands several times between Union and Confederate forces. Warfare and the long occupation left the city disrupted after the war.

During Reconstruction and the Gilded Age
Gilded Age
In United States history, the Gilded Age refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post–Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century. The term "Gilded Age" was coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their book The Gilded...

, Jacksonville and nearby St. Augustine became popular winter resorts for the rich and famous. Visitors arrived by steamboat
Steamboat
A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels...

 and later by railroad. President Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
Stephen Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents...

 attended the Sub-Tropical Exposition in the city on February 22, 1888 during his trip to Florida. This highlighted the visibility of the state as a worthy place for tourism. The city's tourism, however, was dealt major blows in the late 19th century by yellow fever
Yellow fever
Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease. The virus is a 40 to 50 nm enveloped RNA virus with positive sense of the Flaviviridae family....

 outbreaks. In addition, extension of the Florida East Coast Railway
Florida East Coast Railway
The Florida East Coast Railway is a Class II railroad operating in the U.S. state of Florida; in the past, it has been a Class I railroad.Built primarily in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the FEC was a project of Standard Oil principal Henry Morrison...

 further south drew visitors to other areas. From 1893 to 1938 Jacksonville was the site of the Florida Old Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Home with a nearby cemetery.
On May 3, 1901, downtown Jacksonville was ravaged by a fire that started at a fiber factory. Known as the "Great Fire of 1901
Great Fire of 1901
The Great Fire of 1901 in Jacksonville, Florida was one of the worst disasters in Florida history and the largest urban fire in the Southeast. It was similar in scale and destruction to the 1871 Great Chicago Fire.-Origin:...

", it was one of the worst disasters in Florida history and the largest urban fire in the southeastern United States
Southeastern United States
The Southeastern United States, colloquially referred to as the Southeast, is the eastern portion of the Southern United States. It is one of the most populous regions in the United States of America....

. In just eight hours, it destroyed the business district and left approximately 10,000 residents homeless. It is said the glow from the flames could be seen in Savannah, Georgia
Savannah, Georgia
Savannah is the largest city and the county seat of Chatham County, in the U.S. state of Georgia. Established in 1733, the city of Savannah was the colonial capital of the Province of Georgia and later the first state capital of Georgia. Today Savannah is an industrial center and an important...

, and the smoke plumes in Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh is the capital and the second largest city in the state of North Carolina as well as the seat of Wake County. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city's 2010 population was 403,892, over an area of , making Raleigh...

. Architect Henry John Klutho
Henry John Klutho
Henry John Klutho was an American architect of the "Prairie School" style. He helped in the reconstruction of Jacksonville, Florida after the Great Fire of 1901—the largest-ever urban fire in the Southeast—by designing many of the new buildings built after the disaster. This period lasted until...

 was a primary figure in the reconstruction of the city. More than 13,000 buildings were constructed between 1901 and 1912.
In the 1910s, New York–based filmmakers were attracted to Jacksonville's warm climate, exotic locations, excellent rail access, and cheap labor. Over the course of the decade, more than 30 silent film
Silent film
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. In silent films for entertainment the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures, pantomime and title cards...

 studios
Movie studio
A movie studio is a term used to describe a major entertainment company or production company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to film movies...

 were established, earning Jacksonville the title of "Winter Film Capital of the World". However, the city's conservative political climate and the emergence of Hollywood
Hollywood, Los Angeles, California
Hollywood is a famous district in Los Angeles, California, United States situated west-northwest of downtown Los Angeles. Due to its fame and cultural identity as the historical center of movie studios and movie stars, the word Hollywood is often used as a metonym of American cinema...

 as a major film production center ended the city's film industry. One converted movie studio site, Norman Studios, remains in Arlington; It has been converted to the Jacksonville Silent Film Museum at Norman Studios.

During this time, Jacksonville also became a banking and insurance center, with companies such as Barnett Bank
Barnett Bank
Barnett Bank, founded in 1877, eventually became the largest commercial bank in Florida with over 600 offices and $41.2 billion in deposits. The purchase by NationsBank was announced August 29, 1997, but even before signs on Barnett's branches were changed, NationsBank merged with BankAmerica in...

, Atlantic National Bank
Atlantic National Bank
The Atlantic National Bank was an American bank based in Jacksonville, Florida. It existed from 1903 until 1985, when it merged into First Union The company constructed two significant buildings in Downtown Jacksonville: 121 Atlantic Place and the Schultz Building The Atlantic National Bank was...

, Florida National Bank
Florida National Bank
Florida National Bank , founded in 1905, grew to became the second largest commercial bank in Florida. Florida National Group was acquired in 1990 by First Union Corporation, which was renamed Wachovia in 2001.-Early years:...

, Prudential
Prudential Financial
The Prudential Insurance Company of America , also known as Prudential Financial, Inc., is a Fortune Global 500 and Fortune 500 company whose subsidiaries provide insurance, investment management, and other financial products and services to both retail and institutional customers throughout the...

, Gulf Life, Afro-American Insurance, Independent Life and American Heritage Life thriving in the business district. The U.S. Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 also became a major employer and economic force during the 1940s, with the construction of three naval bases in the city.

Jacksonville, like most large cities in the United States, suffered from negative effects of rapid urban sprawl
Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a...

 after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. The construction of highways led residents to move to newer housing in the suburbs. After World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the government of the city of Jacksonville began to increase spending to fund new public building projects in the boom that occurred after the war. Mayor W. Haydon Burns
W. Haydon Burns
William Haydon Burns was the 35th Governor of Florida from 1965 to 1967. He was also Mayor of the city of Jacksonville, Florida from 1949 to 1965.-Early life:...

' Jacksonville Story resulted in the construction of a new city hall, civic auditorium, public library and other projects that created a dynamic sense of civic pride. However, the development of suburb
Suburb
The word suburb mostly refers to a residential area, either existing as part of a city or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city . Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods...

s and a subsequent wave of middle class "white flight
White flight
White flight has been a term that originated in the United States, starting in the mid-20th century, and applied to the large-scale migration of whites of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions. It was first seen as...

" left Jacksonville with a much poorer population than before.

Much of the city's tax base dissipated, leading to problems with funding education, sanitation, and traffic control within the city limits. In addition, residents in unincorporated suburbs had difficulty obtaining municipal services, such as sewage and building code enforcement. In 1958, a study recommended that the city of Jacksonville begin annexing outlying communities in order to create the needed tax base to improve services throughout the county. Voters outside the city limits rejected annexation plans in six referendums between 1960 and 1965.

In the mid 1960s, corruption scandals began to arise among many of the city's officials, who were mainly elected through the traditional good ol' boy network
Good ol' boy network
Good ol' boy network, or "Good old boys", describes a system of social networking/cronyism perceived to exist among communities and social strata. These networks are perceived to be located throughout the world...

. After a grand jury
Grand jury
A grand jury is a type of jury that determines whether a criminal indictment will issue. Currently, only the United States retains grand juries, although some other common law jurisdictions formerly employed them, and most other jurisdictions employ some other type of preliminary hearing...

 was convened to investigate, 11 officials were indicted and more were forced to resign. Consolidation, led by J. J. Daniel and Claude Yates
Claude Yates
Claude J. Yates , was a Jacksonville business executive in the 1960s who is known as the Father of Jacksonville’s consolidation.-Prelude to Consolidation:...

, began to win more support during this period, from both inner city blacks, who wanted more involvement in government, and whites in the suburbs, who wanted more services and more control over the central city. In 1964 all 15 of Duval County's public high schools lost their accreditation. This added momentum to proposals for government reform. Lower taxes, increased economic development, unification of the community, better public spending and effective administration by a more central authority were all cited as reasons for a new consolidated government.
When a consolidation
Consolidated city-county
In United States local government, a consolidated city–county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. As such it is simultaneously a city, which is a municipal corporation, and a county, which is an administrative division of a state...

 referendum was held in 1967, voters approved the plan. On October 1, 1968, the governments merged to create the Consolidated City of Jacksonville. Fire, police, health & welfare, recreation, public works, and housing & urban development were all combined under the new government.

The Better Jacksonville Plan
Better Jacksonville Plan
The Better Jacksonville Plan is a growth management plan implemented by the city of Jacksonville, Florida. It was the signature project of Mayor John Delaney. It was approved by Jacksonville voters on September 5, 2000...

, promoted as a blueprint for Jacksonville's future and approved by Jacksonville voters in 2000, authorized a half-penny sales tax. This would generate most of the revenue required for the $2.25 billion package of major projects that included road & infrastructure improvements, environmental preservation, targeted economic development and new or improved public facilities.

Topography


According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 874.3 square miles (2,264.4 km²), making Jacksonville the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States; of this, 86.66% (757.7 sq mi (1,962.4 km²)) is land and ; 13.34% (116.7 sq mi (302.3 km²)) is water. Jacksonville completely encircles the town of Baldwin
Baldwin, Florida
Baldwin is a town in Duval County, Florida, United States. When the majority of communities in Duval County consolidated with Jacksonville, Florida in 1968, Baldwin, along with Jacksonville Beach, Atlantic Beach, and Neptune Beach, Florida, remained quasi-independent...

. Nassau County
Nassau County, Florida
Nassau County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 57,663. The U.S. Census Bureau 2008 estimate for the county was 69,835. Its county seat is Fernandina Beach, Florida....

 lies to the north, Baker County
Baker County, Florida
Baker County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 22,259. The U.S. Census Bureau 2008 estimate for the county is 26,164 . Its county seat is Macclenny, Florida. While primarily rural, the county is included in the Jacksonville Metropolitan Area.-...

 lies to the west, and Clay
Clay County, Florida
Clay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2010, the population was 190,895. Its county seat is Green Cove Springs, Florida. Clay County is part of the Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan area.- History :...

 and St. Johns County
St. Johns County, Florida
St. Johns County is a county located in northeastern Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 190,039. The county seat is St. Augustine. Due to the inclusion of Ponte Vedra Beach, it is one of the highest-income counties in the United States....

 lie to the south; the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 lies to the east, along with the Jacksonville Beaches
Jacksonville Beach, Florida
Jacksonville Beach is a city on the Atlantic coast of Duval County, Florida, east of Jacksonville. It is part of the Jacksonville Beaches community, together with Mayport, Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and Ponte Vedra Beach...

. The St. Johns River
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant for commercial and recreational use. At long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. The drop in elevation from the headwaters to the mouth is less than ;...

 divides the city. The Trout River, a major tributary of the St. Johns River, is located entirely within Jacksonville.

Climate



Jacksonville has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Koppen Cfa), with mild weather during winters and hot weather during summers. High temperatures average 64 to 91 °F (17.8 to 32.8 C) throughout the year. High heat indices
Heat index
The heat index is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity in an attempt to determine the human-perceived equivalent temperature — how hot it feels, termed the felt air temperature. The human body normally cools itself by perspiration, or sweating, which evaporates and carries...

 are not uncommon for the summer months in the Jacksonville area. High temperatures can reach the mid and upper 90s with heat indices above 110 °F (43.3 °C) possible. The highest temperature ever recorded in Jacksonville was 105 °F (40.6 °C) on July 21, 1942. It is common for thunderstorms to erupt during a typical summer afternoon. These are caused by the rapid heating of the land relative to the water, combined with extremely high humidity.

During winter, there can be hard freezes during the night. Such cold weather is usually short lived, as the city averages only 10 to 15 nights below freezing. The coldest temperature recorded at Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located 13 miles north of downtown Jacksonville, a city in Duval County, Florida...

 was 7 °F (-13.9 °C) on January 21, 1985, a day that still holds the record cold for many locations in the eastern half of the US. Even rarer in Jacksonville than freezing temperatures is snow. When snow does fall, it usually melts upon making contact with the ground. Most residents of Jacksonville can remember accumulated snow on only two occasions—-the first was a thin ground cover that occurred December 23, 1989. The second event happened on December 26, 2010, when measurable snow fell for the first time in 21 years across metropolitan Jacksonville. Occurring in the morning, it also marked the first time since 1989 that the official National Weather Service
National Weather Service
The National Weather Service , once known as the Weather Bureau, is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States government...

 recording equipment at Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located 13 miles north of downtown Jacksonville, a city in Duval County, Florida...

 picked up frozen precipitation.

Jacksonville has suffered less damage from hurricane
Tropical cyclone
A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Tropical cyclones strengthen when water evaporated from the ocean is released as the saturated air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor...

s than most other east coast cities, although the threat does exist for a direct hit by a major hurricane. The city has only received one direct hit from a hurricane since 1871, although Jacksonville has experienced hurricane or near-hurricane conditions more than a dozen times due to storms passing through the state from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean, or passing to the north or south in the Atlantic and brushing past the area. The strongest effect on Jacksonville was from Hurricane Dora
Hurricane Dora
Hurricane Dora was the first tropical cyclone on record to make landfall over the extreme northeast coast of Florida. Dora was also the first storm to produce hurricane force winds to Jacksonville, Florida in the almost 80 years of record keeping. Dora killed five people and left over...

 in 1964, the only recorded storm to hit the First Coast with sustained hurricane force winds. The eye crossed St. Augustine with winds that had just barely diminished to 110 mi/h, making it a strong Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Jacksonville also suffered damage from 2008's Tropical Storm Fay
Tropical Storm Fay (2008)
Tropical Storm Fay was a tropical storm and the sixth named storm of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. Fay formed from a vigorous tropical wave on August 15 over the Dominican Republic...

 which crisscrossed the state, bringing parts of Jacksonville under darkness for four days. Similarly, four years prior to this, Jacksonville was inundated by Hurricane Frances
Hurricane Frances
Hurricane Frances was the sixth named storm, the fourth hurricane, and the third major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. The system crossing the open Atlantic during mid to late August, moving to the north of the Lesser Antilles while strengthening. Its outer bands affected Puerto...

 and Hurricane Jeanne
Hurricane Jeanne
Hurricane Jeanne was the deadliest hurricane in the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the tenth named storm, the seventh hurricane, and the fifth major hurricane of the season, as well as the third hurricane and fourth named storm of the season to make landfall in Florida...

, which made landfall south of the area. These tropical cyclones were the costliest indirect hits to Jacksonville. Hurricane Floyd
Hurricane Floyd
Hurricane Floyd was the sixth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane in the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. Floyd triggered the third largest evacuation in US history when 2.6 million coastal residents of five states were ordered from their homes as it approached...

 in 1999 caused damage mainly to Jacksonville Beach. During Floyd, the Jacksonville Beach pier was completely destroyed. The rebuilt pier was later heavily damaged by Fay, but not destroyed. Tropical Storm Bonnie
Tropical Storm Bonnie (2004)
Tropical Storm Bonnie was a small tropical storm that made landfall on Florida in August 2004. The second storm of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, Bonnie developed from a tropical wave on August 3 to the east of the Lesser Antilles. After moving through the islands, its fast forward motion...

 would cause minor damage in 2004, spawning a minor tornado in the process.

Rainfall averages around 52 inches (1,320.8 mm) a year, with the wettest months being June through September.

Cityscape


Architecture



Downtown Jacksonville has a skyline
Skyline
A skyline is the overall or partial view of a city's tall buildings and structures consisting of many skyscrapers in front of the sky in the background. It can also be described as the artificial horizon that a city's overall structure creates. Skylines serve as a kind of fingerprint of a city, as...

 with the tallest building being the Bank of America Tower
Bank of America Tower (Jacksonville)
The Bank of America Tower is a skyscraper in downtown Jacksonville, Florida, United States. It is the tallest building in Jacksonville, and the ninth-tallest in the state of Florida...

, constructed in 1990 as the Barnett Bank Center. It has a height of 617 ft (188.1 m) and includes 42 floors. Other notable structures include the 37-story Wells Fargo Center (with its distinctive flared base making it the defining building in the Jacksonville skyline), originally built in 1972-74 by the Independent Life and Accident Insurance Company, and the 28 floor Riverplace Tower
Riverplace Tower
The Riverplace Tower is a 28-floor office building on the south bank of the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. At the time of its construction, it was the tallest building in the state of Florida, as well as Jacksonville, and the defining landmark in the skyline.-History:The Auchter Company,...

 which, when completed in 1967, was the tallest precast, post-tensioned concrete
Prestressed concrete
Prestressed concrete is a method for overcoming concrete's natural weakness in tension. It can be used to produce beams, floors or bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete...

 structure in the world.
Rank Name Street Address Height
feet / meters
Floors Year
1 Bank of America Tower
Bank of America Tower (Jacksonville)
The Bank of America Tower is a skyscraper in downtown Jacksonville, Florida, United States. It is the tallest building in Jacksonville, and the ninth-tallest in the state of Florida...

50 North Laura Street 617 / 188 42 1990
2 Wells Fargo Center 1 Independent Drive 535 / 163 37 1974
3 AT&T Tower
AT&T Tower (Jacksonville)
The AT&T Tower, also known as AT&T Building, is a skyscraper in Jacksonville, Florida. Standing 447 feet tall, it is currently the city's third-tallest building but is the largest in terms of class "A" rentable area with .-History:...

301 West Bay Street 447 / 136 32 1983
4 The Peninsula at St. Johns Center
The Peninsula at St. Johns Center
The Peninsula at St. Johns Center is a condominium in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. It is the fourth tallest tower in Jacksonville at 437 feet. Groundbreaking was in 2006 and was completed in 2008. The Peninsula is located at 1431 Riverplace Boulevard....

1401 Riverplace Boulevard 437 / 133 36 2006
5 Riverplace Tower
Riverplace Tower
The Riverplace Tower is a 28-floor office building on the south bank of the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. At the time of its construction, it was the tallest building in the state of Florida, as well as Jacksonville, and the defining landmark in the skyline.-History:The Auchter Company,...

