Grosbeak

Grosbeak

Overview
Grosbeak is a form taxon
Form taxon
Form classification is the classification of organisms based on their morphology, which does not necessarily reflect their biological relationships...

 containing several species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of seed-eating passerine
Passerine
A passerine is a bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines form one of the most diverse terrestrial vertebrate orders: with over 5,000 identified species, it has roughly...

 birds with large beak
Beak
The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which is used for eating and for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young...

s. Although they all belong to the superfamily
Taxonomic rank
In biological classification, rank is the level in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, and class. Each rank subsumes under it a number of less general categories...

 Passeroidea, they are not a natural group but rather a polyphyletic assemblage of distantly related songbird
Songbird
A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Passeri of the perching birds . Another name that is sometimes seen as scientific or vernacular name is Oscines, from Latin oscen, "a songbird"...

s.

The following is a list of grosbeak species, arranged in groups of closely related genera
Genera
Genera is a commercial operating system and development environment for Lisp machines developed by Symbolics. It is essentially a fork of an earlier operating system originating on the MIT AI Lab's Lisp machines which Symbolics had used in common with LMI and Texas Instruments...

. Note that these genera are more closely related to smaller-billed birds than to other grosbeaks.
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Encyclopedia
Grosbeak is a form taxon
Form taxon
Form classification is the classification of organisms based on their morphology, which does not necessarily reflect their biological relationships...

 containing several species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of seed-eating passerine
Passerine
A passerine is a bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines form one of the most diverse terrestrial vertebrate orders: with over 5,000 identified species, it has roughly...

 birds with large beak
Beak
The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which is used for eating and for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young...

s. Although they all belong to the superfamily
Taxonomic rank
In biological classification, rank is the level in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, and class. Each rank subsumes under it a number of less general categories...

 Passeroidea, they are not a natural group but rather a polyphyletic assemblage of distantly related songbird
Songbird
A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Passeri of the perching birds . Another name that is sometimes seen as scientific or vernacular name is Oscines, from Latin oscen, "a songbird"...

s.

The following is a list of grosbeak species, arranged in groups of closely related genera
Genera
Genera is a commercial operating system and development environment for Lisp machines developed by Symbolics. It is essentially a fork of an earlier operating system originating on the MIT AI Lab's Lisp machines which Symbolics had used in common with LMI and Texas Instruments...

. Note that these genera are more closely related to smaller-billed birds than to other grosbeaks. The single exception are the three genera of "typical grosbeak finches", which indeed form a group of closest living relatives and might thus be considered the "true" grosbeaks.

Grosbeak finches


The finch
Finch
The true finches are passerine birds in the family Fringillidae. They are predominantly seed-eating songbirds. Most are native to the Northern Hemisphere, but one subfamily is endemic to the Neotropics, one to the Hawaiian Islands, and one subfamily – monotypic at genus level – is found...

 family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 (Fringillidae) contains 13 living species named "grosbeak", which are all part of the large subfamily Carduelinae
Carduelinae
The cardueline finches are a subfamily, Carduelinae, one of at least three subfamilies of the finch family Fringillidae, the others being the Fringillinae and the Euphoniinae. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are usually considered another subfamily, Drepanidinae, but they may be cardueline finches as well...

:

Typical grosbeak finches
  • The two Nearctic
    Nearctic
    The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earth's land surface.The Nearctic ecozone covers most of North America, including Greenland and the highlands of Mexico...

     and one Palearctic
    Palearctic
    The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth's surface.Physically, the Palearctic is the largest ecozone...

     species in the genus
    Genus
    In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

     Coccothraustes
    Coccothraustes
    Coccothraustes is a genus of large finches containing three species:* Hawfinch – Coccothraustes coccothraustes* Evening Grosbeak – Coccothraustes vespertinus* Hooded Grosbeak – Coccothraustes abeillei...

