The House of Baux
is a French noble family from the south of France. It was one of the most pretigious and powerful families of Medieval Provence, known as the 'Race d’Aiglon'. They were independent Lords as castellan of Les Baux and Arles and wielded very considerable authority at local level. They held important fiefs and vast lands (Vienne,vicomte de Marseilles,Berry,Bruges, Montpellier, the principality of Orange
The Principality of Orange was a feudal state in Provence, in the south of modern-day France, on the left bank of the River Rhone north of the city of Avignon....
In Provençal, the word “Baux” ( "li Baou" in provencal) means escarpment/cliff, and refers to the natural fortress on which the family built their castle and the village that surrounded it. The word is also seen in Bau-maniere, Bau-baisse, Bau-mirane, Bau-Cous-temple. In provencal to be from les Baux, des Baux, was "de Baucio". The natural defense provided by the escarpment, the raised and protected mountain valley that allowed them to have a protected food supply, and the natural ridge of the Alpilles that allowed them to control all the approaches to the citadel of Les Baux and the surrounding countryside, including the passage up and down the Rhone, and the approaches from the Mediterranean, made that the fortress impervious to the military technology of the time.
The family of des Baux exists today in Naples in the person of several noble families ("del Balzo") descended from younger sons who followed Charles of Anjou south.
After the death of the last sovereign princess of Baux, Alix, the chateaux and town were seized by King Rene, who gave it to his 2nd wife, Queen Jeanne of Laval. When Provence was united with the crown, almost 150 yrs of royal governors followed, including the lords, later counts and princes de Manville. Les Baux became a centre for Protestantism. It's unsuccessful revolt against the crown led Cardinal Richelieu in 1632 to order that the castle and its walls should be demolished. This was accomplished with the aid of cannon. Natives will still spit on the ground at the mention of Richelieu.
Lords of Baux
The earliest definite ancestor was one Pons (Poncius) (name could designate a trader from Greece) "Iuvenis" (the younger, meaning there was an older?). Pons The Younger was mentioned in 3 legal acts:
- 1st in the act of donation of 14 May 971 donating Montmajour to Boson & his wife Folcoare,
- 2nd in 975 in the act of donation of land to St Etienne d'Arles, now called St. Trophime (Arch. du chap. d'Arles, liv. autent. f. 22)
- 3rd with his wife Profecte in an act of donation in 981
The family descent then is:
- Pons (971-?), father of
- Hugh 1 (?-1059), father of
- William I Hugh (1050–1110), father of
- Raymond I (1110–1150), father of
- Hugh II (1150–1167)
- Betrand I (1167–1181), brother of Hugh II
- Hugh III, lord of Baux, viscount of Marseille (1181–1240), eldest son of Bertrand I
- Barral I of Baux
Barral of Baux vas Viscount of Marseilles and Lord of Baux. He was the son of Hugh III of Baux, Viscount of Marseilles, and Barrale....
(1240–1268), father of
- Bertrand III (1268–1305), father of
- Raymond II (1305–1322), father of
- Hugh IV (1322–1351), father of
- Robert (1351–1353)
- Raymond III (1353–1372), brother of
- John I (1372–1375)
- Alice I (1372–1426), sister of
This branch of the House of Baux was declared extinct in 1426. The domains were inherited by Counts of Provence.
Lords of Berre, Meyragues, Puyricard and Marignane
- Bertrand II, second oldest son of Bertrand I of Baux, lord of Berre, Meyragues and Puyricard, and Marignanane (1181–1201)
From this branch originated the family branches of the Lords of Berre, Lords of Meyrargues and Puyricard, who went extinct in 1349, and lords of Marignane, acquired by House of Valois-Anjou
The Valois House of Anjou, or the Younger House of Anjou, was a noble French family, deriving from the royal family, the House of Valois. They were monarchs of Naples, as well as various other territories....
, as well as the Dukes of Andria
Andria is a city and comune in Apulia . It is an agricultural and service center, producing wine, olives and almonds...
- See also: Lords of Berre, Lords of Meyrargues and Puyricard and Lords of Marignane
Princes of Orange
- Bertrand I of Baux (1171–1181)
- William I
William I of Baux was the Prince of Orange from 1182 until his death. He was an important Provençal nobleman.William was the son of Bertrand of Baux, the first Prince of Orange a major patron of Occitan poetry, and Tibors de Sarenom, a sister of Raimbaut d'Aurenga and herself a trobairitz...
, count of Orange, youngest son of Bertrand I of Baux (1181–1218)
- Raymond I (1218–1282)
- Bertrand II (1281–1314)
- Raymond II (1314–1340)
- Raymond III (1340–1393)
- Mary of Baux (1393–1417), daughter, married John III of Châlon-Arlay
John III of Chalon-Arlay was a French nobleman. He was the son of Hugh II's brother Louis I of Chalon, and as such he was the nephew and heir of Hugh II of Chalon-Arlay as prince of Orange and lord of Arlay. He was the father of William VII of Chalon-Arlay....
In 1417 the House of Ivrea or House of Châlon-Arlay succeeded as princes of Orange.
A brother of William I started the branch of the Lords of Courbezon (House of Baux-Courbezon), which went extinct in 1393. Another brother started the line of Lords of Suze, Solerieux and Barri (House of Baux-Suze-Solerieux-Barri), which went extinct and reverted afterwards to the counts of Orange.
- Cappai de Bas
Cappai des Baux, originally Çapay viscounts of Bas , is the name of an old Aragonese noble family who came to Sardinia in the 14th century with the king James II of Aragon during his campaign to conquer the island...
- Les Baux de Provence
Les Baux-de-Provence is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France, in the province of Provence. It has a spectacular position in the Alpilles mountains, set atop a rocky outcrop crowned with a ruined castle overlooking the plains to the south. Its names refers to its site...
- Les Baux de Provence AOC
- Baussenque Wars
The Baussenque Wars were a series of armed conflicts between the House of Barcelona, then ruling in Provence, and the House of Baux...
- Il signore di Baux
"Il signore di Baux" is a song by the Italian singer-songwriter Angelo Branduardi. It is contained in his 1979 album Cogli la prima mela....