1301 Riverplace Boulevard 432 / 132 28 1967

Neighborhoods




There are more than 500 neighborhoods within Jacksonville's vast area. These include Downtown Jacksonville and its surrounding neighborhoods, including LaVilla, Brooklyn, Riverside, Avondale, Springfield
Springfield, Jacksonville, Florida
Springfield is a historic neighborhood of Jacksonville, Florida, located to the north of downtown. Established in 1869, it experienced its greatest growth from the early 1880s through the 1920s...

, Eastside, and San Marco. Additionally, greater Jacksonville is traditionally divided into several amorphous areas, comprising large parts of Duval County. These are Northside, Westside, Southside, and Arlington, as well as the Jacksonville Beaches
Jacksonville Beaches
The Jacksonville Beaches, known locally as the "Beaches" or simply the "Beach", is the collective name for the towns and communities on the northern half of an unnamed barrier island on Florida's First Coast, all of which are suburbs or parts of the city of Jacksonville. These communities are...

.

There are four municipalities that have retained their own governments since consolidation; these are Baldwin
Baldwin, Florida
Baldwin is a town in Duval County, Florida, United States. When the majority of communities in Duval County consolidated with Jacksonville, Florida in 1968, Baldwin, along with Jacksonville Beach, Atlantic Beach, and Neptune Beach, Florida, remained quasi-independent...

 and the three Jacksonville Beaches towns of Atlantic Beach
Atlantic Beach, Florida
Atlantic Beach, a city in Duval County, Florida, is the northernmost of the Jacksonville Beaches communities. When the majority of communities in Duval County consolidated with Jacksonville, Florida in 1968, Atlantic Beach, along with Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach, and Baldwin, Florida,...

, Neptune Beach
Neptune Beach, Florida
Neptune Beach is a beachfront city in Duval County, Florida, United States, located to the east of Jacksonville. When the majority of communities in Duval County consolidated with the city of Jacksonville in 1968, Neptune Beach, along with Jacksonville Beach, Atlantic Beach, and Baldwin, remained...

, and Jacksonville Beach
Jacksonville Beach, Florida
Jacksonville Beach is a city on the Atlantic coast of Duval County, Florida, east of Jacksonville. It is part of the Jacksonville Beaches community, together with Mayport, Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and Ponte Vedra Beach...

. Four of Jacksonville's neighborhoods, Avondale, Ortega
Ortega, Jacksonville, Florida
Ortega is a neighborhood of Jacksonville, Florida. It is located south of downtown Jacksonville on a peninsula off the western bank of the St. Johns River. It is one of the wealthiest neighborhoods in Jacksonville and is among the wealthiest in the United States, and is the location of many...

, Springfield
Springfield, Jacksonville, Florida
Springfield is a historic neighborhood of Jacksonville, Florida, located to the north of downtown. Established in 1869, it experienced its greatest growth from the early 1880s through the 1920s...

, and Riverside, have been identified as U.S. historic district
Historic district
A historic district or heritage district is a section of a city which contains older buildings considered valuable for historical or architectural reasons. In some countries, historic districts receive legal protection from development....

s and are in the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

.

Parks and gardens


Jacksonville operates the largest urban park system in the United States, providing facilities and services at more than 337 locations on more than 80000 acres (323.7 km²) located throughout the city. Jacksonville enjoys natural beauty from the St. Johns River and Atlantic Ocean. Many parks provide access for people to boat, swim, fish, sail, jetski, surf and waterski. Several parks around the city have received international recognition. Kids Kampus
Kids Kampus
Kids Kampus was a city park and educational playground in Jacksonville, Florida built with the purpose of stimulating children mentally, socially and physically.-History:...

, in particular, is a unique facility for families with young children.

Tree Hill Nature Center is a nature preserve conveniently located five minutes from Downtown Jacksonville. Tree Hill is home to an environmental education center, a wildlife area, a Butterfly Center and 50 acres (202,343 m²) of nature trails surrounded by hilltop and wetland areas consisting of southern mixed hardwood forest, mixed hardwood swamp and freshwater streams. Serving the Jacksonville community for 40 years with important environmental education programs, Tree Hill also hosts a popular Butterfly Festival on the last Saturday of every April in the Joseph A. Strasser Amphitheater.

Hemming Plaza
Hemming Plaza
Hemming Plaza is a public park, located in the heart of the government center in downtown Jacksonville, Florida. It originally served as a village green, was the first and is the oldest park in the city.-Beginnings:...

 is Jacksonville's first and oldest park. It is downtown and surrounded by government buildings.

The Jacksonville Arboretum and Gardens broke ground on a new center in April, 2007 and held their grand opening on November 15, 2008.

The Ronnie Van Zant
Ronnie Van Zant
Ronald Wayne "Ronnie" Van Zant was an American lead vocalist, primary lyricist, and a founding member of the Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd...

 Memorial Park in suburban Green Cove Springs was opened in 1996. Located on Sandridge Rd, the park is dedicated to the memory of rock legend Ronnie Van Zant, lead singer and songwriter of The Lynyrd Skynyrd
Lynyrd Skynyrd
Lynyrd Skynyrd is an American rock band prominent in spreading Southern Rock during the 1970s.Originally formed as the "Noble Five" in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1964, the band rose to worldwide recognition on the basis of its driving live performances and signature tune, Freebird...

 Band. Killed in the tragic 1977 crash of the band's private plane along with guitarist Steve Gaines
Steve Gaines
Steven Earl Gaines was an American musician. He is most well known as a guitarist and songwriter for southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd, and is the younger brother of Cassie Gaines, who was also a member of the band...

, back-up singer Cassie Gaines
Cassie Gaines
Cassie LaRue Gaines was an American singer. She was a member of the female gospel vocal trio The Honkettes, who in 1975 became the backup singers for Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd....

, assistant road mgr. Dean Kilpatrick and the plane's two pilots, Van Zant grew up on the west side of Jacksonville and graduated (along with most of the band) from Robert E. Lee High School. The park features an 18 hole disc golf course, tennis courts and several fishing ponds.

The Veterans Memorial Wall
Veterans Memorial Wall
The Veterans Memorial Wall is located at 1145 East Adams Street, adjacent to the Jacksonville Municipal Stadium in downtown Jacksonville, Florida. The quarter-million dollar monument was dedicated in November, 1995 and serves as a tribute to more than 1,500 Jacksonville area American war heroes...

 is a tribute to local servicemen and women killed while serving in US armed forces. A ceremony is held each Memorial Day recognizing any service woman or man from Jacksonville who died in the previous year.

The Treaty Oak
Treaty Oak (Jacksonville, Florida)
The Treaty Oak is an octopus-like Southern live oak in Jacksonville, Florida. The tree is estimated to be 250 years old and may be the single oldest living thing in Jacksonville, predating the founding of the city by Isaiah Hart during the 1820s.-The name:The name's origin is generally believed...

 is a massive, 250 year-old tree at Jessie Ball DuPont Park in downtown. Office workers from nearby buildings sit on benches to eat lunch or read a book in the shade of its canopy.

The Jacksonville-Baldwin Rail Trail
Jacksonville-Baldwin Rail Trail
The Jacksonville-Baldwin Rail Trail is a Rail Trail that extends from northwest Jacksonville to Baldwin, Florida. While it is technically a city park, it includes three separate paths: a multi-use asphalt trail for hiking, jogging, in-line skating or cycling; an off-road bike trail; and a horseback...

 is a linear city park which runs 14.5 miles (23.3 km) from Imeson Road to a point past Baldwin, Florida.

Culture


Entertainment and performing arts


The Florida Theatre
Florida Theatre
The Florida Theatre is a historic U.S. movie theater in Jacksonville, Florida. The theatre is one of only four remaining high-style movie palaces built in Florida during the Mediterranean Revival architectural boom of the 1920s .It is located at 128 through 134 East...

, opened in 1927, is located in downtown Jacksonville and is one of only four remaining high-style movie palaces built in Florida during the Mediterranean Revival architectural
Mediterranean Revival Style architecture
The Mediterranean Revival was an eclectic design style that was first introduced in the United States about the end of the nineteenth century, and became popular during the 1920s and 1930s...

 boom of the 1920s.

Amity Turkish Cultural Center was established in 2006 as one of the major Dialogue and Cultural organizations in Jacksonville.
Theatre Jacksonville
Theatre Jacksonville
Theatre Jacksonville is a community theatre based in Jacksonville, Florida. One of the oldest continually producing community theatres in the United States, its building, also known as the Little Theatre, was added to the National Register of Historical Places in 1991.Theatre Jacksonville is based...

 was organized in 1919 as the Little Theatre and is one of the oldest continually producing community theatre
Community theatre
Community theatre refers to theatrical performance made in relation to particular communities—its usage includes theatre made by, with, and for a community...

s in the United States.

The Five Points Theatre, formerly the Riverside Theatre, opened in 1927. It was the first theater equipped to show talking pictures in Florida and the third nationally. It is located in the Five Points
Five Points (Jacksonville)
Five Points is a small local commerce and entertainment district in the Riverside neighborhood of Jacksonville, Florida. This area is considered one of the most concentrated commercial developments from the 1910s and 1920s of the Riverside District. Numerous individually owned bars, cafes, music...

 section of town and was renamed the Five Points Theater in 1949.

The Ritz Theatre
Ritz Theatre (Jacksonville)
The Ritz Theatre is an African-American oriented theatre in the LaVilla neighborhood of Jacksonville, Florida. The theater, which seats 426, is used for a variety of music, dance and theatrical productions, as well as movies. The spacious lobby is also used for private functions. Just off the lobby...

, opened in 1929, is located in the LaVilla
LaVilla, Jacksonville, Florida
LaVilla is a neighborhood of Jacksonville, Florida and former independent city, located just west of downtown. Jacksonville's first suburb, it was annexed by the city in 1887. It is primarily an African-American neighborhood, and its northern section was considered "the mecca for African American...

 neighborhood of the northern part of Jacksonville's downtown. The Jacksonville music scene was active in the 1930s in LaVilla, which was known as “Harlem of the South
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

”. Black musicians from across the country visited Jacksonville to play standing room only performances at the Ritz Theatre
Ritz Theatre (Jacksonville)
The Ritz Theatre is an African-American oriented theatre in the LaVilla neighborhood of Jacksonville, Florida. The theater, which seats 426, is used for a variety of music, dance and theatrical productions, as well as movies. The spacious lobby is also used for private functions. Just off the lobby...

 and the Knights of Pythias Hall. Cab Calloway
Cab Calloway
Cabell "Cab" Calloway III was an American jazz singer and bandleader. He was strongly associated with the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City where he was a regular performer....

, Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was an American composer, pianist, and big band leader. Ellington wrote over 1,000 compositions...

, Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Jane Fitzgerald , also known as the "First Lady of Song" and "Lady Ella," was an American jazz and song vocalist...

 and Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong , nicknamed Satchmo or Pops, was an American jazz trumpeter and singer from New Orleans, Louisiana....

 were a few of the legendary performers who appeared. After his mother died when he was 15, Ray Charles
Ray Charles
Ray Charles Robinson , known by his shortened stage name Ray Charles, was an American musician. He was a pioneer in the genre of soul music during the 1950s by fusing rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues styles into his early recordings with Atlantic Records...

 lived with friends of his mother while he played piano at the Ritz for a year, before moving on to fame and fortune. The Ritz Theatre was rebuilt and opened in October 1999.

The Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts
Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts
The Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts is a performance center and auditorium in Jacksonville, Florida, U.S. It opened in 1997, and was built on the former location of the Civic Auditorium. The Jim and Jan Moran Theater opened on February 8, 1997, and the The Robert E. Jacoby Symphony Hall...

 consists of three distinct halls: the Jim & Jan Moran Theater, a venue for touring Broadway shows; the Jacoby Symphony Hall, home of the Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra
Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra
The Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra is an American orchestra based in Jacksonville, Florida. Widely recognized for its high artistic quality, the JSO ranks among the nation’s top 30 to 40 orchestras in terms of number of performances and population served...

; and the Terry Theater, intended for small shows and recitals. The building was originally erected as the Civic Auditorium in 1962 and underwent a major renovation and construction in 1996.

The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena is a 15,000 seat multi-purpose arena in Jacksonville, Florida. It was built in 2003 as part of Mayor John Delaney's Better Jacksonville Plan to replace the outdated Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum....

, which opened in 2003, is a 16,000-seat performance venue that attracts national entertainment, sporting events and also houses the Jacksonville Sports Hall of Fame. It replaced the outdated Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum
Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum
Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Coliseum was an 11,000-seat multi-purpose arena, in Jacksonville, Florida, U.S. Built in 1960 and known as "northern Florida's most historic concert venues", it was home to most of the city's indoor professional sports teams and hosted various concerts, circuses and...

 that was built in 1960 and demolished on June 26, 2003.

The Alhambra Dinner Theatre
Alhambra Dinner Theatre
The Alhambra Dinner Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida is the oldest continually operating Dinner theater in the United States, and the only professional resident theatre in the area south of Atlanta, east of New Orleans and north of Orlando.-History:...

, located on the Southside near the University of North Florida
University of North Florida
The University of North Florida is a public university located in Jacksonville, Florida. A member institution of the State University System of Florida, the university is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master’s...

, has offered professional productions that frequently starred well-known actors since 1967. There are also a number of popular community theatres such as Players by the Sea at Jacksonville Beach.
Atlantic Beach Experemental Theatre (ABET), and Orange Park Community Theatre.

In 1999, Stage Aurora Theatrical Company, Inc. was established in collaboration at Florida State College at Jacksonville (North Campus). Their goal is to produce theatre that enlightens, and it is the most popular theatre on the Northside, located at Gateway Town Center.

Jacksonville native Pat Boone
Pat Boone
Charles Eugene "Pat" Boone is an American singer, actor and writer who has been a successful pop singer in the United States during the 1950s and early 1960s. He covered black artists' songs and sold more copies than his black counterparts...

 was a popular 1950s singer and teen idol. During the 1960s, the Classics Four was the most successful pop rock band from Jacksonville. Southern Rock
Southern rock
Southern rock is a subgenre of rock music, and genre of Americana. It developed in the Southern United States from rock and roll, country music, and blues, and is focused generally on electric guitar and vocals...

 was defined by the Allman Brothers Band, which formed in 1969 in Jacksonville. Lynyrd Skynyrd
Lynyrd Skynyrd
Lynyrd Skynyrd is an American rock band prominent in spreading Southern Rock during the 1970s.Originally formed as the "Noble Five" in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1964, the band rose to worldwide recognition on the basis of its driving live performances and signature tune, Freebird...

 achieved near cult status and inspired Blackfoot
Blackfoot
The Blackfoot Confederacy or Niitsítapi is the collective name of three First Nations in Alberta and one Native American tribe in Montana....

, Molly Hatchet
Molly Hatchet
Molly Hatchet is an American southern rock band formed in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1975. They are widely known for their hit song "Flirtin' with Disaster" from the album of the same title. The band, founded by Dave Hlubek and Steve Holland, took its name from a prostitute who allegedly mutilated...

 and .38 Special
.38 Special
The .38 Smith & Wesson Special is a rimmed, centerfire cartridge designed by Smith & Wesson. It is most commonly used in revolvers, although some semi-automatic pistols and carbines also use this round...

, all successful in the 1970s. The 1980s were a quiet decade for musical talent in Jacksonville.
The next local group to achieve national success was nu-metal band Limp Bizkit
Limp Bizkit
Limp Bizkit is an American rock band from Jacksonville, Florida. Formed in 1995, the group's lineup consists of Fred Durst , Wes Borland , Sam Rivers , John Otto and DJ Lethal . The band achieved mainstream success with their second studio album Significant Other, released in 1999...

 in 1994. Other popular Hip Hop
Hip hop
Hip hop is a form of musical expression and artistic culture that originated in African-American and Latino communities during the 1970s in New York City, specifically the Bronx. DJ Afrika Bambaataa outlined the four pillars of hip hop culture: MCing, DJing, breaking and graffiti writing...

 acts in the 1990s included 95 South
95 South
95 South was a Miami bass duo of AB and Daddy Black from Jacksonville, Florida. The group's name is a reference to Interstate 95, which passes through the city. Their biggest success was the 1993 hit "Whoot, There It Is" from their debut album Quad City Knock, which reached #11 on the Billboard...

, 69 Boyz
69 Boyz
69 Boyz is a platinum selling Miami bass and hip hop group originating from Jacksonville, Florida, but now based largely in Orlando, Florida. The group was initiated by producers C.C...

 and the Quad City DJ's
Quad City DJ's
Quad City DJ's was the music artist and producer duo of C.C. Lemonhead and Jay Ski , who produced the Miami bass hit "C'mon N' Ride It " in 1995. Female singer JeLana LaFleur also contributed vocals to many of their songs.The two first partnered in 1992 during high school in Jacksonville, Florida...

. The bands Inspection 12
Inspection 12
Inspection 12 is an American pop punk band from Jacksonville, Florida, founded by Robert Reid, Dan McLintock, John Comee and Scott Shad. They have released two full length recordings internationally, one on Honest Don's Records and one on Suburban Home Records and Takeover Records...

, Cold
Cold
Cold describes the condition of low temperature.Cold may also refer to:*Common cold, a contagious viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system*Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...

 and Yellowcard
Yellowcard
Yellowcard is an American pop punk/alternative rock band formed in Jacksonville, Florida in 1997, and based in Los Angeles, California since 2000. Their music features the use of a violin, unusual for the genre...

 were also well known and had a large following. Following the millennium, Burn Season
Burn Season
Burn Season is a four-piece hard rock music group from Jacksonville, Florida.Burn Season formed in 2001, and immediately gained the attention of several major record labels. They ultimately decided to sign with Elektra Records to what was rumored as an "obscenely" large deal.The band went to work...