    :
    • Evening Grosbeak
      Evening Grosbeak
      The Evening Grosbeak is a large finch. In the past, it was treated in a genus of its own as Hesperiphona vespertina, but is now usually placed in the same genus as the Hawfinch of Eurasia....

      , C. vespertinus
    • Hooded Grosbeak
      Hooded Grosbeak
      The Hooded Grosbeak is a passerine bird found in the highlands of Central America, principally in Mexico.It flies high into the air, often traveling long distances across open terrain.-External links:*]]...

      , C. abeillei
    • Hawfinch
      Hawfinch
      The Hawfinch, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, is a passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. Its closest living relatives are the Evening Grosbeak from North America and the Hooded Grosbeak from Central America especially Mexico.This bird breeds across Europe and temperate Asia...

      , C. coccothraustes
  • The two species in the East Asian genus
    Genus
    In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

     Eophona
    Eophona
    The Oriental grosbeaks are a genus of finches containing two species:* Yellow-billed Grosbeak Eophona migratoria* Japanese Grosbeak Eophona personata- References :...

    :
    • Japanese Grosbeak
      Japanese Grosbeak
      The Japanese Grosbeak, Eophona personata, is a finch native to East Asia....

      , E. personata
    • Chinese Grosbeak or Yellow-billed Grosbeak, E. migratoria
  • The four species in the Southeast Asian genus
    Genus
    In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

     Mycerobas
    Mycerobas
    The Mycerobas grosbeaks are a genus of finch in the Fringillidae family. They are colorful finches and are the largest species in the family.The genus contains the following species:* Collared Grosbeak...

    :
    • Black-and-yellow Grosbeak
      Black-and-yellow Grosbeak
      The Black-and-Yellow Grosbeak is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.It is found in Afghanistan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan.Its natural habitat is temperate forests.-References:...

      , M. icterioides
    • Collared Grosbeak
      Collared Grosbeak
      The Collared Grosbeak is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand. Its natural habitat is boreal forests.-References:...

      , M. affinis
    • Spot-winged Grosbeak
      Spot-winged Grosbeak
      The Spot-winged Grosbeak is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.-References:*...

      , M. melanozanthos
    • White-winged Grosbeak
      White-winged Grosbeak
      The White-winged Grosbeak is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.It is found in Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Iran, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Its natural habitat is boreal forests.-References:* BirdLife International 2004. . ...

      , M. carnipes

Grosbeak bullfinch
  • The Pine Grosbeak
    Pine Grosbeak
    left|thumb|Adult femaleThe Pine Grosbeak is a large member of the true finch family, Fringillidae. It is found in coniferous woods across Alaska, the western mountains of the United States, Canada, and in subarctic Fennoscandia and Siberia...

    , Pinicola enucleator, a Holarctic
    Holarctic
    The Holarctic ecozone refers to the habitats found throughout the northern continents of the world as a whole. This region is divided into the Palearctic, consisting of Northern Africa and all of Eurasia, with the exception of Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent, and the Nearctic,...

     pine forest species

Grosbeak goldfinches
  • The three golden-winged grosbeak
    Golden-winged grosbeak
    The genus Rhynchostruthus is a small group of finches in the family Fringillinae. Commonly known as golden-winged grosbeaks, they are attractive, chunky, medium-sized, robust-billed songbirds restricted to the southern Arabian and northern Somalian regions.These elusive birds are typically found...

    s in the genus Rhynchostruthus, found in northern Somalia
    Somalia
    Somalia , officially the Somali Republic and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory...

    , mountains of south-west Arabia and on the island of Socotra
    Socotra
    Socotra , also spelt Soqotra, is a small archipelago of four islands in the Indian Ocean. The largest island, also called Socotra, is about 95% of the landmass of the archipelago. It lies some east of the Horn of Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. The island is very isolated and through...

     and often considered a single species:
    • Somali Grosbeak
      Somali Grosbeak
      The Somali Grosbeak or Somali Golden-winged Grosbeak is a finch endemic to northern Somalia. It is included as a subspecies in R...

