Grand Coulee Dam

Grand Coulee Dam

Overview
Grand Coulee Dam is a gravity dam on the Columbia River
Columbia River
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, flows northwest and then south into the U.S. state of Washington, then turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state...

 in the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Washington built to produce hydroelectric power and provide irrigation. It was constructed between 1933 and 1942, originally with two power plants. A third power station was completed in 1974 to increase its energy production. It is the largest electric power
Electric power
Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt.-Circuits:Electric power, like mechanical power, is represented by the letter P in electrical equations...

-producing facility in the United States and one of the largest concrete structures in the world.

The proposal to build the dam was the focus of a bitter debate during the 1920s between two groups.
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Quotations

Don't feel sorry for yourselfI'll always wait for youYour ghost is a lightshow at nightOn the Grand Coulee Dam.The river is watching youAt the drive-in tonightWho do they comfort nowSince I've gone away?

Neko Case|Neko Case, Ghost Wiring

Idiot wind, blowing like a circle around my skull,From the Grand Coulee Dam to the Capitol.Idiot wind, blowing every time you move your teeth,You're an idiot, babe.It's a wonder that you still know how to breathe.

Bob Dylan, Idiot Wind
Encyclopedia
Grand Coulee Dam is a gravity dam on the Columbia River
Columbia River
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, flows northwest and then south into the U.S. state of Washington, then turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state...

 in the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Washington built to produce hydroelectric power and provide irrigation. It was constructed between 1933 and 1942, originally with two power plants. A third power station was completed in 1974 to increase its energy production. It is the largest electric power
Electric power
Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt.-Circuits:Electric power, like mechanical power, is represented by the letter P in electrical equations...

-producing facility in the United States and one of the largest concrete structures in the world.

The proposal to build the dam was the focus of a bitter debate during the 1920s between two groups. One wanted to irrigate the ancient Grand Coulee
Grand Coulee
The Grand Coulee is an ancient river bed in the U.S. state of Washington. This National Natural Landmark stretches for about sixty miles southwest from Grand Coulee Dam to Soap Lake, being bisected by Dry Falls into the Upper and Lower Grand Coulee....

 with a gravity canal and the other supported a high dam and pumping scheme. Dam supporters won in 1933, but for fiscal reasons the initial design was for a "low dam" 290 ft (88 m) high which would generate electricity, but not support irrigation. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and a consortium of three companies called MWAK (Mason-Walsh-Atkinson Kier Company) began construction that year. After visiting the construction site in , President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began endorsing the "high dam" design which, at 550 ft (168 m) high, would provide enough electricity to pump water to irrigate the Columbia Basin. The high dam was approved by Congress in 1935 and completed in 1942; the first water over-topped its spillway on of that year.

Power from the dam fueled the growing industries of the Northwest United States during World War II. Between 1967 and 1974, the Third Powerplant was constructed. The decision to construct the additional facility was influenced by growing energy demand, regulated river flows stipulated in the Columbia River Treaty
Columbia River Treaty
The Columbia River Treaty is an agreement between Canada and the United States of America on the development and operation of dams in the upper Columbia River basin for power and flood control benefits in both countries. For more information about the Columbia River Treaty, visit Columbia Basin...

 with Canada and competition with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. Through a series of upgrades and the installation of pump-generators, the dam now supplies four power stations with an installed capacity of 6,809 MW. As the center-piece of the Columbia Basin Project
Columbia Basin Project
The Columbia Basin Project in Central Washington, USA, is the irrigation network that the Grand Coulee Dam makes possible. It is the largest water reclamation project in the United States, supplying irrigation water to over of the large project area, all of which was originally intended to be...

, the dam's reservoir supplies water for the irrigation of 671000 acres (2,715.4 km²).

The reservoir is called Franklin Delano Roosevelt Lake
Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake
Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake is the reservoir created in 1941 by the impoundment of the Columbia River by the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington state. It is named for Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was President during the construction of the dam...

, named after the United States President who presided over the authorization and completion of the dam. Creation of the reservoir forced the relocation of over 3,000 people, including Native American
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

s whose ancestral lands were partially flooded. The dam has also blocked the migration of salmon
Salmon
Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the same family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, but this distinction does not strictly hold true...

 and other fish upstream to spawn.