, Evergreen Terrace
Evergreen Terrace (band)
Evergreen Terrace is a five-piece melodic hardcore/metalcore band from Jacksonville, Florida. Formed in 1999, they are named after the street on which The Simpsons claim residence...

, Shinedown
Shinedown
Shinedown is an American rock band from Jacksonville, Florida, formed in 2001 and founded by members Brent Smith , Brad Stewart , Jasin Todd , and Barry Kerch . A few line-up changes followed, and the band's current line-up consists of Smith and Kerch, the band's only two remaining original...

, Electric President
Electric President
Electric President is a Jacksonville, Florida musical duo started in 2003 by Ben Cooper and Alex Kane. Both were in Helicopter Project prior to its breakup though no music from this group was ever released. Afterwards the pair decided to continue to make music together. They subsequently completed...

, The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus
The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus
The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus is an American rock band that formed in Middleburg, Florida.-Early years :Originating in Florida, childhood friends Ronnie Winter, Thomas Amason, and Duke Kitchens started the band while attending an AP music theory class, in 2003...

, Black Kids
Black Kids
Black Kids is an American indie pop band from Jacksonville, Florida. The band's debut EP, Wizard of Ahhhs, received favorable critical response in 2007, and was followed by the Partie Traumatic album, which debuted at #5 on the UK Albums Chart in July 2008.-History:Black Kids formed in Jacksonville...

 and The Summer Obsession
The Summer Obsession
The Summer Obsession is a punk band from Jacksonville Beach, Florida, United States. The band originally started in 2004 by Luke Walker & Fin Leavell. They went through several members until they recruited drummer Chris Wilson...

, were notable bands from Jacksonville.

In the early 20th century, New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

-based moviemakers were attracted to Jacksonville's warm climate, exotic locations, excellent rail access, and cheaper labor, earning the city the title of "The Winter Film Capital of the World". Over 30 movie studios were opened and thousands of silent films produced between 1908 and the 1920s, when most studios relocated to Hollywood, California
Hollywood, Los Angeles, California
Hollywood is a famous district in Los Angeles, California, United States situated west-northwest of downtown Los Angeles. Due to its fame and cultural identity as the historical center of movie studios and movie stars, the word Hollywood is often used as a metonym of American cinema...

.

Since that time, Jacksonville has been chosen by a number of film and television studios for on-location shooting. Notable motion pictures that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville since the silent film era include Creature from the Black Lagoon
Creature from the Black Lagoon
Creature from the Black Lagoon is a 1954 monster horror film directed by Jack Arnold, and starring Richard Carlson, Julia Adams, Richard Denning, Antonio Moreno, and Whit Bissell. The eponymous creature was played by Ben Chapman on land and Ricou Browning in underwater scenes...

 (1954), The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking
The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking
The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking is a 1988 Swedish/American fantasy–adventure–musical film based on the books of the fictional character Pippi Longstocking, created by Swedish children's book author Astrid Lindgren . While the title suggests the movie is a continuation, it is in...

 (1988), Brenda Starr
Brenda Starr (film)
Brenda Starr is a 1989 adventure film, based on Dale Messick's Brenda Starr comic strip. The film was directed by Robert Ellis Miller, and stars Brooke Shields, Timothy Dalton, and Diana Scarwid.-Plot:...

 (1989), G.I. Jane
G.I. Jane
G.I. Jane is a 1997 American action film directed by Ridley Scott, produced by Largo Entertainment, Scott Free Productions and Caravan Pictures, distributed by Hollywood Pictures and starring Demi Moore and Viggo Mortensen. The film tells the fictional story of the first woman to undergo training...

 (1997), The Devil's Advocate
The Devil's Advocate (film)
The Devil's Advocate is a 1997 American horror film directed by Taylor Hackford starring Keanu Reeves, Al Pacino and Charlize Theron, and based on a novel by Andrew Neiderman....

 (1997), Ride (1998), Why Do Fools Fall In Love
Why Do Fools Fall in Love (film)
Why Do Fools Fall in Love is an American romantic drama, directed by Gregory Nava and released by Warner Bros. Pictures. The film is a biographical film of the brief but intense life of R&B/Rock & Roll singer Frankie Lymon, lead singer of the pioneering rock and roll group Frankie Lymon & the...

 (1998), Forces of Nature
Forces of Nature
Forces of Nature is a 1999 romantic comedy film, directed by Bronwen Hughes, and starring Academy Award winners Ben Affleck, and Sandra Bullock.-Plot:...

 (1999), Tigerland
Tigerland
Tigerland is a 2000 war drama film directed by Joel Schumacher starring Colin Farrell in the role of Private Roland Bozz, and takes place in a training camp for soldiers to be sent to the Vietnam War....

 (2000), Sunshine State
Sunshine State (film)
Sunshine State is a 2002 American comedy–drama film written and directed by John Sayles. The picture stars an ensemble cast that features Angela Bassett, Edie Falco, Jane Alexander, Alan King, Timothy Hutton, Mary Steenburgen, Bill Cobbs, and others. The movie was filmed on Amelia Island,...

 (2002), Basic
Basic (film)
Basic is a 2003 American/German thriller film directed by John McTiernan and starring John Travolta, Connie Nielsen and Samuel L. Jackson.-Plot:...

 (2003), The Manchurian Candidate
The Manchurian Candidate (2004 film)
The Manchurian Candidate is a 2004 American thriller film based on the 1959 novel of the same name by Richard Condon, and a reimagining of the previous 1962 film....

 (2004), Lonely Hearts (2006), Moving McAllister
Moving McAllister
Moving McAllister is a 2007 American comedy film starring Mila Kunis, Jon Heder, Rutger Hauer, and Billy Drago. The film was shot largely in Utah and St Johns County, Florida and was produced by Camera 40 Productions...

 (2007), The Year of Getting to Know Us (2008), The Ramen Girl
The Ramen Girl
The Ramen Girl is an American-Japanese movie starring Brittany Murphy about a girl who goes to Japan and decides to learn how to cook ramen.-Plot:...

 and Like Dandelion Dust
Like Dandelion Dust
Like Dandelion Dust is a 2009 drama film based on the novel by the same name by Karen Kingsbury. The film won 26 awards at 23 film festivals.- Plot :...

.

Notable television series or made-for-television films that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville include Intimate Strangers (1986), Inherit the Wind
Inherit the Wind (1988 film)
Inherit the Wind is a 1988 television film adaptation of the play of the same name. The original 1955 play was written as a parable which fictionalized the 1925 Scopes "Monkey" Trial as a means of discussing the 1950s McCarthy trials...

 (1988), Roxanne: The Prize Pulitzer (1989), A Girl of the Limberlost (1990), Orpheus Descending
Orpheus Descending
Orpheus Descending is a play by Tennessee Williams. It was first presented on Broadway in 1957 where it enjoyed a brief run with only modest success. The play is basically a rewrite of an earlier play by Williams called Battle of Angels, which was written in 1940, but had been closed on its opening...

 (1990), Pointman (1995), Saved by the Light
Saved by the Light
Saved by the Light is a book by Dannion Brinkley describing his near-death experience . Brinkley was struck by lightning and was clinically dead for approximately twenty-eight minutes...

 (1995), The Babysitter's Seduction (1996), Sudden Terror: The Hijacking of School Bus #17 (1996), First Time Felon (1997), Gold Coast (1997), Safe Harbor (film)
Safe Harbor (film)
Safe Harbor is a 2009 television film based on a true story starring Treat Williams and Nancy Travis. The film first aired on Hallmark Channel on May 30, 2009.-Plot summary:...

 (2009), The Conquest of America (2005), Super Bowl XXXIX
Super Bowl XXXIX
Super Bowl XXXIX was an American football game played on February 6, 2005, at Alltel Stadium in Jacksonville, Florida, to decide the National Football League champion following the 2004 regular season...

 (2005), Recount (film)
Recount (film)
Recount is a 2008 made-for-TV film about the 2000 Presidential election in the United States. The political drama was written by Danny Strong, directed by Jay Roach, and produced by Kevin Spacey, who also stars in the film....

 (2008), and American Idol
American Idol
American Idol, titled American Idol: The Search for a Superstar for the first season, is a reality television singing competition created by Simon Fuller and produced by FremantleMedia North America and 19 Entertainment...

 (2009).

The NPR and PRX radio show, State of the Re:Union
State of the Re:Union
State of the Re:Union is a nationally aired Public Radio show created and hosted by playwright and performance artist Al Letson. With a journalistic, documentary-style approach, the hour-long program focuses exclusively on one city or town in the scope of an episode featuring interviews,...

, hosted by performance poet and playwright, Al Letson
Al Letson
Al Letson is a poet, playwright, performer and is now host and executive producer of his own national radio show, State of the Re:Union. Letson avoided college in large part due to his dyslexia and the myriad challenges that the learning disorder presents in the academic world and instead became a...

, is headquartered and produced in Jacksonville.

Annual events


Throughout the year, many annual events of various types are held in Jacksonville. In sports, the annual Gate River Run
Gate River Run
The Gate River Run , formerly known as the Jacksonville River Run, is an annual 15 kilometer road race in Jacksonville, Florida that attracts both competitive and recreational runners. It has been the US National Championship 15K since 1994 and in 2007 became the largest 15K race in the country...

 has been held annually since March 1977. It has been the US National 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) road race Championship since 1994 and is the largest race of its distance in the country with over 13,000 runners, spectators, and volunteers, making it Jacksonville's largest participation sporting event. In college football, the Gator Bowl
Gator Bowl
The Gator Bowl is an annual college football bowl game played at EverBank Field in Jacksonville, Florida. Held continuously since 1946, it is the sixth oldest college bowl, as well as the first one ever televised nationally...

 is held on January 1. It has been continuously held since 1946. Also, the Florida vs. Georgia Football Classic (also known as the "World's Largest Outdoor Cocktail Party), the annual college football
College football
College football refers to American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities...

 game between the rival Florida Gators
Florida Gators football
The Florida Gators football team represents the University of Florida in the sport of American football. The Florida Gators compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletics Association and the Eastern Division of the Southeastern Conference...

 and Georgia Bulldogs
Georgia Bulldogs football
The Georgia Bulldogs football team represents the University of Georgia in football. The Bulldogs are a member of the Southeastern Conference and are frequently a top-25 team. The University of Georgia has had a football team since 1892 and has an all-time record of 738–398–54...

 has been held in Jacksonville almost yearly since 1933. For six days in July the Jacksonville Kingfish Tournament
Jacksonville Kingfish Tournament
The AT&T Greater Jacksonville Kingfish Tournament is a contest fishing for King mackerel that spans six days every July in Jacksonville, Florida. The tournament is the largest kingfish tournament. According to Rick Ryals, a local boat captain, the GJKT is "true competition in its purest form. It...

 is held for fishermen of all skills. With $500,000 of prizes up for grabs, up to 1000 boats participate with almost 30,000 spectators watching.

A number of cultural events are also held in Jacksonville. The Jacksonville Jazz Festival
Jacksonville Jazz Festival
The Jacksonville Jazz Festival is a weekend of Jazz that is the "second-largest jazz festival in the nation" according to Superpages and that, according to the Jacksonville Times-Union, has been dubbed by "experts" as "one of the 20 best in the nation." The event in Jacksonville, Florida, USA is...

, held downtown, is the second-largest jazz
Jazz
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

 festival in the nation, while Springing the Blues
Springing the Blues
Springing the Blues is an annual blues festival held in Jacksonville Beach, Florida. It is one of the largest and oldest blues festivals on the East Coast of the United States. It was first held in 1990 and has been held yearly on the first weekend of April....

, one of the oldest and largest blues
Blues
Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that originated in African-American communities of primarily the "Deep South" of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads...

 festivals, has been held in Jacksonville Beach
Jacksonville Beach, Florida
Jacksonville Beach is a city on the Atlantic coast of Duval County, Florida, east of Jacksonville. It is part of the Jacksonville Beaches community, together with Mayport, Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and Ponte Vedra Beach...

 since 1990. The World of Nations Celebration
World of Nations Celebration
World of Nations Celebration is an annual international festival held in Jacksonville, Florida, U.S. It is North Florida's largest multicultural festival, and features exhibitions and events from a variety of countries...

 has been held in Metropolitan Park
Metropolitan Park
Metropolitan Park is a former baseball ground located in New York, New York. The ground was the part-time home to the New York Metropolitans of the American Association in 1884....

 since 1993, and features a number of events, food and souvenirs from various countries. The Jacksonville Film Festival
Jacksonville Film Festival
The Jacksonville Film Festival is an annual film festival held in Jacksonville, Florida. Founded in 2002, the festival screens dozens of the hundreds of films submitted for its consideration...

, held at seven historic venues in the city, has been held since 2003 and has featured a variety of independent films, documentaries and shorts.

Other events include the Blessing of the Fleet
Blessing of the Fleet
The Blessing of the Fleet is a tradition that began centuries ago in Mediterranean fishing communities. The practice is predominantly Catholic and a blessing from the local priest was meant to ensure a safe and bountiful season...

 held in March since 1985 and the Greater Jacksonville Agricultural Fair in November at the Jacksonville Fairgrounds and Exposition Center featuring games, rides, food, entertainment and livestock exhibition. Holiday celebrations include the Freedom, Fanfare & Fireworks celebration on July 4
Independence Day (United States)
Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain...

, the lighting of Jacksonville's official Christmas tree
Christmas tree
The Christmas tree is a decorated evergreen coniferous tree, real or artificial, and a tradition associated with the celebration of Christmas. The tradition of decorating an evergreen tree at Christmas started in Livonia and Germany in the 16th century...

 at the Jacksonville Landing
Jacksonville Landing
The Jacksonville Landing is a shopping and dining complex in Jacksonville, Florida. It was built by the Rouse Company and opened in 1987. It has been compared to New York City's South Street Seaport, Boston's Faneuil Hall or Miami's Bayside, all developed by Rouse.-History:The Jacksonville Landing...

 on the day after Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving (United States)
Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a holiday celebrated in the United States on the fourth Thursday in November. It has officially been an annual tradition since 1863, when, during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a national day of thanksgiving to be celebrated on Thursday,...

 and the Jacksonville Light Parade of boats the following day.

Attractions


The city center includes the Jacksonville Landing
Jacksonville Landing
The Jacksonville Landing is a shopping and dining complex in Jacksonville, Florida. It was built by the Rouse Company and opened in 1987. It has been compared to New York City's South Street Seaport, Boston's Faneuil Hall or Miami's Bayside, all developed by Rouse.-History:The Jacksonville Landing...

 and the Jacksonville Riverwalk
Jacksonville Riverwalk
The Jacksonville Riverwalks are located on the north and south banks of the St. Johns River in downtown Jacksonville, Florida.The Riverwalk was originally a boardwalk on the south bank of the St. Johns River that opened Nov. 8, 1985. It was intended as a venue where tourists and local residents...

s. The Landing is a popular riverfront dining and shopping venue, accessible by River Taxi from the Southbank Riverwalk. The Northbank Riverwalk runs 2 miles (3.2 km) along the St. Johns from Berkman Plaza to I-95 at the Fuller Warren Bridge while the Southbank Riverwalk stretches 1.2 miles (1.9 km) from the Radisson Hotel to Museum Circle. Adjacent to Museum Circle is St. Johns River Park, also known as Friendship Park. It is the location of Friendship Fountain
Friendship Fountain
Friendship Fountain is a large fountain in Jacksonville, Florida. It is located in St. Johns River Park at the west end of Downtown Jacksonville's Southbank Riverwalk attraction...

, one of the most recognizable and popular attractions for locals as well as tourists in Jacksonville. This landmark was built in 1965 and promoted as the “World’s Tallest and Largest” fountain at the time.

The Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens
Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens
The Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens is a public museum located in Jacksonville, Florida. The museum focuses on portraying European and American artistic paintings. The museum also has a large collection of Meissen porcelain...

 is an art museum in Jacksonville's Riverside neighborhood. It was founded in 1961, following the death of Ninah Mae Holden Cummer, who willed her collection, home, and gardens to the museum. Its galleries display one of the world's three most comprehensive collections of Meissen porcelain
Meissen porcelain
Meissen porcelain or Meissen china is the first European hard-paste porcelain that was developed from 1708 by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. After his death that October, Johann Friedrich Böttger, continued his work and brought porcelain to the market...

 as well as large collections of American, European, and Japanese art. The grounds also contain two acres of Italian and English gardens begun by Ninah Cummer.

The Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville
Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville
The Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville, also known as MOCA Jacksonville, is a contemporary art museum in Jacksonville, Florida, funded and operated as a "cultural resource" of the University of North Florida...

 (MOCA Jacksonville) is a contemporary art
Contemporary art
Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. The definition of the word contemporary would support the first view, but museums of contemporary art commonly define their collections as consisting of art produced...

 museum funded and operated as a "cultural resource" of the University of North Florida
University of North Florida
The University of North Florida is a public university located in Jacksonville, Florida. A member institution of the State University System of Florida, the university is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master’s...

. Tracing its roots back to the formation of Jacksonville's Fine Arts Society in 1924, it opened its current 60000 square feet (5,574.2 m²) facility next to the Main Library downtown in 2003. The museum features eclectic permanent and traveling exhibitions and a collection of over 700 works.

The Museum of Science & History
Museum of Science & History
The Museum of Science and History is a museum in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. It is a private, non-profit institution located on the Southbank Riverwalk, and the city's most visited museum...