      , R. louisae
    • Arabian Grosbeak
      Arabian Grosbeak
      The Arabian Grosbeak or Arabian Golden-winged Grosbeak is a finch found in Saudi Arabia, Oman and Yemen. It is included as a subspecies in R...

      , R. percivali
    • Socotra Grosbeak
      Socotra Grosbeak
      The Socotra Grosbeak or Socotra Golden-winged Grosbeak is a finch endemic to Socotra, an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Yemen. R. socotranus is by some authorities held to be the only species of the then-monotypic genus Rhynchostruthus, including all other golden-winged grosbeaks...

      , R. socotranus

Affiliations unknown
  • The São Tomé Grosbeak
    São Tomé Grosbeak
    The São Tomé Grosbeak, Neospiza concolor, is a large, chunky finch with a massive bill. It is endemic to the island of São Tomé.Until recently this bird was known only from three nineteenth century specimens. It was rediscovered in 1991. The current population is estimated at less than 50. The main...

    , Neospiza concolor, a critically endangered
    Critically endangered
    Version 2010.3 of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 3744 Critically Endangered species, subspecies and varieties, stocks and subpopulations.Critically Endangered by kingdom:*1993 Animalia*2 Fungi*1745 Plantae*4 Protista-References:...

     restricted-range endemic found only in forests on the island of São Tomé
    São Tomé
    -Transport:São Tomé is served by São Tomé International Airport with regular flights to Europe and other African Countries.-Climate:São Tomé features a tropical wet and dry climate with a relatively lengthy wet season and a short dry season. The wet season runs from October through May while the...

     off the West Africa
    West Africa
    West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. Geopolitically, the UN definition of Western Africa includes the following 16 countries and an area of approximately 5 million square km:-Flags of West Africa:...

    n coast, believed extinct until rediscovered in 1996


Two species in the genus Serinus
Serinus
The genus Serinus is a large genus of birds in the finch family Fringillidae found mostly in the Afrotropical region with some outlying species in Europe and Asia. The genus contains several species groups including canaries, seedeaters and the African siskins...

are named "Grosbeak-canaries": the Abyssinian Grosbeak-canary (Serinus donaldsoni) and the Southern Grosbeak-canary
Southern Grosbeak-canary
The Southern Grosbeak-Canary, also known as Kenya Grosbeak-Canary is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family. It is found in Kenya and Tanzania. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.-References:...

 or Kenya Grosbeak-canary (Serinus buchanani). The genus Serinus is somewhat closely related to the golden-winged grosbeaks.

In addition, there are two extinct Fringillidae "grosbeaks":
  • The Bonin Grosbeak
    Bonin Grosbeak
    The Bonin Grosbeak or Bonin Islands Grosbeak is an extinct finch, the only species of the genus Chaunoproctus. It is one of the diverse bird taxa that are vernacularly called "grosbeaks", but it is not closely related to the grosbeaks sensu stricto. It was a retiring, although not shy bird, and...

     (Chaunoproctus ferreorostris), found only on the Ogasawara Islands
    Ogasawara Islands
    The Bonin Islands, known in Japan as the are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some directly south of Tokyo, Japan. Administratively, they are part of Ogasawara Municipality of Ogasawara Subprefecture, Tokyo...

    , which was last recorded in 1832. Its relationshps are obscure, but it was probably another member of the cardueline finches.
  • The Kona Grosbeak
    Kona Grosbeak
    The Kona Grosbeak is an extinct species of finch in the Hawaiian honeycreeper subfamily, Drepanidinae. The Kona Grosbeak was endemic to naio forests on ʻaʻā lava flows at elevations of near the Kona District on the island of Hawaii...

     or Grosbeak Finch (Chloridops kona), last recorded in 1896. It was a Hawaiian honeycreeper
    Hawaiian honeycreeper
    Hawaiian honeycreepers are small, passerine birds endemic to Hawaii. Some authorities still categorize this group as a family Drepanididae, but in recent years, most authorities consider them a subfamily, Drepanidinae, of Fringillidae, the finch family...