Background


The Grand Coulee
Grand Coulee
The Grand Coulee is an ancient river bed in the U.S. state of Washington. This National Natural Landmark stretches for about sixty miles southwest from Grand Coulee Dam to Soap Lake, being bisected by Dry Falls into the Upper and Lower Grand Coulee....

 is an ancient river bed on the Columbia Plateau
Columbia Plateau
The Columbia Plateau is a geologic and geographic region that lies across parts of the U.S. states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. It is a wide flood basalt plateau between the Cascade Range and the Rocky Mountains, cut through by the Columbia River...

 created during the Pliocene
Pliocene
The Pliocene Epoch is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.332 million to 2.588 million years before present. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Pliocene follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene Epoch...

 Epoch (Calabrian) by retreating glaciers and floods. Originally, geologists believed the Grand Coulee was formed by a glacier diverting the Columbia River but it was revealed in the mid-late 20th century that massive floods from Lake Missoula carved most of the gorge. The earliest known proposal to irrigate the Grand Coulee with the Columbia River dates to 1892, when the Coulee City News and The Spokesman Review reported on a scheme by a man named Laughlin McLean to construct a 1000 ft (305 m) dam across the Columbia River, high enough that water would back up into the Grand Coulee. A dam that size would have its reservoir encroach into Canada, which would violate treaties. Shortly after the Bureau of Reclamation was founded, it investigated a scheme for pumping water from the Columbia River to irrigate parts of central Washington. An attempt to raise funds for irrigation failed in 1914, as a bond measure was rejected by Washington voters.

An attorney from Ephrata, Washington
Ephrata, Washington
Ephrata is a city in Grant County, Washington, United States. The population was 6,808 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Grant County.-History:...

, named William M. Clapp proposed in 1917 that the Columbia be dammed immediately below the Grand Coulee. He suggested a concrete dam could flood the plateau, just as nature blocked it with ice centuries ago. Clapp was joined by another attorney, James O'Sullivan, and by Rufus Woods, publisher of the Wenatchee World newspaper. Together, they became known as the "Dam College". Woods began promoting the Grand Coulee Dam in his newspaper, often with articles written by O'Sullivan. The dam idea gained popularity with the public in 1918. Backers of reclamation in Central Washington split into two camps. One side, known as the "pumpers", favored a dam with pumps to elevate water from the river into the Grand Coulee from which canals and pipes could be used to irrigate farmland. The other side, known as the "ditchers", favored diverting water from northeast Washington's Pend Oreille River
Pend Oreille River
The Pend Oreille River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately long, in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington in the United States, as well as southeastern British Columbia in Canada. In its passage through British Columbia its name is spelled Pend-d'Oreille River...

 via a gravity canal to irrigate farmland in Central and Eastern Washington. Many locals such as Woods, O'Sullivan and Clapp were pumpers, while many influential businessmen in Spokane associated with the Washington Water and Power Company (WWPC) were staunch ditchers. The pumpers argued that hydroelectricity from the dam could be used to cover costs and claimed the ditchers sought to maintain a monopoly on electric power.

The ditchers took a number of steps to ensure support for their proposals. In 1921, WWPC secured a preliminary permit to build a dam at Kettle Falls, about 110 mi (177 km) upstream from the Grand Coulee. If built, the Kettle Falls Dam would have lain in the path of the Grand Coulee Dam's reservoir, essentially blocking its construction. WWPC planted rumors in the newspapers, incorrectly stating that exploratory drilling at the Grand Coulee site found no granite on which a dam's foundations could rest, only clay and fragmented rock. This was later disproved with Reclamation-ordered drilling. Ditchers hired General George W. Goethals, engineer of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

, to prepare a report. Goethals visited the state and produced a report backing the ditchers. The Bureau of Reclamation was unimpressed by Goethals' report, believing it filled with errors. In , President Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
Warren Gamaliel Harding was the 29th President of the United States . A Republican from Ohio, Harding was an influential self-made newspaper publisher. He served in the Ohio Senate , as the 28th Lieutenant Governor of Ohio and as a U.S. Senator...

 visited Washington state and expressed support for irrigation work there, but died a month later. His successor, Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. was the 30th President of the United States . A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state...