 (MOSH), located in downtown's Southbank Riverwalk, specializes in science and local history exhibits. It features a main exhibit that changes quarterly, plus three floors of nature exhibits, an extensive exhibit on the history of Northeast Florida, a hands-on science area and the area's only astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth...

 theater, the Alexander Brest Planetarium
Alexander Brest Planetarium
Alexander Brest Planetarium, located inside Jacksonville, Florida's Museum of Science & History, was built in 1988 and features a dome-shaped projection screen, JBL stereo sound system, Zeiss Jena Optical mechanical planetarium star projector...

.

Alexander Brest, founder of Duval Engineering and Contracting Co., was also the benefactor for the Alexander Brest Museum and Gallery
Alexander Brest Museum and Gallery
The Alexander Brest Museum and Gallery is located in the Phillips Fine Arts Building on the campus of Jacksonville University. It was named for its primary benefactor...

 on the campus of Jacksonville University
Jacksonville University
Jacksonville University is a private university in Jacksonville, Florida, on the banks of the St. Johns River. The school was founded in 1934 as a two year college and was known as Jacksonville Junior College until 1958, when it shifted its focus to four-year university degrees and adopted its...

. The exhibits are a diverse collection of carved ivory
Ivory carving
Ivory carving is the carving of ivory, that is to say animal tooth or tusk, by using sharp cutting tools, either mechanically or manually. The ancient craft has now virtually ceased, as since CITES it is illegal under most circumstances throughout the world....

, Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during...

 artifacts, Steuben glass
Steuben Glass Works
Steuben Glass Works was an American art glass manufacturer, founded in the summer of 1903 by Fredrick C. Carder and Thomas G. Hawkes in Corning, New York, which is in Steuben County, from which the company name was derived. Hawkes was the owner of the largest cut glass firm then operating in Corning...

, Chinese porcelain and Cloisonné
Cloisonné
Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalwork objects, in recent centuries using vitreous enamel, and in older periods also inlays of cut gemstones, glass, and other materials. The resulting objects can also be called cloisonné...

, Tiffany glass
Tiffany glass
Tiffany glass refers to the many and varied types of glass developed and produced from 1878 to 1933 at the Tiffany Studios, by Louis Comfort Tiffany....

, Boehm porcelain and rotating exhibitions containing the work of local, regional, national and international artists.

The Jacksonville Maritime Museum
Jacksonville Maritime Museum
The Jacksonville Maritime Museum tells the history of Jacksonville, Florida and the First Coast through its connection to the St. Johns River and the Atlantic Ocean...

, located in the Jacksonville Landing, includes models of ships, paintings, photographs and artifacts dating to 1562.

Three other art galleries are located at educational institutions in town. Florida State College at Jacksonville has the Kent Gallery on their westside campus and the Wilson Center for the Arts at their main campus. The University Gallery is located on the campus of the University of North Florida
University of North Florida
The University of North Florida is a public university located in Jacksonville, Florida. A member institution of the State University System of Florida, the university is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master’s...

.


The Jacksonville Karpeles Manuscript Library Museum is a branch of the world's largest private collection of original manuscripts and documents. The museum in Jacksonville is in a 1921 neoclassical building on the outskirts of downtown. In addition to document displays, there is also an antique-book library, with volumes dating from the late 19th century.

The Catherine Street Fire Station
Catherine Street Fire Station
The Catherine Street Fire Station is a historic building in Jacksonville, Florida, originally located at 14 Catherine Street, but relocated to Metropolitan Park...

 building is on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 and was relocated to Metropolitan Park in 1993. It houses the Jacksonville Fire Museum and features 500+ artifacts including an 1806 hand pumper.

The LaVilla Museum
LaVilla Museum
The LaVilla Museum is a museum of African American history and culture located in the 1929 Ritz Theater in Jacksonville, Florida.-External links:*...

 opened in 1999 and features a permanent display of African-American history. The art exhibits are changed periodically.

There are also several historical properties and items of interest in the city, including the Klutho Building, the Old Morocco Temple Building
Morocco Temple
The Morocco Temple is a historic Shrine building in Jacksonville, Florida. It is located at 219 Newnan Street, and was designed by New York architect Henry John Klutho. On November 29, 1979, it was added to the U.S...

, the Palm and Cycad Arboretum
Palm and Cycad Arboretum
The Palm and Cycad Arboretum at the Florida Community College at Jacksonville is located on the south campus at 11901 Beach Boulevard, Jacksonville, Florida, USA. This is an outdoor area next to the G building, a large three-story complex in the middle of campus that houses the library and other...

, and the Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center
Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center
Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center is a convention center located in downtown Jacksonville, Florida. Opened in 1986, it was built incorporating Jacksonville's Union Station as well as several thousand square feet of newly-built structure....

, originally built as Union Station train depot. The Jacksonville Historical Society
Jacksonville Historical Society
Jacksonville Historical Society is a 501 non-profit organization in Jacksonville, Florida, begun by 231 charter members on May 3, 1929 at the Carling Hotel.-History:...

 showcases two restoration projects: the 1887 St. Andrews Episcopal Church
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church (Jacksonville, Florida)
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, also known as Old St. Andrew's, is a historic building in downtown Jacksonville, Florida, USA. As its name implies, it was originally an Episcopal church, but closed when the parish relocated to the suburbs in 1960. On May 4, 1976, the edifice was added to the U.S....

 and the 1879 Merrill House, both located near the sports complex.

The Art Walk, a monthly outdoor art festival on the first Wednesday of each month, is sponsored by Downtown Vision, Inc, an organization which works to promote artistic talent and venues on the First Coast.

E2ride bike tours
E2ride bike tours
e2ride bike tours are guided historical bicycle tours of Riverside/Avondale, San Marco, Olde Mandarin, Springfield, and the Jacksonville Beaches in the Greater Jacksonville, Florida area...

 opened in 2009 and is the area's only historical bicycle tour company in Riverside-Avondale, San Marco, Olde Mandarin, Springfield and Jacksonville Beach. The bike tours are sustainable tourism
Sustainable tourism
Sustainable tourism is tourism attempting to make a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people. The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development brings a positive experience for local people, tourism companies and the...

, and eco tourism and include bikes, gear and guide.

The Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
The Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens is a zoo located in Jacksonville. It sits at the mouth of the Trout River. The zoo occupies approximately and has over 2,000 animals in its collection...

 boasts the second largest animal collection in the state. The zoo features elephant
Elephant
Elephants are large land mammals in two extant genera of the family Elephantidae: Elephas and Loxodonta, with the third genus Mammuthus extinct...

s, lion
Lion
The lion is one of the four big cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger...

s, and, of course, jaguar
Jaguar
The jaguar is a big cat, a feline in the Panthera genus, and is the only Panthera species found in the Americas. The jaguar is the third-largest feline after the tiger and the lion, and the largest in the Western Hemisphere. The jaguar's present range extends from Southern United States and Mexico...

s (with an exhibit, Range of the Jaguar, hosted by the owners of the Jacksonville Jaguars
Jacksonville Jaguars
The Jacksonville Jaguars are a professional American football team based in Jacksonville, Florida, U.S. They are currently members of the South Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

, Delores and Wayne Weaver). It also has a multitude of reptile houses, free flight aviaries, and many other animals.

Adventure Landing
Adventure Landing
Adventure Landing is a group of amusement parks located in Florida, New York, North Carolina and Texas. The first park was opened in Jacksonville Beach, Florida in 1995 by Adventure Entertainment Company. It was a success and nine other parks were constructed....

 is an amusement park
Amusement park
thumb|Cinderella Castle in [[Magic Kingdom]], [[Disney World]]Amusement and theme parks are terms for a group of entertainment attractions and rides and other events in a location for the enjoyment of large numbers of people...

 with locations in Jacksonville and Jacksonville Beach. The Jacksonville Beach location contains Shipwreck Island, Duval County's only waterpark.

Retail


Jacksonville has two fully enclosed shopping mall
Shopping mall
A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping arcade, shopping precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area — a modern, indoor version...

s. The oldest is the Regency Square Mall
Regency Square Mall (Jacksonville, Florida)
Regency Square Mall is an enclosed shopping mall in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. Opened in 1967, the mall features more than 100 stores, including four anchor stores and a food court...

, which opened in 1967 and is located on former sand dunes in the Arlington area. The other is The Avenues Mall
The Avenues (shopping mall)
The Avenues is an indoor shopping mall located on the southside of Jacksonville, Florida at the intersection of U.S. 1 and Southside Boulevard near Interstate 95. The mall opened in 1990 with four anchor stores; Gayfers, Dillard's, JCPenney and Sears. The Gayfers anchor store was later converted...

, which opened in 1990 on the Southside, at the intersection of I-95 and US 1. The Orange Park Mall is another mall located just south of the city in the suburb of Orange Park, Florida
Orange Park, Florida
Orange Park is a town in Clay County, Florida, USA, and a suburb of Jacksonville. The population was 8,412 at the 2010 census. The name "Orange Park" is additionally applied to a wider area of northern Clay County outside the town limits, covering such communities as Fleming Island, Lakeside, and...

, in Clay County
Clay County, Florida
Clay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2010, the population was 190,895. Its county seat is Green Cove Springs, Florida. Clay County is part of the Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan area.- History :...

, off of Blanding Boulevard (Florida State Road 21).

The end of the indoor shopping mall may be indicated by the opening of The St. Johns Town Center
St. Johns Town Center
St. Johns Town Center is an upscale mall in Jacksonville, Florida. It opened its doors on March 18, 2005 with five anchor stores including Dillard's, Barnes & Noble, Target, Dicks Sporting Goods and Ashley Furniture. The open-air regional mall at J...

 in 2005 and the River City Marketplace
River City Marketplace
River City Marketplace is a quasi-regional outdoor shopping mall in north Jacksonville, Florida and the only one north of the St. Johns River. It opened its doors on November 17, 2006 with three major anchor stores including Walmart, Lowes and Hollywood Theatres. The fourth, Gander Mountain,...

, on the Northside in 2006. Both of these are "open air" malls, with a similar mix of stores, but without being contained under a single, enclosed roof. According to the International Council of Shopping Centers
International Council of Shopping Centers
Founded in 1957, the International Council of Shopping Centers is the global trade association of the shopping center industry. Its 60,000 members in the U.S., Canada and more than 80 other countries include shopping center owners, developers, managers, marketing specialists, investors, lenders,...

 (ICSC), only one enclosed mall has been built in the United States since 2006.

The Avenues, Orange Park Mall, and St. Johns Town Center
St. Johns Town Center
St. Johns Town Center is an upscale mall in Jacksonville, Florida. It opened its doors on March 18, 2005 with five anchor stores including Dillard's, Barnes & Noble, Target, Dicks Sporting Goods and Ashley Furniture. The open-air regional mall at J...

 are all owned by Simon Property Group
Simon Property Group
Simon Property Group, Inc. is an American commercial real estate company, ranked #1 in the United States as the largest real estate investment trust. Simon is a fully integrated real estate company which operates from five retail real estate platforms: regional malls, Premium Outlet Centers, The...

; Regency is owned by General Growth Properties
General Growth Properties
General Growth Properties, Inc. is a publicly traded real estate investment trust in the United States. It is based in Chicago, Illinois at 110 North Wacker Drive, a historic building designed by architectural firm Graham, Anderson, Probst & White...

; River City Marketplace is owned by Ramco-Gershenson
Ramco-Gershenson Properties Trust
Ramco-Gershenson Properties Trust is a fully integrated real estate investment trust . As of 2009, it owned 88 properties comprising of gross leasable area in 13 United States. The company is headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan and employs 200 people...

.

Sports


Jacksonville is home to one major league sports team
Professional sports
Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and increased leisure have brought larger audiences, so that sports organizations...

, the Jacksonville Jaguars
Jacksonville Jaguars
The Jacksonville Jaguars are a professional American football team based in Jacksonville, Florida, U.S. They are currently members of the South Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

 of the National Football League
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

 (NFL). The Jaguars joined the NFL as an expansion team
Expansion team
An expansion team is a brand new team in a sports league. The term is most commonly used in reference to the North American major professional sports leagues, but is applied to sports leagues worldwide that use a closed franchise system of league membership. The term comes from the expansion of the...

 in the 1995 season; they play their home games at EverBank Field. The PGA Tour
PGA Tour
The PGA Tour is the organizer of the main men's professional golf tours in the United States and North America...

, which organizes the main professional golf
Golf
Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes....

 tournaments in the U.S., is headquartered in the suburb of Ponte Vedra Beach
Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida
Ponte Vedra Beach is an unincorporated seaside community in St. Johns County, Florida, United States. Located eighteen miles southeast of downtown Jacksonville and north of St. Augustine, it is part of the Jacksonville Beaches area. It is an upmarket tourist resort area best known for its...

, where it holds The Players Championship
The Players Championship
The Players Championship is an annual golf tournament on the PGA Tour.Originally known as the Tournament Players Championship, the inaugural event in 1974 was played at Atlanta Country Club in Marietta, Georgia before moving to the Colonial Country Club in Fort Worth, Texas in 1975 and Inverrary...

 every year.

Jacksonville is also home to several minor league
Minor league
Minor leagues are professional sports leagues which are not regarded as the premier leagues in those sports. Minor league teams tend to play in smaller, less elaborate venues, often competing in smaller cities. This term is used in North America with regard to several organizations competing in...

-level teams. The Jacksonville Suns
Jacksonville Suns
The Jacksonville Suns are a minor league baseball team based in Jacksonville, Florida. The team is currently a member of the Southern League and is the class Double-A affiliate of the Miami Marlins Major League Baseball team...

, a class Double-A baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

 team, have played in Jacksonville continuously since 1970, longer than any other Double-A team has been in its city, and are the top-selling franchise in the Southern League
Southern League (baseball)
The Southern League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the Southern United States. It is classified a Double-A league. The original league was formed in , and shut down in . A new league, the Southern Association, was formed in , consisting of twelve teams...

. The Jacksonville Sharks
Jacksonville Sharks
The Jacksonville Sharks were a professional American football team based in Jacksonville, Florida. They competed for part of the 1974 season in the World Football League, a failed attempt to launch a major professional football league in the United States in competition with the National Football...

, who began play in 2010, are the current champions of the Arena Football League
Arena Football League
The Arena Football League is the highest level of professional indoor American football in the United States. It is currently the second longest running professional football league in the United States, after the National Football League. It was founded in 1987 by Jim Foster...

. The Jacksonville Axemen
Jacksonville Axemen
-Southeastern Rugby League Championship:In 2011 the Axemen launched a reserve grade competition, the Firehouse Subs Southeastern Rugby League Championship, which acts as a feeder club system for the Axemen to further develop players...

 are a semi-professional rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 team founded in 2006, and now play in the USA Rugby League
USA Rugby League
The USA Rugby League is a semi-professional rugby league football competition based in the United States. The league was founded in 2011 by clubs that had broken with the established American National Rugby League , plus expansion franchises...

. The Jacksonville Giants
Jacksonville Giants
The Jacksonville Giants are a professional minor league basketball team based in Jacksonville, Florida, who play in the new American Basketball Association . They joined the ABA as an expansion team for the 2010–2011 season...

 basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

 team started play in the new American Basketball Association
American Basketball Association (2000–present)
The American Basketball Association, often abbreviated as ABA, is a semi-professional men's basketball league that was founded in 1999. The current ABA has no affiliation with the original American Basketball Association that merged with the National Basketball Association in 1976...

 in December 2010. FC JAX Destroyers
FC Jax Destroyers
FC JAX Destroyers are an American soccer team based in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. The organization has men's and women's franchises in the United Soccer Leagues, both of which use the FC JAX Destroyers brand...

 are a soccer team that launched a men's franchise in the USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League
The USL Premier Development League is the amateur league of the United Soccer Leagues in the United States, Canada, and Bermuda, forming part of the American Soccer Pyramid...

 in the 2011 season, and plans a women's franchise for 2012. The Jacksonville Bullies
Jacksonville Bullies
The Jacksonville Bullies is an American professional indoor lacrosse team based in Jacksonville, Florida. They are a charter member of the North American Lacrosse League...

 indoor lacrosse team are scheduled to begin play in the North American Lacrosse League
North American Lacrosse League
The North American Lacrosse League is a men's professional indoor lacrosse league based in the United States, set to begin play in January 2012. The league will be North America's third professional lacrosse league, after Major League Lacrosse and the National Lacrosse League...

 in its inaugural 2012 season.

College sports, especially college football
College football
College football refers to American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities...

, are popular in Jacksonville. The city hosts the Florida vs. Georgia Football Classic, an annual football game between the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

 and the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia is a public research university located in Athens, Georgia, United States. Founded in 1785, it is the oldest and largest of the state's institutions of higher learning and is one of multiple schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States...

, and the Gator Bowl
Gator Bowl
The Gator Bowl is an annual college football bowl game played at EverBank Field in Jacksonville, Florida. Held continuously since 1946, it is the sixth oldest college bowl, as well as the first one ever televised nationally...

, a post-season college bowl game
Bowl game
In North America, a bowl game is commonly considered to refer to one of a number of post-season college football games. Prior to 2002, bowl game statistics were not included in players' career totals and the games were mostly considered to be exhibition games involving a payout to participating...

. Jacksonville's two universities compete in NCAA Division I: the University of North Florida
University of North Florida
The University of North Florida is a public university located in Jacksonville, Florida. A member institution of the State University System of Florida, the university is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master’s...

 Ospreys
North Florida Ospreys
The North Florida Ospreys are the athletic teams of the University of North Florida in Jacksonville, Florida. The Ospreys compete in the Atlantic Sun Conference in NCAA Division I. UNF is in its third academic year as a full-fledged member of Division I; previously, the Ospreys were members of the...

 and the Jacksonville University
Jacksonville University
Jacksonville University is a private university in Jacksonville, Florida, on the banks of the St. Johns River. The school was founded in 1934 as a two year college and was known as Jacksonville Junior College until 1958, when it shifted its focus to four-year university degrees and adopted its...

