Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Hawiye

Hawiye

Overview
The Hawiye is a Somali clan
Somali clan
The demographics of Somalia describes the condition and overview of Somalia's inhabitants. Demographic topics include basic education, health and population statistics, as well as identified racial and religious affiliations.-Somalis:...

. Members of the clan primarily live in central and southern Somalia
Somalia
Somalia , officially the Somali Republic and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory...

, in the Ogaden
Ogaden
Ogaden is the name of a territory comprising the southeastern portion of the Somali Regional State in Ethiopia. The inhabitants are predominantly ethnic Somali and Muslim. The title "Somali Galbeed", which means "Western Somalia," is often preferred by Somali irredentists.The region, which is...

 and the North Eastern Province
North Eastern Province (Kenya)
North Eastern Province is the third largest province in Kenya and has thirteen constituencies represented in the Kenya National Assembly.The region is home to a rare type of antelope called the Hirola, which is classified as an endangered species. The NFD's pastoralists also possess livestock in...

 (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively), and in smaller numbers in other countries. Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their ancestry to Irir Samaale
Irir Samaale
Irir Samaale is the oldest common ancestor of several Somali clans and their respective sub-clans.-Etymology:Samaale is generally regarded as the source of the ethnonym Somali...

. The Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. It is an executive agency and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence, responsible for providing national security intelligence assessment to senior United States policymakers...

 (CIA) and Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. Its headquarters are in New York City and it has offices in Berlin, Beirut, Brussels, Chicago, Geneva, Johannesburg, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Paris, San Francisco, Tokyo,...

 indicate that Hawiye is the largest Somali clan. Other sources, including the Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 Report of the Somalia Commission of Inquiry, indicate that the Darod
Darod
The Darod is a Somali clan. The father of this clan is named Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti, but is more commonly known as Darod. In the Somali language, the word Daarood means "an enclosed compound," a conflation of the two words daar and ood .The Darod population in Somalia lives principally...

 is the largest Somali clan.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Hawiye'
Start a new discussion about 'Hawiye'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Recent Discussions
Encyclopedia
The Hawiye is a Somali clan
Somali clan
The demographics of Somalia describes the condition and overview of Somalia's inhabitants. Demographic topics include basic education, health and population statistics, as well as identified racial and religious affiliations.-Somalis:...

. Members of the clan primarily live in central and southern Somalia
Somalia
Somalia , officially the Somali Republic and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory...

, in the Ogaden
Ogaden
Ogaden is the name of a territory comprising the southeastern portion of the Somali Regional State in Ethiopia. The inhabitants are predominantly ethnic Somali and Muslim. The title "Somali Galbeed", which means "Western Somalia," is often preferred by Somali irredentists.The region, which is...

 and the North Eastern Province
North Eastern Province (Kenya)
North Eastern Province is the third largest province in Kenya and has thirteen constituencies represented in the Kenya National Assembly.The region is home to a rare type of antelope called the Hirola, which is classified as an endangered species. The NFD's pastoralists also possess livestock in...

 (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively), and in smaller numbers in other countries. Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their ancestry to Irir Samaale
Irir Samaale
Irir Samaale is the oldest common ancestor of several Somali clans and their respective sub-clans.-Etymology:Samaale is generally regarded as the source of the ethnonym Somali...

. The Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. It is an executive agency and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence, responsible for providing national security intelligence assessment to senior United States policymakers...

 (CIA) and Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. Its headquarters are in New York City and it has offices in Berlin, Beirut, Brussels, Chicago, Geneva, Johannesburg, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Paris, San Francisco, Tokyo,...

 indicate that Hawiye is the largest Somali clan. Other sources, including the Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 Report of the Somalia Commission of Inquiry, indicate that the Darod
Darod
The Darod is a Somali clan. The father of this clan is named Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti, but is more commonly known as Darod. In the Somali language, the word Daarood means "an enclosed compound," a conflation of the two words daar and ood .The Darod population in Somalia lives principally...

 is the largest Somali clan. Hawiye is the dominant clan in Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Mogadishu , popularly known as Xamar, is the largest city in Somalia and the nation's capital. Located in the coastal Benadir region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important port for centuries....