    , subfamily Drepanidinae.

Cardinal-grosbeaks


The cardinal
Cardinal (bird)
The Cardinals or Cardinalidae are a family of passerine birds found in North and South America. The South American cardinals in the genus Paroaria are placed in another family, the Thraupidae ....

 family (Cardinalidae) of the Americas
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

 contains the following 17 "grosbeaks":
Typical cardinal-grosbeaks
  • The six species in the genus
    Genus
    In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

     Pheucticus
    Pheucticus
    Pheucticus is a genus of grosbeaks.-Species:* Yellow Grosbeak, Pheucticus chrysopeplus* Golden-bellied Grosbeak, Pheucticus chrysogaster* Black-thighed Grosbeak, Pheucticus tibialis* Black-backed Grosbeak, Pheucticus aureoventris...

    • Yellow Grosbeak
      Yellow Grosbeak
      The Yellow Grosbeak , Pheucticus chrysopeplus, is a medium-sized seed-eating bird in the same family as the Northern Cardinal, "tropical" or "New World" buntings, and "cardinal-grosbeaks" or "New World" grosbeaks....

      , P. chrysopeplus
    • Golden-bellied Grosbeak
      Golden-bellied Grosbeak
      The Golden-bellied Grosbeak or Southern Yellow-bellied Grosbeak, is a species of cardinal in the Cardinalidae family...

      , P. chrysogaster
    • Black-thighed Grosbeak
      Black-thighed Grosbeak
      The Black-thighed Grosbeak, Pheucticus tibialis, is a large seed-eating bird in the cardinal family, which is endemic to the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama....

      , P. tibialis, a restricted-range endemic found only in the highlands of Costa Rica
      Costa Rica
      Costa Rica , officially the Republic of Costa Rica is a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east....

       and Panama
      Panama
      Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

    • Black-backed Grosbeak
      Black-backed Grosbeak
      The Black-backed Grosbeak, Pheucticus aureoventris is a large finch type bird found in South America in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. They are often kept as cagebirds....

      , P. aureoventris
    • Rose-breasted Grosbeak
      Rose-breasted Grosbeak
      The Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus, is a large seed-eating songbird in the cardinal family . It breeds in cool-temperate North America, migrating to tropical America in winter.-Description:...

      , P. ludovicianus
    • Black-headed Grosbeak
      Black-headed Grosbeak
      The Black-headed Grosbeak, Pheucticus melanocephalus, is a medium-size seed-eating bird in the same family as the Northern Cardinal, the Cardinalidae. It is sometimes considered conspecific with the Rose-breasted Grosbeak, P...

      , P. melanocephalus


Masked cardinal-grosbeaks
  • The Red-and-black Grosbeak
    Red-and-black Grosbeak
    The Red-And-Black Grosbeak is a species of cardinal in the Cardinalidae family.It is found in Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela.Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests....

    , Periporphyrus erythromelas of northern South America
    South America
    South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

  • The two species in the Neotropical genus
    Genus
    In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

     Caryothraustes
    Caryothraustes
    Caryothraustes is a genus of cardinal in the Cardinalidae family.It contains the following species:* Yellow-Green Grosbeak * Black-faced Grosbeak...

    :
    • Black-faced Grosbeak
      Black-faced Grosbeak
      The Black-faced Grosbeak, Caryothraustes poliogaster, is a large seed-eating bird in the cardinal family, which is a resident breeding species from southeastern Mexico to eastern Panama....

      , C. poliogaster
    • Yellow-green Grosbeak
      Yellow-green Grosbeak
      The Yellow-Green Grosbeak is a species of cardinal in the Cardinalidae family.It is found in Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela....