 Dolphins
Jacksonville Dolphins
The Jacksonville University Dolphins are the athletics team of Jacksonville University in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. The Dolphins participate in NCAA Division I athletics, and are members of the Atlantic Sun Conference, the National Lacrosse Conference, and as the Pioneer Football League.-Sports...

.
Club Sport League Venue
Jacksonville Jaguars
Jacksonville Jaguars
The Jacksonville Jaguars are a professional American football team based in Jacksonville, Florida, U.S. They are currently members of the South Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

Football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

National Football League
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

 (NFL) - AFC
American Football Conference
The American Football Conference is one of the two conferences of the National Football League . This conference and its counterpart, the National Football Conference , currently contain 16 teams each, making up the 32 teams of the NFL....

 South
AFC South
The AFC South is a division of the National Football League's American Football Conference. It was created before the 2002 season when the league realigned divisions after expanding to 32 teams...

EverBank Field
Jacksonville Suns
Jacksonville Suns
The Jacksonville Suns are a minor league baseball team based in Jacksonville, Florida. The team is currently a member of the Southern League and is the class Double-A affiliate of the Miami Marlins Major League Baseball team...

Baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

Southern League
Southern League (baseball)
The Southern League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the Southern United States. It is classified a Double-A league. The original league was formed in , and shut down in . A new league, the Southern Association, was formed in , consisting of twelve teams...

 - Southern Division
Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville
Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville
The Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville is a baseball park in Jacksonville, Florida. It is the home stadium of the Jacksonville Suns, who play in the Class Double-A Southern League. The facility opened in 2003....

Jacksonville Sharks
Jacksonville Sharks
The Jacksonville Sharks were a professional American football team based in Jacksonville, Florida. They competed for part of the 1974 season in the World Football League, a failed attempt to launch a major professional football league in the United States in competition with the National Football...

Arena football
Arena football
Arena football is a variety of gridiron football played by the Arena Football League . It is a proprietary game, the rights to which are owned by Gridiron Enterprises, and is played indoors on a smaller field than American or Canadian outdoor football, resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game....

Arena Football League
Arena Football League
The Arena Football League is the highest level of professional indoor American football in the United States. It is currently the second longest running professional football league in the United States, after the National Football League. It was founded in 1987 by Jim Foster...

Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena is a 15,000 seat multi-purpose arena in Jacksonville, Florida. It was built in 2003 as part of Mayor John Delaney's Better Jacksonville Plan to replace the outdated Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum....

Jacksonville Giants
Jacksonville Giants
The Jacksonville Giants are a professional minor league basketball team based in Jacksonville, Florida, who play in the new American Basketball Association . They joined the ABA as an expansion team for the 2010–2011 season...

Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

ABA
American Basketball Association (2000–present)
The American Basketball Association, often abbreviated as ABA, is a semi-professional men's basketball league that was founded in 1999. The current ABA has no affiliation with the original American Basketball Association that merged with the National Basketball Association in 1976...

 - Southeastern Division
Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena is a 15,000 seat multi-purpose arena in Jacksonville, Florida. It was built in 2003 as part of Mayor John Delaney's Better Jacksonville Plan to replace the outdated Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum....

Jacksonville Bullies
Jacksonville Bullies
The Jacksonville Bullies is an American professional indoor lacrosse team based in Jacksonville, Florida. They are a charter member of the North American Lacrosse League...

Indoor lacrosse
Box lacrosse
Box lacrosse, also known as indoor lacrosse and sometimes shortened to boxla, LAX or simply box, is an indoor version of lacrosse played mostly in North America. The game originated in Canada, where it is the most popular version of the game played in contrast to the traditional field lacrosse game...

North American Lacrosse League
North American Lacrosse League
The North American Lacrosse League is a men's professional indoor lacrosse league based in the United States, set to begin play in January 2012. The league will be North America's third professional lacrosse league, after Major League Lacrosse and the National Lacrosse League...

Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena is a 15,000 seat multi-purpose arena in Jacksonville, Florida. It was built in 2003 as part of Mayor John Delaney's Better Jacksonville Plan to replace the outdated Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum....

Jacksonville Axemen
Jacksonville Axemen
-Southeastern Rugby League Championship:In 2011 the Axemen launched a reserve grade competition, the Firehouse Subs Southeastern Rugby League Championship, which acts as a feeder club system for the Axemen to further develop players...

Rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

USA Rugby League
USA Rugby League
The USA Rugby League is a semi-professional rugby league football competition based in the United States. The league was founded in 2011 by clubs that had broken with the established American National Rugby League , plus expansion franchises...

Hodges Stadium
Hodges Stadium
Hodges Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium at the University of North Florida , and the home field for the North Florida Ospreys soccer, track and field, and cross country teams. It is located on the university's campus in Jacksonville, Florida, U.S...

FC JAX Destroyers
FC Jax Destroyers
FC JAX Destroyers are an American soccer team based in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. The organization has men's and women's franchises in the United Soccer Leagues, both of which use the FC JAX Destroyers brand...

Soccer USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League
The USL Premier Development League is the amateur league of the United Soccer Leagues in the United States, Canada, and Bermuda, forming part of the American Soccer Pyramid...

 (PDL)
Jacksonville University
Jacksonville University
Jacksonville University is a private university in Jacksonville, Florida, on the banks of the St. Johns River. The school was founded in 1934 as a two year college and was known as Jacksonville Junior College until 1958, when it shifted its focus to four-year university degrees and adopted its...


Media



The Florida Times-Union
The Florida Times-Union
The Florida Times-Union is a major daily newspaper in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. Widely known as the oldest newspaper in the state, it began publication as the Florida Union in 1864. Its current incarnation started in 1883, when the Florida Union merged with another Jacksonville paper, the...

 is the major daily newspaper in Jacksonville and Jacksonville.com is its official website
Website
A website, also written as Web site, web site, or simply site, is a collection of related web pages containing images, videos or other digital assets. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet...

. Another daily newspaper focused on the legal community is the Financial News and Daily Record
Financial News and Daily Record
The Financial News & Daily Record is a daily financial newspaper published in Jacksonville, Florida by Bailey Publishing and Communications, Inc. The Financial News & Daily Record began publication in 1912. The paper is published five days a week, having not missed a publication since it began in...

.

The city's chief alternative newsweekly is Folio Weekly
Folio Weekly
Folio Weekly is an alternative weekly newspaper containing articles about people, issues, and events in northeast Florida. Its writers include Anne Schindler, Dan Brown, Susan Clark Armstrong, Hal Crowther, Susan Cooper Eastman, Anthony Gancarski, and Shelton Hull...

. Others include EU Jacksonville, Buzz Magazine and the Jacksonville Observer
Jacksonville Observer
The Jacksonville Observer also known as JaxObserver.com is a news website in Jacksonville, Florida, USA, with a focus on conservative-leaning political commentary, sports, local news, and entertainment....

. The Jacksonville Business Journal is a weekly paper that focuses on the local economy and business community. The Jacksonville Free Press
Jacksonville Free Press
The Jacksonville Free Press is a weekly black newspaper serving Jacksonville, Florida, USA.-External links:** fully available full text available from the University of Florida's...

 is a weekly paper serving the African-American community.

Jacksonville is the 47th largest local television market in the United States, and is served by television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 stations affiliated with major American networks including WTLV
WTLV
WTLV is the NBC-affiliated television station for Jacksonville, Florida. The station broadcasts a digital signal on VHF channel 13. The station is owned by Gannett as part of a duopoly with the area's ABC affiliate, WJXX. The two stations share studios located on East Adams Street in downtown near...

 (NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

), WJXX
WJXX
WJXX is the ABC-affiliated television station television for Jacksonville, Florida. The station broadcasts a digital signal on VHF channel 10, identifying via PSIP as virtual channel 25 . The station is owned by Gannett as part of a duopoly with the area's NBC affiliate, WTLV...

 (ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

), WTEV
WTEV-TV
WTEV-TV is the CBS-affiliated television station for Florida's First Coast licensed to Jacksonville. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 19 from a transmitter on Hogan Road in the city's Southside section. The station can also be seen on Comcast channel 6 and in high...

 (CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

), WAWS
WAWS
WAWS is the Fox-affiliated television station for Florida's First Coast licensed to Jacksonville. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 32 from a transmitter on Hogan Road in the city's Southside section. The station can also be seen on Comcast channel 10 and in high...

 (Fox
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox Network or simply Fox , is an American commercial broadcasting television network owned by Fox Entertainment Group, part of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Launched on October 9, 1986, Fox was the highest-rated broadcast network in the...

/My Network TV), WJCT
WJCT (TV)
WJCT is a community-supported PBS member station serving Jacksonville, Florida, broadcasting on digital channel 7. Its studio is located near Jacksonville's Sports Complex and adjacent to Metropolitan Park....

 (PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

),and WCWJ
WCWJ
WCWJ is the CW-affiliate in Jacksonville, Florida and Brunswick, Georgia. The station is owned by Nexstar Broadcasting Group, Inc.. Its transmitter is located in Jacksonville.-History:...

 (CW
The CW Television Network
The CW Television Network is a television network in the United States launched at the beginning of the 2006–2007 television season. It is a joint venture between CBS Corporation, the former owners of United Paramount Network , and Time Warner's Warner Bros., former majority owner of The WB...

). WJXT
WJXT
WJXT, channel 4 , is an independent television station serving Jacksonville, Florida, and surrounding communities. Its transmitter is in the Kilarney Shores section of Jacksonville, with the WTLV transmitter. The station originally broadcast an analog signal on VHF channel 4 and a digital signal...

 is a former longtime CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

 affiliate that turned independent in 2002.

Jacksonville is the 46th largest local radio market in the United States, and is dominated by the same two large ownership groups that dominate the radio industry across the United States: Cox Radio
Cox Communications
Cox Communications is a privately owned subsidiary of Cox Enterprises providing digital cable television, telecommunications and wireless services in the United States...

 and Clear Channel Communications
Clear Channel Communications
Clear Channel Communications, Inc. is an American media conglomerate company headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. It was founded in 1972 by Lowry Mays and Red McCombs, and was taken private by Bain Capital LLC and Thomas H. Lee Partners LP in a leveraged buyout in 2008...

. The dominant AM radio station in terms of ratings is WOKV 690AM
WOKV
WOKV and WOKV-FM are a pair of American radio stations in the Jacksonville, Florida, area. WOKV-AM/FM is owned by Cox Radio of Atlanta, Georgia, and simulcasts a conservative talk radio format....

, which is also the flagship station for the Jacksonville Jaguars. In September 2006, WOKV began simulcasting on 106.5 FM as WOKV FM. There are two radio stations broadcasting a primarily contemporary hits format; WAPE 95.1
WAPE-FM
95.1 WAPE-FM is a Top 40/CHR radio station based in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. The Cox Radio outlet broadcasts at 95.1 MHz with an effective radiated power of 100 kW...

 has dominated this niche for over twenty years, and more recently has been challenged by WFKS
WFKS
WFKS is a contemporary hits station serving Florida's Space Coast area. The Clear Channel Communications outlet broadcasts at 95.1 MHz with an ERP of 4.3 kW and is licensed to Melbourne, Florida.-History:...

 97.9 FM (KISS FM). WJBT 93.3 (The Beat) is a hip-hop
Hip hop music
Hip hop music, also called hip-hop, rap music or hip-hop music, is a musical genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted...

/R&B
Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated to R&B, is a genre of popular African American music that originated in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a...

 station, WJGH 107.3 is an oldies station. WXXJ 102.9 is an alternative station, WFYV 104.5—Rock 105 Jacksonville Classic rock
Classic rock
Classic rock is a radio format which developed from the album-oriented rock format in the early 1980s. In the United States, the classic rock format features music ranging generally from the late 1960s to the late 1980s, primarily focusing on the hard rock genre that peaked in popularity in the...

, WQIK 99.1 is a country
Country music
Country music is a popular American musical style that began in the rural Southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from Western cowboy and folk music...

 station as well as WGNE-FM 99.9, WCRJ FM 88.1 (The Promise) is the main Contemporary Christian station operating since 1984, WHJX 105.7 and WFJO 92.5 plays music in Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 like salsa
Salsa music
Salsa music is a genre of music, generally defined as a modern style of playing Cuban Son, Son Montuno, and Guaracha with touches from other genres of music...

, merengue
Merengue music
Merengue is a type of music and dance from the Dominican Republic. It is popular in the Dominican Republic and all over Latin America. Its name is Spanish, taken from the name of the meringue, a dessert made from whipped egg whites and sugar...

, and reggaeton
Reggaeton
Reggaeton is a form of Puerto Rican and Latin American urban and Caribbean music. After its mainstream exposure in 2004, it spread to North American, European and Asian audiences. Reggaeton originated in Puerto Rico but is also has roots from Reggae en Español from Panama and Puerto Rico and...

, and WJCT
WJCT-FM
WJCT-FM is the NPR-member public radio station in Jacksonville, Florida. It is sister station to PBS member WJCT. The station has been on the air since 1972, and airs NPR news and talk during the week and a mix of news, talk, jazz and classical music on weekends....

 89.9 is the local National Public Radio affiliate. Local Jones College
Jones College (Jacksonville)
Jones College is a private for-profit college founded in 1918 in Jacksonville, Florida. The college is not regionally accredited, but is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools . The college's main "Arlington Campus" is located on the east bank of the St. Johns...

 also hosts an easy listening
Easy listening
Easy listening is a broad style of popular music and radio format that emerged in the 1950s, evolving out of big band music, and related to MOR music as played on many AM radio stations. It encompasses the exotica, beautiful music, light music, lounge music, ambient music, and space age pop genres...

 station, WKTZ
WKTZ-FM
WKTZ-FM is a non-commercial college radio station located in Jacksonville, Florida, broadcasting on 90.9 FM. WKTZ-FM airs an easy listening radio format branded as "Jones College Radio".-History:...

 90.9 FM.

Demographics


Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, and the thirteenth most populous city in the United States. As of 2010, there were 821,784 people and 366,273 households in the city. The largest ancestries include: German (9.6%), American (9.3%), Irish (9.0%), English (8.5%), and Italian (3.5%). Jacksonville has the country's tenth-largest Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 population, with a total population of 5,751 according to the 2000 United States Census. Jacksonville has a large Filipino population, in part related to their tradition of service with the Navy. In addition, there is a large Serbo-Croatian population, located mostly on the south side of Jacksonville, and Russian population. Jacksonville also has a growing Puerto Rican population.
Jacksonville Demographics
2010 Census
United States Census, 2010
The Twenty-third United States Census, known as Census 2010 or the 2010 Census, is the current national census of the United States. National Census Day was April 1, 2010 and is the reference date used in enumerating individuals...

Jacksonville Duval County Florida
Total population 821,784 864,263 18,801,310
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010
11.7% 11.0% 17.6%
Population density 1,100.1/sq mi 1,133.9/sq mi 350.6/sq mi
White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic) 59.4% 60.9% 75.0%
(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian
Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites or White, Not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the White race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity. Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is...

)
55.1% 56.6% 57.9%
Black or African-American 30.7% 29.5% 16.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 7.7% 7.6% 22.5%
Asian 4.3% 4.2% 2.4%
Native American or Native Alaskan 0.4% 0.4% 0.4%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
Two or more races (Multiracial)
Multiracial American
Multiracial Americans, US residents who identify themselves as of "two or more races", were numbered at around 9 million, or 2.9% of the population, in the census of 2010. However there is considerable evidence that the real number is far higher. Prior to the mid-20th century many people hid their...

2.9% 2.9% 2.5%
Some Other Race 5.2% 3.9% 3.6%


As of 2010, there were 366,273 households out of which 11.8% were vacant. As of 2000, 33.9% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $40,316, and the median income for a family was $47,243. Males had a median income of $32,547 versus $25,886 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,337. About 9.4% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.7% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over.

Languages


As of the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, 88.1% of Jacksonville's population age five and over spoke only English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 at home while 5.2% of the population spoke Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 at home. About 3.2% spoke other Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia...

 at home. About 2.5% spoke an Asian language
Languages of Asia
There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising a number of families and some unrelated isolates. Many languages have a long tradition of writing.-Central and North Asian languages:*Turkic**Azeri**Kazak**Kyrgyz**Tatar**Turkish...

 at home. The remaining 0.9% of the population spoke other languages at home.

As of 2000, speakers of English as a first language
First language
A first language is the language a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity...

 accounted for 90.60% of all residents, while those who spoke Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 made up 4.13%, Tagalog
Tagalog language
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a third of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by most of the rest. It is the first language of the Philippine region IV and of Metro Manila...

 1.00%, French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

 0.47%, Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 0.44%, German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 0.43%, both Vietnamese
Vietnamese language
Vietnamese is the national and official language of Vietnam. It is the mother tongue of 86% of Vietnam's population, and of about three million overseas Vietnamese. It is also spoken as a second language by many ethnic minorities of Vietnam...

 and Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian language
Serbo-Croatian or Serbo-Croat, less commonly Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian , is a South Slavic language with multiple standards and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro...

 at 0.31%, Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

 was 0.21% and Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

 made up 0.17% of the population.

Religion



Jacksonville has a diverse religious population. The largest religious group is Protestants
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

; according to the Association of Religion Data Archives
Association of religion data archives
The Association of Religion Data Archives is a free source of online information related to American and international religion. Founded as the American Religion Data Archive in 1997, and online since 1998, the archive was initially targeted at researchers interested in American religion...