, had little interest in irrigation projects. The Bureau of Reclamation, desirous of a major project that would bolster its reputation, was focusing on the Boulder Canyon Project that resulted in the Hoover Dam
Hoover Dam
Hoover Dam, once known as Boulder Dam, is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the US states of Arizona and Nevada. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30, 1935, by President...

. Reclamation was authorized to conduct a study in 1923, but the project's cost made federal officials reluctant. The Washington state proposals received little support from those further east, who feared the irrigation would result in more crops, depressing prices. With President Coolidge opposed to the project, bills to appropriate money for surveys of the Grand Coulee site failed.

In 1925, Congress authorized a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers study of the Columbia River. This study was included in the Rivers and Harbors Act of , which provided for studies on the navigation, power, flood control and irrigation potential of rivers. In , the Army Corps responded with the first of the "308 Reports" named after the 1925 House Document No. 308 (69th Congress, 1st Session). With the help of Washington's Senators, Wesley Jones and Clarence Dill
Clarence Dill
Clarence Cleveland Dill was an American politician from the state of Washington. He was a Democrat.Dill was born in Knox County, Ohio. He attended Ohio Wesleyan University, where he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi....

, Congress ordered $600,000 in further studies to be carried out by the Army Corps and Federal Power Commission
Federal Power Commission
The Federal Power Commission was an independent commission of the United States government, originally organized on June 23, 1930, with five members nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate...

 on the Columbia River Basin and Snake River
Snake River
The Snake is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean...

s. U.S. Army Major John Butler was responsible for the upper Columbia River and Snake River and in 1932, his 1,000-page report was submitted to Congress. It recommended the Grand Coulee Dam and nine others on the river, including some in Canada. The report stated that electricity sales from the Grand Coulee Dam could pay for construction costs. Reclamation—whose interest in the dam was revitalized by the report—endorsed it.

Although there was some support for the Grand Coulee Dam, others argued there was little need for more electricity in the Northwest and crops were in surplus. The Army Corps did not believe construction should be a federal project and saw low demand for electricity. Reclamation argued that energy demand would rise by the time the dam was complete. The head of Reclamation, Elwood Mead
Elwood Mead
Elwood Mead was a professor, politician and engineer, known for heading the Bureau of Reclamation from 1924 until his death in 1936. During his tenure, he oversaw some of the most complex projects the Bureau of Reclamation has undertaken...

, stated he wanted the dam built no matter the cost. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

, who took office in March, 1933, supported the dam because of its irrigation potential and the power it would provide, but he was uneasy with its price tag. For this reason, he supported a 290 ft (88 m) "low dam" instead of the 550 ft (168 m) "high dam". He provided in federal funding, while Washington State provided $377,000. In 1933, Washington governor Clarence Martin set up the Columbia Basin Commission to oversee the dam project, and Reclamation was selected to oversee construction.

Low dam


On July 16, 1933, a crowd of 3,000 watched the driving of the first stake at the low dam site, and excavation soon began. Core drilling commenced that September while the Bureau of Reclamation accelerated its studies and designs for the dam. It would still help control floods and provide for irrigation and hydroelectricity, though at a reduced capacity. Most importantly, it would not raise its reservoir high enough to irrigate the plateau around the Grand Coulee. However, the dam's design provided for future raising and upgrading.

Before and during construction, workers and engineers experienced problems. Contracts for companies to construct the various parts of the dam were difficult to award as few companies were sizable enough to fill them. This forced companies to consolidate. In addition, Native American graves had to be relocated and temporary fish ladder
Fish ladder
A fish ladder, also known as a fishway, fish pass or fish steps, is a structure on or around artificial barriers to facilitate diadromous fishes' natural migration. Most fishways enable fish to pass around the barriers by swimming and leaping up a series of relatively low steps into the waters on...

s had to be constructed. During construction additional problems included landslides and the need to protect newly poured concrete from freezing. Construction on the downstream Grand Coulee Bridge
Grand Coulee Bridge
The Grand Coulee Bridge, or Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam, is a thru-cantilever steel truss bridge built in 1935. It carries Washington State Route 155. It is near the city of Grand Coulee, Washington and the Grand Coulee Dam. In 1982, it was added to the National Register of Historic...

 began in and more considerable earth-moving began in August. Excavation for the dam's foundation required the removal of 22000000 cu yd (16,820,206.9 m³) of dirt and stone. To reduce the amount of trucking required in the excavation, a conveyor belt
Conveyor belt
A conveyor belt consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop of material - the conveyor belt - that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley...

 nearly 2 mi (3.2 km) long was built. To further secure the foundation, workers drilled 660–880 ft (201.2–268.2 m) holes into the granite and filled any fissures with grout, creating a grout curtain
Grout curtain
Grout curtains are barriers that protect a dam from seepage and can be used in initial construction or repair. Additionally, they can be used to strengthen foundations and contain spills.-Characteristics:...