, the capital of Somalia.

History


According to an official Military Survey conducted during the colonial period, Hawiye clan members are by tradition believed to be descended from a forefather named Hawiya Irrir. Hawiya Irrir is held to be the brother of Dir
Dir (clan)
The Dir , or Theyr bin Abdalla as mentioned in the book "Futuh al-Habasha", is a Somali clan. Its members mostly live in northwestern Somalia and Djibouti, in addition to southern and central Somalia and the Ogaden....

, himself the great-grandson of Ram Nag, an Arab migrant who landed in Zeila
Zeila
Zeila, also known as Zaila , is a port city on the Gulf of Aden coast, situated in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia.Located near the Djibouti border, the town sits on a sandy spit surrounded by the sea. It is known for its offshore islands, coral reef and mangroves. Landward, the terrain is...

 on the northwestern Somali coast. However, other accounts maintain that Ram Nag was of Indian, or of Abyssinian extraction.

The first written reference to the Hawiye dates back to a 13th century document by the Arab geographer, Ibn Sa'id, who described Merca
Merca
Merca is a port city on the coast of southern Somalia, facing the Indian Ocean. It is the main town in the Shabeellaha Hoose region, and is located approximately southwest of the nation's capital, Mogadishu.-History:...

 at the time as the "capital of Hawiye country". The 12th century cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi
Muhammad al-Idrisi
Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani al-Sabti or simply Al Idrisi was a Moroccan Muslim geographer, cartographer, Egyptologist and traveller who lived in Sicily, at the court of King Roger II. Muhammed al-Idrisi was born in Ceuta then belonging to the Almoravid Empire and died in...

 may have referred to the Hawiye as well, as he called Merca the region of the "Hadiye", which Herbert S. Lewis believes is a scribal error for "Hawiye", as do Guilliani, Schleicher and Cerulli
Enrico Cerulli
Enrico Cerulli was an Italian scholar of Somali and Ethiopian studies, a governor and a diplomat.-Biography:...

.

Settlement and commerce


Due to ancient pastoralist
Nomadic pastoralism
Nomadic pastoralism is a form of agriculture where livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze following an irregular pattern of movement - in contrast with transhumance where seasonal pastures are fix. The herded livestock may include cattle, yaks, sheep, goats,...

 migrations and population movements across the Somali peninsula in search of water wells and grazing land over a period of thousand years, Hawiye clans today can be found inhabiting an area stretching from the fertile lands of southern Somalia between Barawa
Barawa
Barawa or Brava is a port town on the south-eastern coast of Somalia. The traditional inhabitants are the Tunni Somalis and the Bravanese people, who speak Bravanese, a Swahili dialect.-History:...

 and Kismayo, to the regions surrounding Merka, Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Mogadishu , popularly known as Xamar, is the largest city in Somalia and the nation's capital. Located in the coastal Benadir region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important port for centuries....

 and Warsheikh
Warsheikh
Warsheikh is a town in the southeastern Shabeellaha Dhexe region of Somalia...

 in the hinterland, west to the modern city of Beledweyne
Beledweyne
Beledweyne is a city in central Somalia. It is the capital of the Hiraan province, and is located in the central valley of the Shebelle river near the Ogaden, some 206 miles north of Mogadishu, the nation's capital. The Shebelle river divides the town into east and west...

 in the Hiiraan
Hiiraan
Hiran is an administrative region in south-central Somalia.-Overview:Hiiraan is bordered by the Somali Region of Ethiopia to the northwest, and the Somalian provinces of Galgudud to the northeast, Middle Shebelle) to the south, Lower Shebelle to the southwest, and Bay and Bakool to the west.The...

 region, and north to the ancient port town of Hobyo
Hobyo
Hobyo is an ancient harbor city in the Mudug region of Somalia. Hobyo literally means "here, water", and the plentiful fresh water to be had from the wells in and around the town has been the driving force behind Hobyo's ancient status as a favorite port-of-call for sailors.-Establishment:Hobyo's...

 in the arid central Mudug
Mudug
Mudug is an administrative region in north-central Somalia. Bordered by the Ogaden, the Somalian regions of Nugaal and Galguduud, and the Indian Ocean, its capital is the city of Galkacyo.-Districts:...

 region.