 (ARDA), in 2010 the Jacksonville metropolitan area had an estimated 265,158 Evangelical
Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement which began in Great Britain in the 1730s and gained popularity in the United States during the series of Great Awakenings of the 18th and 19th century.Its key commitments are:...

 Protestants and 89,649 Mainline Protestants, attending around 700 congregations. Several of these are megachurch
Megachurch
A megachurch is a church having 2,000 or more in average weekend attendance. The Hartford Institute's database lists more than 1,300 such Protestant churches in the United States. According to that data, approximately 50 churches on the list have attendance ranging from 10,000 to 47,000...

es, including Bethel Baptist Institutional Church
Bethel Baptist Institutional Church
Bethel Baptist Institutional Church is a historic Baptist church in Jacksonville, Florida, in the United States. Founded in 1838, it is the city's oldest Baptist congregation...

 and First Baptist Church downtown and Christ's Church
Christ's Church, Jacksonville
Christ’s Church is a non-denominational Christian megachurch located in southern Jacksonville, Florida. According to the church's website, attendance is over 4,200 at worship services in their three locations...

 (formerly Mandarin Christian Church) on Greenland Road. The Episcopal Diocese of Florida
Episcopal Diocese of Florida
The Episcopal Diocese of Florida is a diocese of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America . It originally comprised the whole state of Florida, but is now bounded on the west by the Apalachicola River, on the north by the Georgia state line, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and on the...

 has its see
Episcopal See
An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

 in St. John's Cathedral, the current building dating to 1906.

Jacksonville is part of the Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine
Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine
The Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine is a diocese of the Catholic Church's Latin Church in the U.S. state of Florida. Part of the Ecclesiastical Province of Miami, it covers much of North Florida, including the cities of St. Augustine, Jacksonville, and Gainesville. The bishop's seat is the...

, which covers seventeen counties in North Florida and has 171,000 registered members attending 52 parishes. One notable Catholic church in Jacksonville is the Immaculate Conception Catholic Church, added to the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 in 1992. There are also two Eastern Catholic parishes, one of the Syriac Catholic Church
Syriac Catholic Church
The Syriac Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. They are one of the Eastern Catholic Churches following the Antiochene rite, the Syriac tradition of Antioch, along with the Maronites and Syro-Malankara Christians...

 and one of the Maronite Church
Maronite Church
The Syriac Maronite Church of Antioch is an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See of Rome . It traces its heritage back to the community founded by Maron, a 4th-century Syriac monk venerated as a saint. The first Maronite Patriarch, John Maron, was elected in the late 7th...

. According to ARDA, in 2000 there were 3,090 Eastern Orthodox Christians representing seven churches in the Eastern Orthodox communion, as well as one congregation of 200 Syriac Orthodox Christians.

There were also 7,734 members of the LDS Church (Mormons) and 404 Unitarian Universalists
Unitarian Universalism
Unitarian Universalism is a religion characterized by support for a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning". Unitarian Universalists do not share a creed; rather, they are unified by their shared search for spiritual growth and by the understanding that an individual's theology is a...

, who have worshiped at the Unitarian Universalist Church of Jacksonville since 1906. The Jewish
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

 community, which numbered 7,300 in 2000, is largely centered in the neighborhood of Mandarin. There are two Reform
Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism refers to various beliefs, practices and organizations associated with the Reform Jewish movement in North America, the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In general, it maintains that Judaism and Jewish traditions should be modernized and should be compatible with participation in the...

, two Conservative
Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s.Conservative Judaism has its roots in the school of thought known as Positive-Historical Judaism,...

, and four Orthodox
Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism , is the approach to Judaism which adheres to the traditional interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Sanhedrin and subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and...

 synagogues (three of them Chabad
Chabad
Chabad or Chabad-Lubavitch is a major branch of Hasidic Judaism.Chabad may also refer to:*Chabad-Strashelye, a defunct branch of the Chabad school of Hasidic Judaism*Chabad-Kapust or Kapust, a defunct branch of the Chabad school of Hasidic Judaism...

-affiliated), and two more synagogues in St. Augustine
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine is a city in the northeast section of Florida and the county seat of St. Johns County, Florida, United States. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, it is the oldest continuously occupied European-established city and port in the continental United...

. The Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 community numbered 2,182 in 2000, and had three congregations, including the Islamic Center of Northeast Florida, the region's largest mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

.

Administrative structure


The most noteworthy feature of Jacksonville government is its consolidated nature. The Duval County-Jacksonville consolidation eliminated any type of separate county executive
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

 or legislature
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

, and supplanted these positions with the Mayor of Jacksonville and the City Council of the City of Jacksonville, respectively. Because of this, voters who live outside of the city limits of Jacksonville, but inside of Duval County, are allowed not only to vote in elections for these positions, but to run for them as well. In fact, in 1995, John Delaney
John Delaney
John Adrian Delaney is an American lawyer, politician and university administrator. He currently serves as the president of the University of North Florida. A member of the Republican Party, he served as mayor of Jacksonville, Florida from 1995 to 2003...

, a resident of Neptune Beach
Neptune Beach, Florida
Neptune Beach is a beachfront city in Duval County, Florida, United States, located to the east of Jacksonville. When the majority of communities in Duval County consolidated with the city of Jacksonville in 1968, Neptune Beach, along with Jacksonville Beach, Atlantic Beach, and Baldwin, remained...

, was elected mayor of the city of Jacksonville.

Jacksonville uses the Mayor-Council
Mayor-council government
The mayor–council government system, sometimes called the mayor–commission government system, is one of the two most common forms of local government for municipalities...

 form of city government, also called the Strong-Mayor form, in which a mayor serves as the city's Chief Executive and Administrative officer. The mayor holds veto power over all resolutions and ordinances made by the city council, and also has the power to hire and fire the head of various city departments. The current mayor is Alvin Brown
Alvin Brown (politician)
Alvin Brown is an American politician who is currently Mayor of Jacksonville, Florida. The first African American elected to the position, he succeeded John Peyton on July 1, 2011. He is a member of the Democratic Party.-Life and career:...

, who assumed office on July 1, 2011.

Law enforcement


Jacksonville and Duval County historically maintained separate police agencies: the Jacksonville Police Department and Duval County Sheriff's Office. As part of consolidation in 1968, the two merged, creating the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office
Jacksonville Sheriff's Office
The Jacksonville Sheriff's Office is a joint city-county law enforcement agency, which has primary responsibility for law enforcement, investigation, and corrections within the consolidated City of Jacksonville and Duval County, Florida, United States...

 (JSO). The JSO is headed by the elected Sheriff of Jacksonville, currently John Rutherford
John Rutherford (sheriff)
John Henry Rutherford is a career law enforcement officer with the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office. He has served as Duval County Sheriff since his election to the office in 2003; his current term expires in 2014.-Education:...

, and is responsible for law enforcement and corrections in the county.

In 2010, Duval County's crime rate was 5,106 per 100,000 people, according to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement
Florida Department of Law Enforcement
The Florida Department of Law Enforcement is a Florida government agency. FDLE is composed of five programs: Executive Direction and Business Support, Criminal Investigations and Forensic Science, Criminal Justice Information, Criminal Justice Professionalism, and the Florida Capitol Police...

. The county's murder
Murder
Murder is the unlawful killing, with malice aforethought, of another human being, and generally this state of mind distinguishes murder from other forms of unlawful homicide...

 rate had been the highest among Florida's counties with a population of 500,000 or more for eleven years in 2009, leading to widespread discussion in the community to deal with the problem. In 2010 Duval County's violent crime rate decreased by 9.3% from the previous year, with total crime decreasing 7.3%, putting the murder rate behind that of Miami-Dade County
Miami-Dade County, Florida
Miami-Dade County is a county located in the southeastern part of the state of Florida. As of 2010 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 2,496,435, making it the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States...

.

Autonomous agencies


Some government services remained — as they had been before consolidation – independent of both city and county authority. In accordance with Florida law, the school board continues to exist with nearly complete autonomy. Jacksonville also has several quasi-independent government agencies which only nominally answer to the consolidated authority, including electric authority, port authority, transportation authority, housing authority and airport authority. The main environmental and agricultural body is the Duval County Soil and Water Conservation District, which works closely with other area and state agencies.

Primary and secondary education


Public primary and secondary
Secondary school
Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place...

 schools in Jacksonville and Duval County are administered by Duval County Public Schools
Duval County Public Schools
Duval County Public Schools is the public school district for Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. As of 2011, the district had an enrollment of over 123,000 students, making it the 15th largest school district in the United States, and 6th largest school district in Florida...

, which is governed by an elected, seven-member Duval County School Board. In the 2009-2010 school year the district enrolled 123,000 students. It administers 172 total schools, including 103 elementary school
Elementary school
An elementary school or primary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as elementary or primary education. Elementary school is the preferred term in some countries, particularly those in North America, where the terms grade school and grammar...

s, 25 middle school
Middle school
Middle School and Junior High School are levels of schooling between elementary and high schools. Most school systems use one term or the other, not both. The terms are not interchangeable...

s, 19 high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

s, 3 K-8 schools, and 1 6-12 school, as well as 13 charter school
Charter school
Charter schools are primary or secondary schools that receive public money but are not subject to some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each school's charter...

s and a juvenile justice school program. Of these, 62 are designated magnet schools.

Two of Jacksonville's high schools, Stanton College Preparatory School
Stanton College Preparatory School
Stanton College Preparatory School is an academically renowned American high school located in Jacksonville, Florida, whose history dates to the 1860s, when it was begun as an elementary school serving the African-American population under the then-segregated education system. It now serves...

 and Paxon School for Advanced Studies
Paxon School for Advanced Studies
Paxon School for Advanced Studies is one of three International Baccalaureate senior high schools in Duval County, Florida...

 regularly appear at the top of Newsweek
Newsweek
Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It is distributed throughout the United States and internationally. It is the second-largest news weekly magazine in the U.S., having trailed Time in circulation and advertising revenue for most of its existence...

 magazine's annual list of the country's top public high schools, coming in respectively at #3 and #8 in the 2010 edition. Five other schools, Douglas Anderson School of the Arts
Douglas Anderson School of the Arts
Douglas Anderson School of the Arts is a magnet high school in the San Marco neighborhood of Jacksonville, Florida. The school opened in the 1922 as a primary school specifically for African American students. The school is named after local civil rights activist, Douglas Anderson...

 (#33), Mandarin High School
Mandarin High School
Mandarin High School is a public senior high school in Duval County Public Schools district located on Greenland Road in Jacksonville, Florida. In 2010, Newsweek ranked it 96th on its list of the best public high schools in the United States. In 2008, U.S...

 (#97), Fletcher High School (#205) Sandalwood High School
Sandalwood High School
Sandalwood High School is a public high school in the Duval County Public School district of Jacksonville, Florida. It is currently has the largest school population in the district.- History :...

 (#210), and Englewood High School
Englewood High School (Jacksonville, Florida)
Englewood High School is a public high school located on Jacksonville, Florida's southside.Rich in tradition and pride, Englewood High School was constructed in 1956 and exemplifies the concept of a "neighborhood school." Located on on the Southside of Jacksonville, Florida, this school is one of...

 (#1146) were also included in the list.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine
Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine
The Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine is a diocese of the Catholic Church's Latin Church in the U.S. state of Florida. Part of the Ecclesiastical Province of Miami, it covers much of North Florida, including the cities of St. Augustine, Jacksonville, and Gainesville. The bishop's seat is the...

 operates a number of Catholic school
Catholic school
Catholic schools are maintained parochial schools or education ministries of the Catholic Church. the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system...

s in Jacksonville, including two high schools, Bishop Kenny High School
Bishop Kenny High School
Bishop Kenny High School is a private, college-preparatory, coeducational Catholic high school in Jacksonville, Florida. It is located in and administered by the Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine...

 and Bishop John J. Snyder High School
Bishop John J. Snyder High School
Bishop John J. Snyder High School is a private Catholic high school in Jacksonville, Florida. It is located in and administered by the Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine. It is named for John J. Snyder, bishop of the diocese from 1979 – 2000.-History:...

. Other private schools in Jacksonville include Arlington Country Day School
Arlington Country Day School
Arlington Country Day School is a private school in Jacksonville, Florida. A non-sectarian coeducational school, it offers a K-12 education and enrolls over 400 students a year...

, the Bolles School
Bolles School
The Bolles School is a private college preparatory day and boarding school in Jacksonville, Florida, U.S. It has a lower school , a middle school, and a high school, spread across four campuses around the Jacksonville area, and enrolls about 1,800 students a year. The school was founded in 1933 as...

, and Episcopal High School
Episcopal High School of Jacksonville
Episcopal School of Jacksonville is an independent, coeducational private college preparatory school in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. It was founded in 1966 by the Episcopal Diocese of Florida. The school has a middle school and a high school and enrolls about 900 students a...

.

Public libraries




The Jacksonville Public Library
Jacksonville Public Library (Florida)
The Jacksonville Public Library is the public library system of Jacksonville, Florida. It primarily serves Jacksonville and Duval County, and is also used by the neighboring Baker, Nassau, Clay, and St. Johns Counties. It is one of the largest library systems in the Florida, with a collection of...

 had its beginnings when May Moore and Florence Murphy started the "Jacksonville Library and Literary Association" in 1878. The Association was populated by various prominent Jacksonville residents and sought to create a free public library and reading room for the city.

Over the course of 127 years, the system has grown from that one room library to become one of the largest in the state. The Jacksonville library system has twenty branches, ranging in size from the 54000 sq ft (5,016.8 m²) West Regional Library to smaller neighborhood libraries like Westbrook and Eastside. The Library annually receives nearly 4 million visitors and circulates over 6 million items. Nearly 500,000 library cards are held by area residents.

On November 12, 2005, the new 300000 sq ft (27,870.9 m²) Main Library opened to the public, replacing the 40-year old Haydon Burns Library
Haydon Burns Library
The Haydon Burns Library is a former library in downtown Jacksonville, Florida. It served as the main library in the Jacksonville Public Library system from 1965 until 2005, when it was replaced by the current facility. It is named for W. Haydon Burns, who served as Mayor of Jacksonville for...

. The largest public library in the state, the opening of the new main library marked the completion of an unprecedented period of growth for the system under the Better Jacksonville Plan
Better Jacksonville Plan
The Better Jacksonville Plan is a growth management plan implemented by the city of Jacksonville, Florida. It was the signature project of Mayor John Delaney. It was approved by Jacksonville voters on September 5, 2000...

. The new Main Library offers specialized reading rooms, public access to hundreds of computers and public displays of art, an extensive collection of books, and special collections ranging from the African-American Collection to the recently opened Holocaust Collection.

Higher education


Jacksonville is home to a number of institutions of higher education. The University of North Florida
University of North Florida
The University of North Florida is a public university located in Jacksonville, Florida. A member institution of the State University System of Florida, the university is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master’s...

 (UNF), founded in 1969, is a public institution and a member of the State University System of Florida
State University System of Florida
The State University System of Florida is a system of eleven public universities in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2011, over 320,000 students were enrolled in Florida's state universities...

. Former mayor John Delaney
John Delaney
John Adrian Delaney is an American lawyer, politician and university administrator. He currently serves as the president of the University of North Florida. A member of the Republican Party, he served as mayor of Jacksonville, Florida from 1995 to 2003...

 has been president of UNF since leaving office in July 2003. Jacksonville University
Jacksonville University
Jacksonville University is a private university in Jacksonville, Florida, on the banks of the St. Johns River. The school was founded in 1934 as a two year college and was known as Jacksonville Junior College until 1958, when it shifted its focus to four-year university degrees and adopted its...

 (JU) is a private institution founded in 1934. Edward Waters College
Edward Waters College
-External links:* -- Official web site** at * Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs** **...

, established in 1866, is the oldest college in Jacksonville and the state's oldest historically black college. Florida State College at Jacksonville is a state college and a member of the Florida College System, offering two-year associate's degree
Associate's degree
An associate degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, technical colleges, and bachelor's degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years...

s as well as some four-year bachelor's degrees. The University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

 has a regional campus of its J. Hillis Miller Health Science Center
J. Hillis Miller Health Science Center
The J. Hillis Miller Health Science Center includes its primary campuses located in Gainesville, Florida and a major teaching hospital and related facilities in Jacksonville, Florida. The Health Science Center comprises the University of Florida's Colleges of Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing,...

 in Jacksonville.

Other colleges and universities in Jacksonville include Florida Coastal School of Law
Florida Coastal School of Law
Florida Coastal School of Law is a private law school in Jacksonville, Florida. Established in 1996, the school is owned by the for-profit educational investment fund InfiLaw....

, The Art Institute of Jacksonville
The Art Institute of Jacksonville
The Art Institute of Jacksonville is a for-profit institution of higher education in Jacksonville, Florida, and one of The Art Institutes, a corporate system of over 40 educational institutions throughout North America, providing education in design, media arts, fashion and culinary arts...

, and Jones College
Jones College (Jacksonville)
Jones College is a private for-profit college founded in 1918 in Jacksonville, Florida. The college is not regionally accredited, but is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools . The college's main "Arlington Campus" is located on the east bank of the St. Johns...

. Also in the area are St. Johns River State College, a state college with campuses in Clay
Clay County, Florida
Clay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2010, the population was 190,895. Its county seat is Green Cove Springs, Florida. Clay County is part of the Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan area.- History :...

, St. Johns
St. Johns County, Florida
St. Johns County is a county located in northeastern Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 190,039. The county seat is St. Augustine. Due to the inclusion of Ponte Vedra Beach, it is one of the highest-income counties in the United States....

, and Putnam
Putnam County, Florida
Putnam County is a county located in the state of Florida. The entire county makes up the Palatka Micropolitan Statistical Area. As of 2000, the population was 70,423. The U.S. Census Bureau 2009 estimate for the county was 72,893 . Its county seat is Palatka, Florida. The county is centrally...