. At times, excavated areas collapsed from overburden. In order to secure these areas from further movement and continue excavation, 3-inch (76 mm) diameter pipes were inserted into the mass and chilled with cold liquid from a refrigeration plant. This froze the earth and secured it so construction could continue.

Final contract bidding for the dam began , 1934, in Spokane, and four bids were submitted. One bid was from a lawyer with no financial backing; another was from actress Mae West
Mae West
Mae West was an American actress, playwright, screenwriter and sex symbol whose entertainment career spanned seven decades....

 which consisted of nothing more than a poem and promise to divert the river. Of the two serious bids, the lowest bid was from a consortium of three companies: Silas Mason Co. from Louisville, Kentucky, Walsh Construction Co. of Davenport, Iowa
Davenport, Iowa
Davenport is a city located along the Mississippi River in Scott County, Iowa, United States. Davenport is the county seat of and largest city in Scott County. Davenport was founded on May 14, 1836 by Antoine LeClaire and was named for his friend, George Davenport, a colonel during the Black Hawk...

 and New York and Atkinson-Kier Company of San Francisco and San Diego. The consortium was known as MWAK and their bid was $29,339,301, almost 15% lower than the option submitted by the next bidder, Six Companies, Inc., which was building Hoover Dam
Hoover Dam
Hoover Dam, once known as Boulder Dam, is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the US states of Arizona and Nevada. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30, 1935, by President...

 at the time.

Cofferdams


Two large cofferdam
Cofferdam
A cofferdam is a temporary enclosure built within, or in pairs across, a body of water and constructed to allow the enclosed area to be pumped out, creating a dry work environment for the major work to proceed...

s were constructed for the dam, but they were parallel to the river rather than straddling its width, so drilling into the canyon walls was not required. By the end of 1935 about 1,200 workers completed the west and east cofferdams. The west cofferdam was 2000 ft (609.6 m) long, 50 ft (15.2 m) thick and was constructed 110 ft (33.5 m) above the bedrock. The cofferdams allowed workers to dry portions of the riverbed and begin constructing the dam, while water continued to flow down the center of the riverbed. In , once the west foundation was complete, portions of the west cofferdam were dismantled, allowing water to flow through part of the dam's new foundation. In , MWAK had begun constructing cofferdams above and below the channel between the east and west cofferdams. By December, the entire Columbia River was diverted over the foundations constructed within the east and west cofferdams. On , 1936, the Wenatchee Daily World announced that the river was diverted and by early the next year, people were arriving in large numbers to see the riverbed.

Design change



On August 4, 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

 visited the construction site and was impressed by the project and its purpose. He gave a speech to workers and spectators, closing with this statement: "I leave here today with the feeling that this work is well undertaken; that we are going ahead with a useful project, and we are going to see it through for the benefit of our country." Soon after his visit, Reclamation was allowed to proceed with the high dam plan but faced the problems of transitioning the design and negotiating an altered contract with MWAK. In , for an additional , MWAK and Six Companies, Inc. agreed to join together as Consolidated Builders Inc. and construct the high dam. Six Companies had just finished the Hoover Dam and was nearing completion of Parker Dam
Parker Dam
Parker Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam that crosses the Colorado River downstream of Hoover Dam. Built between 1934 and 1938 by the Bureau of Reclamation, it is high, of which are below the riverbed, making it "the deepest dam in the world". The dam's primary functions are to create a...

. The new design, chosen and approved by the Reclamation office in Denver, included several improvements, one of which was the irrigation pumping plant.