Sub-clans of the Hawiye include the Degodia, about 40 percent of whom live in Ethiopia. When Arthur Donaldson Smith
Arthur Donaldson Smith
Dr. Arthur Donaldson Smith was an American explorer of Africa. In the 1890s he made a geological expedition to Lake Rudolph , passing through what was then Somaliland, southern Ethiopia and Kenya.-External links:*...

 traveled through what is now Bare
Bare (woreda)
Bare is one of the 47 woredas in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. Part of the Afder Zone, Bare is bordered on the south by the Provisional Administrative Line with Somalia, on the southwest by Dolobay, on the northwest by Afder, on the north by Mirab Imi, and on the east by Shebelle River which...

 woreda in 1895, he found that the Degodia were neighbors of the Afgab clan, their territory stretching east to the Weyib
Weyib River
Weyib River is a river of eastern Ethiopia. It rises in the Bale Mountains east of Goba in the Oromia Region, flowing east to pass through the Sof Omar Caves, then to the southeast until it joins the Ganale Dorya River in the Somali Region....

 and Dawa River
Dawa River
The Dawa River is a perennial river in southeastern Ethiopia. Rising in the mountains east of Aleta Wendo, the Dawa flows south and east to join with the Ganale Dorya at the border with Somalia to become the Jubba. The river forms part of the Ethiopia–Kenya border and part of the Ethiopia–Somalia...

s.

The economy of the Hawiye in the interior includes the predominant nomadic pastoralism, and to some extent, cultivation within agricultural settlements in the riverine area, as well as mercantile commerce along the urban coast. At various points throughout history, trade of modern and ancient commodities by the Hawiye through maritime routes included cattle skin
Leather
Leather is a durable and flexible material created via the tanning of putrescible animal rawhide and skin, primarily cattlehide. It can be produced through different manufacturing processes, ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.-Forms:...

, slaves, ivory
Ivory
Ivory is a term for dentine, which constitutes the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals, when used as a material for art or manufacturing. Ivory has been important since ancient times for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, dominoes, joint tubes, piano keys and...

 and ambergris
Ambergris
Ambergris is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull gray or blackish color produced in the digestive system of and regurgitated or secreted by sperm whales....

.

Clan tree


There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

's Home Office
Home Office
The Home Office is the United Kingdom government department responsible for immigration control, security, and order. As such it is responsible for the police, UK Border Agency, and the Security Service . It is also in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs,...

 publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.
  • Hawiye
    • Baadicade
    • Gaaljal
    • Hawadle
    • Abgaal
      Abgaal
      Abgaal is a Somali clan, and part of the major Hawiye clan. Its members live in the Shabeellaha Dhexe, Galguduud, Banaadir, Mudug, Lower Shebelle, Middle Juba, and Jubbada Hoose regions of Central and southern Somalia...

       (Abgal)
      • Harti
        • Angonyar
        • Warsangeli
        • Abokor
      • Wabudhan
        • Da'oud
        • Rer Mattan
        • Mohamed Muse
      • Wa'esli
    • Murosade
    • Sheekhaal
      Sheekhaal
      The Sheikhal or Fiqi Omar is a Somali clan whose members inhabit both Somalia and Ethiopia, with considerable numbers also found in the Northern Frontier District in Kenya....

       (Sheikal)
    • Habar Gidir
      Habar Gidir
      The Habar Gidir are a Somali clan, part of the larger Hawiye group.The clan has produced some prominent Somali figures, such as Abdullahi Issa, the chairman of the Somali Youth League and first Prime Minister of Somalia prior to independence, Dr...