 Counties, and Flagler College
Flagler College
Flagler College, is a private four-year liberal arts college in St. Augustine, Florida, USA and celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2008.The college has been named in recent years by US News & World Report as one of the southeast region's best comprehensive liberal arts colleges, and is included on...

 in St. Augustine
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine is a city in the northeast section of Florida and the county seat of St. Johns County, Florida, United States. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, it is the oldest continuously occupied European-established city and port in the continental United...

.

Business climate


Jacksonville's location on the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant for commercial and recreational use. At long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. The drop in elevation from the headwaters to the mouth is less than ;...

 and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 proved providential in the growth of the city and its industry. The largest city in the state, it is also the largest deepwater port in the South
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 (as well as the second-largest port on the U.S. East coast) and a leading port in the U.S. for automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 imports, as well as the leading transportation and distribution
Distribution (business)
Product distribution is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. An organization or set of organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by a consumer or business user.The other three parts of the marketing mix are product, pricing,...

 hub in the state. However, the strength of the city's economy lies in its broad diversification. While the area once had many thriving dairies such as Gustafson's Farm
Gustafson's Farm
Gustafson's Farm is a brand name of milk and dairy products sold in the U.S. state of Florida. The main Gustafson Dairy Farm is located in Green Cove Springs, Florida, and is one of the largest privately-owned dairy farms in the Southeast United States. Started in 1908, the main farm occupies...

 and Skinner Dairy
Skinner Dairy
Skinner Dairy was a family-run dairy that existed in and around Jacksonville, Florida from the 1950s until the mid-1990s.- Origin :The family of Samuel Benjamin "Ben" Skinner operated a dairy farm on a portion of their vast land holdings in northeast Florida beginning in the early 1950s...

, this aspect of the economy has declined over time. The area's economy is balanced among distribution
Distribution (business)
Product distribution is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. An organization or set of organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by a consumer or business user.The other three parts of the marketing mix are product, pricing,...

, financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

, biomedical technology
Biomedical technology
Biomedical technology broadly refers to the application of engineering and technology principles to the domain of living or biological systems. Usually inclusion of the term biomedical denotes a principal emphasis on problems related to human health and diseases, whereas terms like "biotechnology"...

, consumer goods, information
Information
Information in its most restricted technical sense is a message or collection of messages that consists of an ordered sequence of symbols, or it is the meaning that can be interpreted from such a message or collection of messages. Information can be recorded or transmitted. It can be recorded as...

 services, manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

, insurance
Insurance
In law and economics, insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for payment. An insurer is a company selling the...

 and other industries.

Jacksonville is a rail
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

, air, and highway
Highway
A highway is any public road. In American English, the term is common and almost always designates major roads. In British English, the term designates any road open to the public. Any interconnected set of highways can be variously referred to as a "highway system", a "highway network", or a...

 focal point and a busy port of entry, with Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located 13 miles north of downtown Jacksonville, a city in Duval County, Florida...

, ship repair yards
Shipyard
Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial...

 and extensive freight-handling facilities. Lumber
Lumber
Lumber or timber is wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural material for construction, or wood pulp for paper production....

, phosphate
Phosphate
A phosphate, an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry or ecology. Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in...

, paper
Paper
Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets....

, cigars and wood pulp
Pulp (paper)
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fibre crops or waste paper. Wood pulp is the most common raw material in papermaking.-History:...

 are the principal exports; automobiles and coffee
Coffee
Coffee is a brewed beverage with a dark,init brooo acidic flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant, colloquially called coffee beans. The beans are found in coffee cherries, which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia,...

 are among imports. The city also has a large and diverse manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

 base. According to Forbes in 2007, Jacksonville, Florida ranked 3rd in the top ten U.S. cities to relocate to find a job. Jacksonville was also the 10th fastest growing city in the U.S.

Jacksonville is home to many prominent corporations and organizations, including the headquarters of four Fortune 500
Fortune 500
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks the top 500 U.S. closely held and public corporations as ranked by their gross revenue after adjustments made by Fortune to exclude the impact of excise taxes companies collect. The list includes publicly and...

 companies: CSX Corporation
CSX Corporation
CSX Corporation was formed in 1980 by the merger of Chessie System and Seaboard Coast Line Industries and eventually merged the various railroads owned by those predecessors into a single line that became known as CSX Transportation. Based in Richmond, Virginia, USA after the merger, in 2003...

, Fidelity National Financial
Fidelity National Financial
Fidelity National Financial , headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, USA , is a Fortune 500 company that provides real estate and financial services...

, Fidelity National Information Services
Fidelity National Information Services
Fidelity National Information Services, Inc. , also known as FIS, is a publicly traded corporation and is a global provider of banking and payments technology solutions, processing services and information-based services...

 and Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc.
Winn-Dixie
Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc. is an American supermarket chain based in Jacksonville, Florida. Winn-Dixie has ranked number 24 in the 2010 "Top 75 North American Food Retailers" based on 2009 fiscal year estimated sales of $7.3 billion by Supermarket News. and was ranked the 43rd largest retailer in the...

. In addition to CSX, the Florida East Coast Railway
Florida East Coast Railway
The Florida East Coast Railway is a Class II railroad operating in the U.S. state of Florida; in the past, it has been a Class I railroad.Built primarily in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the FEC was a project of Standard Oil principal Henry Morrison...

 and the large short line railroad holding company RailAmerica
RailAmerica
RailAmerica, Inc., based in Jacksonville, Florida, is a holding company of a number of short-line railroads and regional railroads in the United States and Canada....

 are also based in Jacksonville.

Cecil Commerce Center
Cecil Commerce Center
Cecil Commerce Center is a significant, long-term economic development asset to the City of Jacksonville, representing more than 3 percent of the land area in Duval County . It is promoted as one of the most sought after locations in the Southeastern United States for manufacturing, supply chain...

 is located on the site of the former Naval Air Station Cecil Field which closed in 1999 following the 1993 Base Realignment and Closure
Base Realignment and Closure
Base Realignment and Closure is a process of the United States federal government directed at the administration and operation of the Armed Forces, used by the United States Department of Defense and Congress to close excess military installations and realign the total asset inventory to reduce...

 (BRAC) decision. Covering a total area of 22939 acres (92.8 km²), it was the largest military base in the Jacksonville area. The parcel contains more than 3% of the total land area in Duval County (17000 acres (68.8 km²)). The industrial and commercial-zoned center offers mid to large-size parcels for development and boasts excellent transportation and utility infrastructure as well as the third-longest runway in Florida.

Military


Jacksonville is home to multiple military facilities, and with Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay
Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay
Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay is a base of the United States Navy located adjacent to the town of St. Marys in Camden County, Georgia, in southeastern Georgia, and not far from Jacksonville, Florida. The Submarine Base is the U.S. Atlantic Fleet's home port for U.S. Navy Fleet ballistic missile...

 nearby gives Jacksonville the third largest naval presence in the country. Only Norfolk, Virginia and San Diego, California are bigger. The military is by far the largest employer in Jacksonville and its total economic impact is approximately $6.1 billion annually.
Naval Air Station Jacksonville
Naval Air Station Jacksonville
Naval Air Station Jacksonville or NAS Jacksonville is a military airport located four miles south of the central business district of Jacksonville...

 is a military airport located four miles (6 km) south of the central business district. Approximately 23,000 civilian and active-duty personnel are employed on the base. There are 35 operational units/squadrons assigned there and support facilities include an airfield for pilot training, a maintenance depot capable of virtually any task, from changing a tire to intricate micro-electronics or total engine disassembly. Also on-site is a Naval Hospital, a Fleet Industrial Supply Center, a Navy Family Service Center, and recreational facilities.
Naval Station Mayport
Naval Station Mayport
Naval Station Mayport is a major United States Navy base in Jacksonville, Florida. It contains a military airfield with one asphalt paved runway measuring 8,001 x 200 ft. ....

 is a Navy Ship Base that is the third largest fleet concentration area in the United States. Mayport's operational composition is unique, with a busy harbor capable of accommodating 34 ships and an 8000 feet (2,438.4 m) runway capable of handling any aircraft used by the Department of Defense. Until 2007, it was home to the aircraft carrier
Aircraft carrier
An aircraft carrier is a warship designed with a primary mission of deploying and recovering aircraft, acting as a seagoing airbase. Aircraft carriers thus allow a naval force to project air power worldwide without having to depend on local bases for staging aircraft operations...

 USS John F. Kennedy
USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67)
USS John F. Kennedy is a John F. Kennedy class aircraft carrier, the last conventionally powered carrier built for the United States Navy. The ship is named after the 35th President of the United States, John F...

, which locals called "Big John". In January 2009, the Navy committed to stationing a nuclear-powered carrier at Mayport when the official Record of Decision was signed. The port will require approximately $500 million in facility enhancements to support the larger vessel, which will take several years to complete. The ship is projected to arrive in 2014.

Blount Island Command
Blount Island Command
Blount Island Command is responsible for the United States Marine Corps' Maritime Prepositioning Ships Maintenance Cycle operations and oversight of the Marine Corps Prepositioning Program-Norway .-History:...

 is a Marine Corps Logistics Base whose mission is to support the Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) which provides for rapid deployment of personnel to link up with prepositioned equipment and supplies embarked aboard forward deployed Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS).

USS Jacksonville
USS Jacksonville (SSN-699)
USS Jacksonville , a Los Angeles-class attack submarine, is the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Jacksonville, Florida. The ship is nicknamed "The Bold One". The contract to build her was awarded to the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation in Groton, Connecticut...

, a nuclear powered
Nuclear propulsion
Nuclear propulsion includes a wide variety of propulsion methods that fulfil the promise of the Atomic Age by using some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source.- Surface ships and submarines :...

 Los Angeles class submarine
Los Angeles class submarine
The Los Angeles class, sometimes called the LA class or the 688 class, is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines that forms the backbone of the United States submarine fleet. With 43 submarines on active duty and 19 retired, the Los Angeles class is the most numerous nuclear powered...

, is a US Navy ship named for the city. The ship's nickname is The Bold One and Norfolk, Virginia
Norfolk, Virginia
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. With a population of 242,803 as of the 2010 Census, it is Virginia's second-largest city behind neighboring Virginia Beach....

 is her home port.

The Florida Air National Guard
125th Fighter Wing
The United States Air Force's 125th Fighter Wing is a unit of the Florida Air National Guard, operationally-gained by the Air Combat Command . Its primary installation is Jacksonville Air National Guard Base at Jacksonville International Airport, Florida...

 is based at Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located 13 miles north of downtown Jacksonville, a city in Duval County, Florida...

.

Coast Guard Sector Jacksonville is located on the St. Johns River next to Naval Station Mayport. Sector Jacksonville controls operations from Kings Bay, GA south to Cape Canaveral, FL. The CGC Kingfisher, CGC Maria Bray, and CGC Hammer are stationed at the Sector. Station Mayport is co-located with Sector Jacksonville and includes 25 feet (7.6 m) Response Boats, and 47 feet (14.3 m) Motor Life Boats.

Port


The Port of Jacksonville
Port of Jacksonville
The Port of Jacksonville is an international trade seaport on the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. The newest port in the United States, it carries over 21 million tons of cargo each year and has an annual impact of over $19 billion, including 65,000 jobs...

, a seaport on the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant for commercial and recreational use. At long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. The drop in elevation from the headwaters to the mouth is less than ;...

, is a large component of the local economy. Approximately 50,000 jobs in Northeast Florida are related to port activity and the port has an economic impact of $2.7 billion in Northeast Florida:
  • Port wages and salaries = $1.3 billion
  • Business revenue = $743 million
  • Local purchases = $239.1 million
  • State and local taxes = $119.3 million
  • Customs revenue = $258 million

Tourism


In 2008, Jacksonville had approximately 2.8 million visitors who stayed overnight, spending nearly $1 billion. Research Data Services of Tampa was commissioned to undertake the study, which quantified the importance of tourism. The total economic impact was $1.6 billion and supported nearly 43,000 jobs, 10% of the local workforce.

Infrastructure



Health systems


Major players in the Jacksonville health care industry include St. Vincent's HealthCare, Baptist Health
Baptist Health
Baptist Health, based in Jacksonville, Florida, is a network of five hospitals, affiliated with 34 primary care offices located throughout Northeast Florida and Southeast Georgia...

 and Shands HealthCare
Shands Jacksonville
Shands Jacksonville Medical Center is a teaching hospital in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. It is one of seven hospitals in the Shands HealthCare system and functions as the Jacksonville campus for the University of Florida's Health Science Center...

 for local residents. Additionally, Nemours Children's Clinic
Nemours Foundation
The Nemours Foundation is a non-profit organization in Jacksonville, Florida, created by philanthropist Alfred I. du Pont in 1936, and dedicated to improving the health of children. The Foundation operates the Alfred I...

 and Mayo Clinic Hospital
Mayo Clinic Hospital
Mayo Clinic Hospital is a hospital in Jacksonville, Florida operated by the Mayo Clinic. The 214-bed inpatient facility, which opened in April 2008, also offers emergency care...

 each draw patients regionally.

Housing


The Jacksonville Housing Authority
Jacksonville Housing Authority
The Jacksonville Housing Authority is the quasi-independent agency responsible for public housing and subsidized housing in the city of Jacksonville, Florida....

 (JHA) is the quasi-independent agency responsible for public housing
Public housing
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by non-profit organizations, or by a combination of the...

 and subsidized housing in Jacksonville. The Mayor and City Council of Jacksonville established the JHA in 1994 to create an effective, community service oriented, public housing agency with innovative ideas and a different attitude. The primary goal was to provide safe, clean, affordable housing for eligible low and moderate income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. The secondary goal was to provide effective social services, work with residents to improve their quality of life, encourage employment and self-sufficiency, and help residents move out of assisted housing. To that end, JHA works with HabiJax
HabiJax
HabiJax of Jacksonville, Florida is the largest of the 1,600+ affiliates of Habitat for Humanity International in the United States. Habijax was named the 8th largest homebuilder in the United States by Builder Magazine for 2009....

 to help low and moderate income families to escape the public housing cycle and become successful, productive, homeowners and taxpayers.

Non-profit/service organizations


The TaxExemptWorld.com website, which compiles Internal Revenue Service
Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, and is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue...

 data, reported that in 2007, there are 2,910 distinct, active, tax exempt/non-profit organizations in Jacksonville which, excluding Credit Unions, had a total income of $7.08 billion and assets of $9.54 billion.
There are 333 charitable organizations with assets of over $1 million. The largest share of assets was tied to Medical facilities, $4.5 billion. The problems of the homeless are addressed by several non-profits, most notably the Sulzbacher Center
Sulzbacher Center
The Sulzbacher Center is the only comprehensive homeless facility in Jacksonville, Florida where the average stay is two months. A case manager works with every client to develop a plan to transition back into the community.-Roots:I.M...

 and the Clara White Mission
Clara White Mission
The Clara White Mission is a non-profit organization in downtown Jacksonville, Florida that advocates for the poor and provides social services...

.

Utilities



Basic utilities in Jacksonville (water, sewer, electric) are provided by the JEA
JEA
JEA , located in Jacksonville, Florida, is the eighth largest community-owned electric utility company in the United States and largest in Florida. As of 2009, JEA serves more than 417,000 electric customers, 305,000 water customers and 230,000 sewer customers. Besides Jacksonville , JEA also has...

 (formerly Jacksonville Electric Authority). According to Article 21 of the Jacksonville City Charter, "JEA is authorized to own, manage and operate a utilities system within and outside the City of Jacksonville. JEA is created for the express purpose of acquiring, constructing, operating, financing and otherwise have plenary authority with respect to electric, water, sewer, natural gas and such other utility systems as may be under its control now or in the future."
  • People's Gas is Jacksonville's natural gas provider.
  • Comcast is Jacksonville's local cable provider.
  • AT&T (formerly BellSouth) is Jacksonville's local phone provider.
    • AT&T's U-Verse
      U-Verse
      AT&T U-verse is a registered service mark under which AT&T offers Internet access, television, and telephone services in various parts of the United States. It began in 2008 to serve mostly residences and small businesses in urban and suburban areas.-Services:...

       service provides TV, internet, and VoIP phone service to customers served by fiber-to-the-premises or fiber-to-the-node using a VRAD
      Video ready access device
      A video-ready access device, more commonly known as a "VRAD," provides DSL access and HD TV programming to customers subscribed to IPTV services such as AT&T's U-verse, Bell Canada's Bell Fibe TV and Telus's Optik TV. VRAD equipment manufactured by Alcatel-Lucent supplies access to 200 to 400...

      .

The city has a successful recycling
Recycling
Recycling is processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution and water pollution by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse...

 program with separate pickups for garbage, yard waste and recycling. Collection is provided by several private companies under contract to the City of Jacksonville.

Transportation


Highways



Interstate highways
  • Interstate 10
    Interstate 10 in Florida
    The of Interstate 10 in Florida is the eastern most section of the east–west Interstate 10 in the Southern United States. It is also the eastern end of the Interstate Highway known as the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway, one of three coast to coast interstates, along with I-80...

  • Interstate 95
    Interstate 95 in Florida
    Interstate 95 is the main Interstate Highway on the east coast of the United States; it serves the Atlantic coast of Florida. It begins at a partial interchange with U.S. Highway 1 just south of downtown Miami, and heads north past Daytona Beach and Jacksonville to the Georgia state line at the St...

  • Interstate 295
    Interstate 295 (Florida)
    Interstate 295 , an auxiliary route of Interstate 95, is a bypass route around central Jacksonville, Florida, which is currently signed on the western half for...