      , C. canadensis
  • The Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    The Crimson-collared Grosbeak is a medium-size seed- and leaf-eating bird in the same family as the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalidae....

    , Rhodothraupis celaeno, a restricted-range endemic found only in eastern Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...


Blue cardinal-grosbeaks
  • Two species in the Neotropical genus Cyanocompsa
    Cyanocompsa
    Cyanocompsa is a genus of cardinal in the Cardinalidae family.It contains the following species:* Ultramarine Grosbeak * Blue Bunting * Blue-black Grosbeak...

    which also contains the Blue Bunting
    Blue Bunting
    The Blue Bunting is a species of passerine bird found in northern Central America. Measuring in length with a wingspan of , it is one of the smaller members of its genus. Like most buntings, the Blue Bunting is sexually dimorphic...

     (C. parellina):
    • Ultramarine Grosbeak
      Ultramarine Grosbeak
      The Ultramarine Grosbeak is a species of cardinal in the Cardinalidae family. It is found in a wide range of semi-open habitats in eastern and central South America, with a disjunct population in northern South America. The male closely resembles the Blue-black Grosbeak, while the females are...

      , C. brissonii
    • Blue-black Grosbeak
      Blue-black Grosbeak
      The Blue-black Grosbeak is a species of songbird in the Cardinalidae family.It is found in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela...

      , C. cyanoides
  • The Glaucous-blue Grosbeak (Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea) of eastern South America
    South America
    South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

  • One species (sometimes separated in Guiraca) in the genus Passerina
    Passerina
    The genus Passerina is a group of birds in the Cardinal family Cardinalidae. Although not directly related to buntings in the family Emberizidae, they are sometimes known as the North American buntings .The males show vivid colours in the breeding season; the...

    , which also contains the North American buntings:
    • Blue Grosbeak
      Blue Grosbeak
      Blue Grosbeak , is a medium-sized seed-eating bird in the same family as the Northern Cardinal, "tropical" or New World buntings, and "cardinal-grosbeaks" or New World grosbeaks....

      , Passerina caerulea

Grosbeak tanagers?



Three additional species of "grosbeaks" have long been placed in the Cardinalidae, but actually seem to be closer to the tanager
Tanager
The tanagers comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes. The family has an American distribution.There were traditionally about 240 species of tanagers, but the taxonomic treatment of this family's members is currently in a state of flux...

 family (Thraupidae):
  • Two species in the Neotropical genus
    Genus
    In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

     Saltator
    Saltator
    Saltator is a genus of songbirds of the Americas. They are traditionally placed in the cardinal family but now seem to be closer to tanagers . Their English name is also saltator, except for two dark species known by the more general grosbeak.Saltator is Latin for "leaper" or "dancer"...

    , which also contains the saltators:
    • Slate-coloured Grosbeak
      Slate-coloured Grosbeak
      The Slate-coloured Grosbeak is a species of cardinal in the Cardinalidae family. Most of its range is the Amazon in South America, but it is also found in forests of the Chocó in Ecuador and Colombia, and southern Central America from Panama to Honduras.-References:* BirdLife International 2004. ...

      , S. grossus
    • Black-throated Grosbeak
      Black-throated Grosbeak
      The Black-throated Grosbeak is a species of songbird. Traditionally placed in the cardinal family , it actually seems to be closer to the tanagers – see the genus article for details....

      , S. fuliginosus
  • The Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak
    Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak
    The Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak is a songbird species in the cardinal family , or possibly a tanager...

    , Parkerthraustes humeralis of South America
    South America
    South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...


Grosbeak Weaver


Finally, the weaver family (Ploceidae) contains a species called the Grosbeak Weaver
Grosbeak Weaver
The Thick-billed Weaver or Thick-billed Weaver is a species of bird in the Ploceidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Amblyospiza....

(Amblyospiza albifrons).