       (Haber Gedir)
      • Sa'ad
      • Suleiman
      • Ayr
      • Sarur
    • Waadan


In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:
  • Hawiye
    • Karanle
      • Murusade
    • Gorgate
      • Abgal
      • Habargidir
      • Sheikhal
      • Duduble
      • Ujeien
    • Gugun-Dhabe
    • Rarane
    • Haskul
    • Jambeele
      • Hawadle
      • Galje'el
      • Ajuran
      • Dagodi


In Puntland
Puntland
Puntland , officially the Puntland State of Somalia , is a region in northeastern Somalia, centered on Garowe in the Nugaal province. Its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 1998....

 the World Bank shows the following:
  • Hawiye
    • Habar Gidir
    • Abgall
    • Biyamaal
    • Hawaadle
    • Murursade
    • Ujuuran

Heads of State

  • Abdiqasim Salad Hassan
    Abdiqasim Salad Hassan
    Dr Abdiqasim Salad Hassan is a prominent Somali politician. He was President of Somalia from 2001 to 2004, and previously served as Interior Minister and Finance Minister in the government of Mohamed Siad Barre.-Biography:...

    , President of Somalia, 2000–2004
  • Abdullahi Issa
    Abdullahi Issa
    Abdullahi Issa Mohamud was the first Prime Minister of Somalia from February 29, 1956 to July 1, 1960.-Biography:Issa was born in Somalia in 1922 to a Habar Gidir Hawiye family. When the Second World War broke out, he was still a student...

    , Prime minister of Somalia, 1954–1960
  • Aden Abdullah Osman Daar
    Aden Abdullah Osman Daar
    Aden Abdulle Osman Daar , popularly known as Aadan Cadde, was a Somali politician and the country's first President from July 1, 1960 to June 10, 1967.-Biography:...

    , President of Somalia, 1960–67
  • Ali Mahdi Muhammad
    Ali Mahdi Muhammad
    Ali Mahdi Muhammad was president of Somalia from January 1991 to November 1991. He rose to power when Mohamed Farrah Aidid forced then president Mohamed Siad Barre out of office. Muhammad, however, was not able in that time to exert control over the country...

     President of Somalia, 1991–1995
  • Ali Mohammed Ghedi
    Ali Mohammed Ghedi
    Ali Mohamed Ghedi was the Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia from 2004 to 2007. He was relatively unknown in political circles upon his appointment as prime minister in November 2004. He is affiliated with the Abgaal subclan of Mogadishu's Hawiye clan, one of...

    , Prime minister of Somalia, 2004–2007
  • Mohamed Farrah Aidid
    Mohamed Farrah Aidid
    General Mohamed Ali Farrah Aidid was a controversial Somali military leader, often described as a warlord. A former general and diplomat, he was the chairman of the United Somali Congress and later led the Somali National Alliance...

    , President of Somalia 1995-1996
  • Nur Hassan Hussein
    Nur Hassan Hussein
    Nur Hassan Hussein Adde , was the Prime Minister of Somalia from November 2007 to February 2009. He is from Mogadishu and is part of the Abgaal sub-clan of the Hawiye.-Early career:...

    , Prime minister of Somalia, 2007–2009
  • Sharif Ahmed
    Sharif Ahmed
    Sharif Sheikh Ahmed is the current President of Somalia and former Commander in Chief of the Islamic Courts Union .-Biography:...

    , President of Somalia, 2009-current

Politicians

  • AbdiKarim Ahmed Ali, former USC Secretary General, former TNG Cabinet, and current member of TFG Parliament
  • Abdirahman Janaqow
    Abdirahman Janaqow
    Abdirahman Mahmud Farah Janaqow is a Somali leader, and he was deputy chairman, and a member of the Murusade clan. of the Islamic Courts Union of Somalia . He and other leaders signed a capitulation of Mogadishu on 27 December 2006 after military losses. However they continued military resistance...