Interstate Highways 10
Interstate 10 in Florida
The of Interstate 10 in Florida is the eastern most section of the east–west Interstate 10 in the Southern United States. It is also the eastern end of the Interstate Highway known as the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway, one of three coast to coast interstates, along with I-80...

 and 95
Interstate 95 in Florida
Interstate 95 is the main Interstate Highway on the east coast of the United States; it serves the Atlantic coast of Florida. It begins at a partial interchange with U.S. Highway 1 just south of downtown Miami, and heads north past Daytona Beach and Jacksonville to the Georgia state line at the St...

 intersect in Jacksonville, creating the busiest intersection in the region with 200,000 vehicles each day. Interstate 10 ends at this intersection (the other end being in Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, US. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is surrounded on three sides by the city of Los Angeles — Pacific Palisades on the northwest, Brentwood on the north, West Los Angeles on the northeast, Mar Vista on the east, and...

). The eastern terminus of US-90
U.S. Route 90
U.S. Route 90 is an east–west United States highway. Despite the "0" in its route number, U.S. 90 never was a full coast-to-coast route; it has always ended at Van Horn, Texas. A short-lived northward extension to U.S...

 is in nearby Jacksonville Beach
Jacksonville Beach, Florida
Jacksonville Beach is a city on the Atlantic coast of Duval County, Florida, east of Jacksonville. It is part of the Jacksonville Beaches community, together with Mayport, Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and Ponte Vedra Beach...

 near the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

. Additionally, several other roads as well a major local expressway, J. Turner Butler Boulevard (SR 202) also connect Jacksonville to the beaches.
Interstate 95 has a bypass route, with I-295
Interstate 295 (Florida)
Interstate 295 , an auxiliary route of Interstate 95, is a bypass route around central Jacksonville, Florida, which is currently signed on the western half for...

, which bypasses the city to the west, and SR-9A, bypassing the city to the east. The major interchange at SR 9A and SR 202 (Butler Blvd) was finally completed on December 24, 2008. SR 9B is underway and will connect 9A just east of the I-295 interchange to the Bayard Area.

Mass transit


Public transportation provided by the Jacksonville Transportation Authority
Jacksonville Transportation Authority
The Jacksonville Transportation Authority is the independent agency responsible for public transit in the city of Jacksonville, Florida, and roadway infrastructure that connects northeast Florida. However, they do not maintain any roadways.-History:...

 (JTA) includes regular and express bus service, downtown trolleys, JTA Connexion (paratransit) and the stadium shuttle.
The JTA Skyway is a people mover
People mover
A people mover or automated people mover is a fully automated, grade-separated mass transit system.The term is generally used only to describe systems serving relatively small areas such as airports, downtown districts or theme parks, but is sometimes applied to considerably more complex automated...

 which travels 2.5 miles (4 km) from the King Street parking garage across the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant for commercial and recreational use. At long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. The drop in elevation from the headwaters to the mouth is less than ;...

 and through the central business district, ending at the Convention Center
Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center
Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center is a convention center located in downtown Jacksonville, Florida. Opened in 1986, it was built incorporating Jacksonville's Union Station as well as several thousand square feet of newly-built structure....

 or the Florida State College at Jacksonville downtown campus. Intermediate stops include the government center, central business area and two buildings on the southbank. It was not intended to serve the Jacksonville Sports complex (Stadium, Baseball Park
Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville
The Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville is a baseball park in Jacksonville, Florida. It is the home stadium of the Jacksonville Suns, who play in the Class Double-A Southern League. The facility opened in 2003....

 or Arena
Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena
The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena is a 15,000 seat multi-purpose arena in Jacksonville, Florida. It was built in 2003 as part of Mayor John Delaney's Better Jacksonville Plan to replace the outdated Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum....

) and is of limited help for most downtown commuters unless they live on the southside and work in a building close to a skyway station.

Railroads


Jacksonville is the headquarters of two significant freight railroads. CSX Transportation
CSX Transportation
CSX Transportation operates a Class I railroad in the United States known as the CSX Railroad. It is the main subsidiary of the CSX Corporation. The company is headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, and owns approximately 21,000 route miles...

, owns a large building on the downtown riverbank that is a significant part of the skyline. Florida East Coast Railway
Florida East Coast Railway
The Florida East Coast Railway is a Class II railroad operating in the U.S. state of Florida; in the past, it has been a Class I railroad.Built primarily in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the FEC was a project of Standard Oil principal Henry Morrison...

 also calls Jacksonville home.

Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 serves Jacksonville by the daily Silver Meteor
Silver Meteor
The Silver Meteor is a 1389-mile passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the Silver Service brand, running from New York City, New York, south to Miami, Florida, via the Northeast Corridor to Washington, D.C., thence via Richmond, Virginia; Fayetteville, North Carolina; North Charleston, South...

 and Silver Star long distance trains. The current station is situated on Clifford Lane
Jacksonville (Amtrak station)
Jacksonville Amtrak station is a passenger train station in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. It is served by Amtrak's Silver Meteor, Silver Star, and Thruway Motorcoach to Lakeland...

 in the northwest section of the city.

Jacksonville was also served by the thrice-weekly Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
The Sunset Limited is a passenger train that for most of its history has run between New Orleans, Louisiana and Los Angeles, California, and that from early 1993 through late August 2005 also ran east of New Orleans to Jacksonville, Florida, making it during that time the only true transcontinental...

 and the daily Silver Palm
Silver Palm (Amtrak)
The Silver Palm was the name of two former passenger trains operated by Amtrak serving the U.S. state of Florida.- History :Amtrak introduced the first Silver Palm as a single round trip service between Miami, Florida and Tampa, Florida on November 20, 1982. The train was subsidized by the Florida...

. Service on the Silver Palm was cut back to Savannah, Georgia
Savannah, Georgia
Savannah is the largest city and the county seat of Chatham County, in the U.S. state of Georgia. Established in 1733, the city of Savannah was the colonial capital of the Province of Georgia and later the first state capital of Georgia. Today Savannah is an industrial center and an important...

 in 2002. The Sunset Limited route was truncated at San Antonio, Texas as a result of the track damage in the Gulf Coast area caused by Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

 on August 28, 2005. Service was restored as far east as New Orleans
New Orleans, Louisiana
New Orleans is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana. The New Orleans metropolitan area has a population of 1,235,650 as of 2009, the 46th largest in the USA. The New Orleans – Metairie – Bogalusa combined statistical area has a population...

 by late October 2005, but Amtrak has opted not to fully restore service into Florida. This appears to be more of a managerial and political issue than a physical one. Advocates for the train's restoration have pointed to revenue figures for Amtrak's fiscal year 2004 (the last full year of coast-to-coast Sunset Limited service), noting that the Orlando-New Orleans segment accounted for 41% of the Sunset's revenue.

Airports


Airports in Jacksonville are managed by the Jacksonville Aviation Authority
Jacksonville Aviation Authority
The Jacksonville Aviation Authority is the independent government agency that owns and operates the four airports of Jacksonville, Florida. It was established in 2001 after being branched off of the Jacksonville Port Authority...

 (JAA). The commercial passenger facility is Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located 13 miles north of downtown Jacksonville, a city in Duval County, Florida...

 on the Northside. Smaller planes can fly to Craig Municipal Airport
Craig Municipal Airport
Jacksonville Executive at Craig Airport is a public airport located eight miles east of the central business district of Jacksonville, in Duval County, Florida, United States. It is owned by the Jacksonville Aviation Authority....

 in Arlington and Herlong Airport
Herlong Airport
Herlong Recreational Airport is a public airport located eight miles southwest of the central business district of Jacksonville, a city in Duval County, Florida, United States. Although most U.S...

 on the Westside. The JAA also operates Cecil Field
Cecil Field
Cecil Airport is a public joint civil-military airport located in Jacksonville, a city in Duval County, Florida, United States. The airport is owned by the Jacksonville Aviation Authority and services military aircraft, corporate aircraft, general aviation, and air cargo. The Florida Army National...

, the former NAS airfield at Cecil Commerce Center
Cecil Commerce Center
Cecil Commerce Center is a significant, long-term economic development asset to the City of Jacksonville, representing more than 3 percent of the land area in Duval County . It is promoted as one of the most sought after locations in the Southeastern United States for manufacturing, supply chain...

 that is intended for the aerospace and manufacturing companies located there.

Seaports


Public seaports in Jacksonville are managed by the Jacksonville Port Authority
Jacksonville Port Authority
The Jacksonville Port Authority also known by its brand name, JAXPORT, is the independent government agency in Jacksonville, Florida that owns and operates much of the seaport system at the Port of Jacksonville.-History:...

, known as JAXPORT. Four modern deepwater (38 ft) seaport facilities, including America's newest cruise port, make Jacksonville a full-service international seaport. In FY2006, JAXPORT handled 8.7 million tons of cargo, including nearly 610,000 vehicles, which ranks Jacksonville 2nd in the nation in automobile handling, behind only the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a bi-state port district, established in 1921 through an interstate compact, that runs most of the regional transportation infrastructure, including the bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the Port of New York and New Jersey...

.

The 20 other maritime facilities not managed by the Port Authority move about 10 million tons of additional cargo in and out of the St. Johns River. In terms of total tonnage, the Port of Jacksonville ranks 40th nationally; within Florida, it is 3rd behind Tampa and Port Everglades.

In 2003, the JAXPORT Cruise Terminal
JAXPORT Cruise Terminal
The JAXPORT Cruise Terminal is a "temporary" cruise ship terminal in Jacksonville, Florida. The facility located at the northwest corner of the Dames Point Marine Terminal, beside the Dames Point Bridge....

 opened, providing cruise service for 1,500 passengers to Key West, Florida
Key West, Florida
Key West is a city in Monroe County, Florida, United States. The city encompasses the island of Key West, the part of Stock Island north of U.S. 1 , Sigsbee Park , Fleming Key , and Sunset Key...

, the Bahamas, and Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 via Carnival Cruise Lines
Carnival Cruise Lines
Carnival Cruise Lines is a British-American owned cruise line, based in Doral, Florida, a suburb of Miami in the United States. Originally an independent company founded in 1972 by Ted Arison, the company is now one of eleven cruise ship brands owned and operated by Carnival Corporation & plc...

 ship, Celebration, which was retired in April, 2008. For almost five months, no cruises originated from Jacksonville until September 20, 2008, when the cruise ship Fascination departed with 2,079 passengers. In Fiscal year 2006, there were 78 cruise ship sailings with 128,745 passengers. A JaxPort spokesperson said in 2008 that they expect 170,000 passengers to sail each year.

Bridges


There are seven bridges over the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant for commercial and recreational use. At long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. The drop in elevation from the headwaters to the mouth is less than ;...

 at Jacksonville. They include (starting from furthest downstream) the Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Bridge (Dames Point)
Dames Point Bridge
The Dames Point Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge over the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida on State Road 9A. Construction began in 1985 and it was completed in 1989. The main span is 1300 feet, and is 175 feet high...

 (which carries Florida State Road 9A
Interstate 295 (Florida)
Interstate 295 , an auxiliary route of Interstate 95, is a bypass route around central Jacksonville, Florida, which is currently signed on the western half for...

 traffic), the John E. Mathews Bridge
Mathews Bridge
The Mathews Bridge is a truss bridge in Jacksonville, Florida, which spans the St. Johns River. Constructed in 1953, the bridge brings traffic along the Arlington Expressway between downtown Jacksonville and the Arlington neighborhood. It was named after John E...

, the Isaiah D. Hart Bridge
Hart Bridge
The Isaiah David Hart Bridge is a truss bridge that spans the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. It is named after Isaiah Hart, the founder of Jacksonville. It was designed by Sverdrup & Parcel.-Details:...

, the John T. Alsop Jr. Bridge (Main Street)
Main Street Bridge (Jacksonville)
The Main Street Bridge, officially the John T. Alsop Jr. Bridge, is a bridge crossing the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. It was the second bridge built across the river. It carries four lanes of traffic, and is signed as U.S. Route 1/US 90 . A lift bridge, it opened in July 1941 at a...

, the St. Elmo W. Acosta Bridge
Acosta Bridge
The Acosta Bridge spans the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida on a fixed span. It was named for City Councilman St. Elmo W. Acosta, who convinced voters to approve a $950,000 bond issue for the original bridge. It carries SR 13 with the two-track JTA Skyway in the median. Prior to its...

, the Fuller Warren Bridge (which carries I-95
Interstate 95 in Florida
Interstate 95 is the main Interstate Highway on the east coast of the United States; it serves the Atlantic coast of Florida. It begins at a partial interchange with U.S. Highway 1 just south of downtown Miami, and heads north past Daytona Beach and Jacksonville to the Georgia state line at the St...

 traffic) and the Henry Holland Buckman Bridge (which carries I-295 West
Interstate 295 (Florida)
Interstate 295 , an auxiliary route of Interstate 95, is a bypass route around central Jacksonville, Florida, which is currently signed on the western half for...

 traffic).

Beginning in 1953, tolls were charged on the Hart, Mathews, Fuller Warren and the Main Street bridges to pay for bridge construction, renovations and many other highway projects. As Jacksonville grew, toll plazas created bottlenecks and caused delays and accidents during rush hours. In 1988, Jacksonville voters chose to eliminate toll collection and replace the revenue with a ½ cent local sales tax increase. In 1989, the toll booths were removed.

The Mayport Ferry
Mayport Ferry
The Saint Johns River Ferry, also known as the Mayport Ferry, is an auto ferry between Mayport and Fort George Island, two areas within Jacksonville, Florida. The 0.9 mile voyage crosses the Saint Johns River about 2.5 miles inland of the river's mouth and travels in an east-west direction for...

 connects the north and south ends of State Road A1A between Mayport and Fort George Island, and is the last active ferry in Florida.
The state of Florida transferred responsibility for ferry operations to JAXPORT on October 1, 2007.

Sister cities


Jacksonville has eight sister cities. They are:
- Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca is a city located in the south-west of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, by the Atlantic Ocean, and seat of government of Bahía Blanca Partido. It has a population of 274,509 inhabitants according to the...

, Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 (since 1967) - Murmansk
Murmansk
Murmansk is a city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It serves as a seaport and is located in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia's borders with Norway and Finland...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (1975) - Changwon
Changwon
Changwon is a city in and the capital of Gyeongsangnam-do in South Korea. Changwon city is 8th most populous city in South Korea, with a 2010 established population of 1,089,039. It encompasses a land area of on southeastern of South Korea. The population of Southeastern part of Korea, that...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 (1983) - Nantes
Nantes
Nantes is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast. The city is the 6th largest in France, while its metropolitan area ranks 8th with over 800,000 inhabitants....

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 (1984) - Yingkou
Yingkou
Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

, Liaoning
Liaoning
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "辽" , a name taken from the Liao River that flows through the province. "Níng" means "peace"...

, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 (1990) - Port Elizabeth/Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 (2000) - Curitiba
Curitiba
Curitiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Paraná. It is the largest city with the biggest economy of both Paraná and southern Brazil. The population of Curitiba numbers approximately 1.75 million people and the latest GDP figures for the city surpass US$61 billion according to...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 (2009) - San Juan
San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan , officially Municipio de la Ciudad Capital San Juan Bautista , is the capital and most populous municipality in Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of...

, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

 (2009)

  • In 2000, The Sister Cities International
    Sister Cities International
    Sister Cities International is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between United States and international communities. More than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in 136 countries around the world...

     awarded Jacksonville the Innovation Arts & Culture Award for the city's program with Nantes.

See also

  • Montgomery Correctional Center
    Montgomery Correctional Center
    The Montgomery Correctional Center, previously known as the City Prison Farm, started in 1958, on a large, tract in the northwestern part of Jacksonville, Florida....

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Duval County, Florida
  • Orange Park
    Orange Park, Florida
    Orange Park is a town in Clay County, Florida, USA, and a suburb of Jacksonville. The population was 8,412 at the 2010 census. The name "Orange Park" is additionally applied to a wider area of northern Clay County outside the town limits, covering such communities as Fleming Island, Lakeside, and...

    , Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...


Further reading

  • Crackers and Carpetbaggers: Moments in the History of Jacksonville, Florida by John Wilson Cowart
  • Heroes all: a history of firefighting in Jacksonville by John Wilson Cowart
  • James B. Cooks, Jacksonville: The Consolidation Story, from Civil Rights to the Jaguars, University Press of Florida, 2004.
  • Greg Jenkins, Florida's Ghostly Legends And Haunted Folklore: North Florida And St. Augustine, Pineapple Press, 2005.
  • Buddy Martin, The Boys from Old Florida: Inside Gator Nation, Sports Publishing, 2006
  • Herman Mason, Jr., African-American Life in Jacksonville, Arcadia Publishing, 1997.
  • Joanelle Mulrain, Re-Rooting Life's Journeys
  • Keeping the Faith: Race, Politics, and Social Development in Jacksonville, Florida, 1940–1970, Greenwood Publishing, 2000.
  • John Oehser, Jags to Riches: The Cinderella Season of the Jacksonville Jaguars, St. Martins Press, 1997.
  • Daniel Schaefer, From scratch pads and dreams: A ten year history of the University of North Florida, University of North Florida, 1982.
  • Jules Wagman, Jacksonville and Florida's First Coast, Windsor Publishing, 1989.
  • Dr. Caroyln Williams, Historic Photos of Jacksonville, Turner Publishing Company, 2006.
  • 40 years ago this weekend, Jacksonville gave itself a national reputation for violence. The Florida Times-Union.
  • Foley, Bill; Wood, Wayne (2001). The great fire of 1901 (1st ed.). Jacksonville, Florida: The Jacksonville Historical Society. ISBN 0-9710261-0-6

External links