    , Somali leader, deputy chairman of the Islamic Courts Union of Somalia (ICU), Minister of Justice
  • Abdu Qadir Aadan Cabdi Jiraabey, President of Hiiraan and Midland, June 2010
  • Abdullahi Ahmed Addou
    Abdullahi Ahmed Addou
    -Early life:Addou was born on 15 May 1936, in the city of Brava in the Lower Shabelle region of Somalia.-Ambassador and Finance Minister:Between 1970 and 1980 and again from 1986 to 1988, he served as Somalia's Ambassador to the United States. From 1980 to 1984, he was also Finance Minister of...

    , Ambassador to the United States, 1970–80
  • Abukar Umar Adani
    Abukar Umar Adani
    Abukar Omar Adani is the Chief Financier of the Islamic Courts Union. He hails from the Warsangali clan . As of 2008, he lives in Djibouti having fled Somalia following the defeat of the ICU by Ethiopian forces...

    , Islamist, businessman who used to control the El-ma`an beach area which served as Mogadishu's port since the closure in 1995 of the city's main port
  • Ali Mohamed Osoble
    Ali Mohamed Osoble
    Ali Mohamed Osoble ' was a prominent Somali politician and Member of Parliament in the civilian government. He held ministerial positions before the takeover of the Siad Barre military government...

    , Minister of Commerce & Construction, 1967–69; co-founder of the United Somali Congress
    United Somali Congress
    The United Somali Congress is one of the major political and paramilitary organizations of Somalia. Formed in 1988, it played a key role in the ouster of the government of Siad Barre, and became a major target of the so-called Operation Restore Hope campaign in 1993...

  • Ali Shido Abdi
    Ali Shido Abdi
    Ali Shido Omar was a senior Somali politician and elder. He was one of the earliest members of the Somali Youth League in Somalia, and eventually became that political party's vice chairman....

    , vice-chairman of the SYL party, 1956–60
  • Bashir Raghe Shiiraar
    Bashir Raghe Shiiraar
    Bashir Rage Shiiraar is a Somali secular warlord and businessman who hails from the Warsangali clan .He became a member of the US-backed Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism....

    , secular warlord; member of the US-backed Alliance for Peace and the Fight Against International Terrorism
  • Haji Farah Ali Omar
    Haji Farah Ali Omar
    Haji Farah Ali Omar was a Somali politician. He was a senior official in the government of the Trust Territory of Somalia and later served as Minister of Economic Affairs in Somalia's post-independence civilian administration.-Biography:...

    , Minister of Finance, 1956–60
  • Hussein Hagi Bood
    Hussein Hagi Bood
    Dr. Hussein Hagi Bood , was a Somali politician from the Abgaal clan. In December 2000, Hussein reached an agreement with the Transitional National Government. On the morning of December 21, 2008, Mr.Bood died in a hospital in Nairobi,Kenya. The late Bood has held different positions in previous...

    , Minister of National planning, 1977–81
  • Ismail Jim'ale Osoble
    Ismail Jim'ale Osoble
    Dr. Ismail Jim'ale Osoble was a Somali lawyer and Minister of Information in the Government of Aden Abdulle Osman before the military took control of the Government in 1969. Following those events, he was one the few lawyers and human rights actvists in the country. He was also one of the signers...

    , lawyer and Minister of Information in the government of Aden Abdulle Osman
  • Dr. Mahamed Ali Ibrahim, chairman of Al-Islah, 1990-1999
  • Mohamed Afrah Qanyare
    Mohamed Afrah Qanyare
    Mohamed Afrah Qanyare , is a Somali politician who was based to the south of Mogadishu Dayniile neighborhoods.Somali PM one of the political Flexible activity Mohamed Qanyare Afrah- United Somali Congress :...

    , politician who was based to the south of Mogadishu and member of TFG parliament
  • Mohamed Sheikh Osman
    Mohamed Sheikh Osman
    Mohamed Sheikh Osman was a prominent Somali politician and Member of Parliament in the civilian government. He held numerous ministerial positions in the later non-civilian regime, including the coveted minister of finance position, which he held throughout the 1980s in the Somali government.His...

    , Minister of Finance, 1980–84
  • Muse Nur Amiin, Minister of Internal Affairs and National Security 2008–
  • Omar Hashi Aden
    Omar Hashi Aden
    Omar Hashi Aden , was a member of the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia, eventually rising to Security Minister. He was assassinated by a suicide bomber on 18 June 2009 in Beledweyne, in the Hiiraan region in central Somalia.Aden was from Hiiraan region...

    , Minister of National Security, 2009

Military personnel

  • Ahmed Maxamed Xasan
    Ahmed Maxamed Xasan
    Ahmed Maxamed Xasan is a former Somali airforce pilot known for his refusal to bombard Somalia's second capital Hargeysa during the dictatorial rule of Mohamed Siyad Barre. He hails from the Abgaal clan.-References:...

    , Lieutenant colonel who defused Mig-17 jet fighter bombs
  • Daud Abdulle Hirsi
    Daud Abdulle Hirsi
    General Daud Abdulle Hirsi was a Somali national and military hero.-Biography:Hirsi was born in 1925 in the town of Mareeg situated in central Somalia....

    , Commander-in-chief of the Somali national forces, 1960–67
  • Hassan Dahir Aweys, leader of Islamist revolution in Somalia, 2006–09
  • Hussein Kulmiye Afrah
    Hussein Kulmiye Afrah
    Hussein Kulmiye Afrah was Vice President of Somalia in the era of Siad Barre, who governed the nation from 1969 to 1991.-References:...

    , vice-president of Somalia under the Siad Barre regime
  • Mohamed Farrah Aidid
    Mohamed Farrah Aidid
    General Mohamed Ali Farrah Aidid was a controversial Somali military leader, often described as a warlord. A former general and diplomat, he was the chairman of the United Somali Congress and later led the Somali National Alliance...

    , Chairman of the United Somali Congress, 1991–1994
  • Mohammed Hussein Ali
    Mohammed Hussein Ali
    Major General Mohammed Hussein Ali is an ethnic Somali military commander. He was the former Commissioner of the Kenya Police, and is currently Chief Executive of the Postal Corporation of Kenya.-Early life:...

    , Commissioner of the Kenyan police; 2004–08
  • Muuse Suudi Yalahow, politician who served as Trade Minister in the Transitional Federal Government
  • Salaad Gabeyre Kediye
    Salaad Gabeyre Kediye
    Salaad Gabeyre Kediye , was a Major General in the Somali military and a revolutionary.-Biography:Major General Salaad Gabeyre Kediye was born in September, 15 1934, in the town of Harardhere, situated in the Central Mudug region of Somalia, to an Abgaal family Hawiye clan...

    , Father of the 1969 revolution

Leading intellectuals

  • Abdi Mohamed Ulusso
    Abdi Mohamed Ulusso
    Dr. Abdi Mohamed Ulusso is a Somali politician who ran for the Somali presidency in 2003. He hails from the Wacbudhan clan . He has served as Guddoomiyaha Golaha Midnimada Mudulood , or Chairman of the United Mudulood Congress...

    , 2003 presidential candidate
  • Abdulkadir Yahye Ali, peace activist, co-director and founder of the Center for Research and Dialogue
  • Abukar Umar Adani
    Abukar Umar Adani
    Abukar Omar Adani is the Chief Financier of the Islamic Courts Union. He hails from the Warsangali clan . As of 2008, he lives in Djibouti having fled Somalia following the defeat of the ICU by Ethiopian forces...

    , businessman who operates the Elman port services
  • Ali Jimale
    Ali Jimale
    Ali Jimale Ahmed is a Somali poet, essayist, scholar, and short story writer.-Biography:Jimale holds a Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles . Current and former chair of Comparative Literature at Queens College, he teaches courses in African, Middle Eastern, and European literature...

    , educator at the City University of New York
  • Ali Sheikh Ahmed
    Ali Sheikh Ahmed
    Dr. Ali Sheikh Ahmed is the founder and president of Mogadishu University, and a noted Islamic scholar.-Education:Ahmed studied abroad in Saudi Arabia, earning a Bachelor of Arts from the Islamic University in Medina in 1977. He followed that three years later with a Master's degree in Arts from...

    , dual president of Mogadishu University and Al-Islaah
  • Hilowle Imam Omar
    Hilowle Imam Omar
    Dr. Hilowle Imam Omar is a Somali politician who hails from the Harti abgaal clan . He took part in the Somali National Reconciliation Conference in Kenya. He was a member of the USC/North Mogadishu faction.- References :...

    , co-chairman of the reconciliation program 1995-2000
  • Hussein Ali Shido
    Hussein Ali Shido
    Dr. Hussein Ali Shido is a Somali politician. He entered politics when he joined the Somali Youth League. Dr. Hussein was one of the founders of the United Somali Congress, and later became its chairman prior to General Mohamed Farrah Aidid holding the position.-References:...

    , founding member of the United Somali Congress
  • Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare
    Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare
    -Biography:Kaddare was born near Mogadishu in the Banaadir region of Somalia to an Abgaal Hawiye family. In 1953, he created the Kaddare script, an orthography named after him that was used to transcribe the Somali language.-See also:* Osmanya script...

    , author of the Kaddariya script, 1952
  • Ibrahim Hassan Addou
    Ibrahim Hassan Addou
    Ibraahin Hassan Addow was a Somali scholar and politician.-Biography:Addow was the head of the Foreign Affairs department for the Islamic Courts Union of Somalia. He lived in the United States and worked as an administrator at the American University in Washington, D.C., before returning to his...

    , Former Professor of Washington University. Foreign Minister of the Union of Islamic courts in 2006
  • Omar Iman Abubakar
    Omar Iman Abubakar
    Sheikh Omar Iman Abubakar, , also known as Abu Bakar, was the chairman of the Somali Islamist insurgent group Hisbi Islam, which was formed in 2009 to fight Sharif Ahmed's government. Abu Bakar is a high ranking official in Hassan Dahir Aweys' Eritrean based faction of the Alliance for the...

    , professor and researcher in Hadith Sunna, Chairman of Hisbi Islam

Traditional elders and religious leaders

  • Ahmed Diriye Ali
    Ahmed Diriye Ali
    Ahmed Diriye Ali is the spokesman of the Hawiye traditional elders.-References:...

    , spokesman of the Hawiye traditional elders.
  • Cabdulle Gorod
    Cabdulle Gorod
    cabdulle gorod He was a member of the Habar Gedir clan. He was educated in Somalia and in Rome, Italy. The Second World War broke while he was a student...

    , elder based in Hobyo
  • Olol Diinle
    Olol Diinle
    Sultan Olol Diinle was the last sultan who ruled at Kelafo as a sultan of the Ajuran Somali clan lineage to rule an independent kingdom.-Historical Context:...

    , last king of the Ajuran empire
  • Sheekh Xasan Barsame, Ahmaddi anti-colonialist scholar
  • Sheikh Ali Dhere
    Sheikh Ali Dhere
    Sheikh Cali Sheikh Maxamuud Sheikh Cali Dheere , also known as "Sheekh Cali Dheere", is a Somali cleric and religious fundamentalist based in Mogadishu. He was instrumental in the establishment of the first Islamic courts in Mogadishu in 1996. He is from the Hawiye Abgaal clan...

    , founder of the first Islamic Court in Mogadishu

Music and literature

  • Abdi Bashiir Indhobuur
    Abdi Bashiir Indhobuur
    Abdi Bashiir Indhobuur was a Somali poet and songwriter. He wrote a song called Arligeygow, translated to mean My Land. He is now dead.He was born in Gaalkacyo in the Mudug region of Somalia. In 1963, he joined the police force, permanently moving to the capital, Mogadishu, in 1972. Shortly...

    , poet and composer, writer of several patriotic songs
  • Abdulle Geedannaar
    Abdulle Geedannaar
    Abdulle Geedanaar is a Somali poet from the Abgaal clan. He is famous for his Guuroow .-References:...

    , poet
  • Hasan Adan Samatar
    Hasan Adan Samatar
    Hasan Adan Samatar is a prominent Somali singer, guitarist and theatrical performer.-Biography:Samatar was born to an artistic family in Dinsoor, Somalia in 1953. He grew up in Baidoa, where he attended primary and elementary schools...

    , musician
  • Hussein Anteeno , political Journalist
  • K'naan
    K'naan
    K'naan , born Keinan Abdi Warsame in 1978, is a Somali Canadian poet, rapper, singer, songwriter and instrumentalist.-Biography:Born in Somalia, K'naan spent his childhood in Mogadishu and lived there during the Somali Civil War, which began in 1991. His aunt, Magool, was one of Somalia's most...

    , Somali-Canadian poet, rapper and musician
  • Magool
    Magool
    Magool , born Halima Khaliif Omar , was a Somali singer.-Early years:Magool was born in the city of Dhusa Mareb, the capital of the Galgaduud region in central Somalia. She had four siblings....

     (Halima Khalif Omar), musician
  • Sheekh Ahmed Gabyow
    Sheekh Ahmed Gabyow
    Sheekh Ahmed Gabyow was a famous Somali poet from the Abgaal Hawiye clan who lived in the coastal area north of Mogadishu in the first decades of the Italian occupation. He was well-known for the masafo, a genre of Somali poetry that is usually composed by religious men.-References:...

    , 19th-century poet

Political factions and organizations

  • Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism
    Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism
    The Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism was a Somali alliance created by various warlords and businesspeople. The alliance included Botan Ise Alin, Mohammed Dheere, Mohamed Qanyare, Musa Sudi Yalahow, Nuur Daqle, Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid, Omar Muhamoud Finnish and others...

    , (ARPCT) a Somali alliance created by various warlords and businesspeople
  • Democratic Union Party (DUP), has supporters in the area of Negele Boran
    Negele Boran
    Negele Borana is a town in southern Ethiopia. Located in the Guji Zone of the Oromia Region on the road connecting Addis Ababa to Dolo Odo, it has a latitude and longitude of with an altitude of about 1,475 meters above sea level. It is the administrative center of Liben woreda...

     in the Ogaden's Borena Zone
    Borena Zone
    Borena is one of the 17 zones of the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Borena is named after a tribe of the Oromo people. Borena is bordered on the south by Kenya, on the west by the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region, on the north by Guji and on the east by the Somali Region. The...

     in Ethiopia, with the majority of the Hawiye Degodia clan heading the party
  • Hizbul Shabaab, the Youth Movement wing of the ICU before ceding the organisation to Aden Hashi Farah "Eyrow"
  • Islamic Courts Union (ICU), a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government.
  • Juba Valley Alliance
    Juba Valley Alliance
    The Juba Valley Alliance is a political faction of the Somali Civil War. It was the primary opponent of the Somali Patriotic Movement and the Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council vying for the control of Kismayo and the Juba River valley, the area known as Jubaland.Following the...

     (JVA), primary opponent of the Somali Patriotic Movement
  • Somali National Alliance
    Somali National Alliance
    The Somali National Alliance was a political alliance formed in June, 1992 with Mohamed Farrah Aidid as its head. Its constituents included Aidid's breakaway United Somali Congress faction, the Somali Patriotic Movement and other southern factions. They were one faction in the Somali Civil War...

     (SNA) formed by Mohamed Farrah Aidid
  • Somali Salvation Army (SSA), the Ali Mahdi Muhammad
    Ali Mahdi Muhammad
    Ali Mahdi Muhammad was president of Somalia from January 1991 to November 1991. He rose to power when Mohamed Farrah Aidid forced then president Mohamed Siad Barre out of office. Muhammad, however, was not able in that time to exert control over the country...

     branch of the United Somali Congress
  • United Somali Congress
    United Somali Congress
    The United Somali Congress is one of the major political and paramilitary organizations of Somalia. Formed in 1988, it played a key role in the ouster of the government of Siad Barre, and became a major target of the so-called Operation Restore Hope campaign in 1993...

    (USC) Formed in 1988, it played a key role in the ouster of the dictatorship