Roosevelt envisioned the dam would fit into his New Deal
New Deal
The New Deal was a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were Roosevelt's responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call...

 under the Public Works Administration; it would create jobs, farming opportunities and would pay for itself. In addition, as part of a larger public effort, Roosevelt wanted to keep electricity prices low by limiting private ownership of utility companies, which could charge high prices for energy. Many opposed a federal takeover of the project, including its most prominent supporters, but Washington State lacked the resources to fully realize the project. In , with the help of Roosevelt and a Supreme Court
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases...

 decision allowing the acquisition of public land and Indian Reservations, Congress authorized funding for the upgraded high dam under the 1935 River and Harbors Act. The most significant legislative hurdle for the dam was over.

First concrete pour and completion



On December 6, 1935, Governor Clarence Martin presided over the ceremonial first concrete
Concrete
Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate , water and chemical admixtures.The word concrete comes from the Latin word...

 pour. During construction, bulk concrete was delivered on site by rail-cars where it was further processed by eight large mixers before being placed in form. Concrete was poured into 50 ft2 columns by crane-lifted buckets, each supporting eight tons of concrete. To cool the concrete and facilitate curing, about 2000 mi (3,218.7 km) of piping was placed throughout the drying mass. Cold water from the river was pumped into the pipes, reducing the temperature within the forms from 105 °F (40.6 °C) to 45 °F (7.2 °C). This caused the dam to contract about eight inches in length; the resulting gaps were filled with grout.

Until the project began, the stretch of the Columbia River where the dam was to rise was as yet unbridged, making it difficult to move men and materials. In , the Grand Coulee Bridge (a permanent highway bridge) was opened after major delays caused by high water; three additional and temporary bridges downstream had moved vehicles and workers along with sand and gravel for cement mixing. In , MWAK completed the lower dam and Consolidated Builders Inc. began constructing the high dam. The west power house was completed in and about 5,500 workers were on site that year. Between 1940 and 1941, the dam's eleven floodgates were installed on the spillway
Spillway
A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area, typically being the river that was dammed. In the UK they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways release floods so that the water does not overtop and damage or even destroy...

 and the dam's first generator went into operation in . The reservoir was full and the first water flowed over the dam's spillway on , 1942, while work was officially complete on , 1943. The last of the original 18 generators was not operational until 1950.

Reservoir clearing



In 1933, Reclamation began efforts to purchase land behind the dam as far as 151 mi (243 km) upstream for the future reservoir zone. The reservoir, known later as Lake Roosevelt, flooded 70500 acres (285.3 km²) and Reclamation acquired an additional 11500 acres (46.5 km²) around the future shoreline. Within the zone were eleven towns, two railroads, three state highways, about one hundred and fifty miles of country roads, four sawmills, fourteen bridges, four telegraph and telephone systems, and many power lines and cemeteries. All facilities had to be purchased or relocated, and 3,000 residents were relocated. The Anti-Speculation Act was passed in 1937, limiting the amount of land farmers could own in order to prevent inflated prices. The government appraised the land and offered to purchase it from the affected residents. Many refused to accept the offers, and Reclamation filed condemnation suits. Members of the Colville Confederated and Spokane tribes who had settlements within the reservoir zone were also resettled. The Acquisition of Indian Lands for Grand Coulee Dam Act of , 1940, allowed the Secretary of the Interior to acquire land on the Colville and Spokane Reservations, eventually accounting for 21100 acres (85.4 km²). By 1942, all land had been purchased at market value: a cost of that included the relocation of farms, bridges, highways and railroads. Relocation reimbursement was not offered to property owners, which was common until U.S. laws were changed in 1958.

In late 1938, the Works Progress Administration
Works Progress Administration
The Works Progress Administration was the largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions of unskilled workers to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects...

 began clearing the reservoir zone of trees and other plants. A total of 54000 acres (218.5 km²) were cleared. The cut timber was floated downstream and sold to the highest bidder, Lincoln Lumber Company, which paid $2.25 per thousand board feet. The pace of clearing was accelerated in when it was declared a national defense project, and the last tree was felled on , 1941. The felling was done by Reclamation Supervising Engineer Frank A. Banks and State WPA Administrator Carl W. Smith during a ceremony. A total of 2,626 people living in five main camps along the Columbia worked on the project. When it was finished, had been spent in labor.

Labor and supporting infrastructure



Workers building the dam received an average of 80¢
Cent (currency)
In many national currencies, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1⁄100 of the basic monetary unit. Etymologically, the word cent derives from the Latin word "centum" meaning hundred. Cent also refers to a coin which is worth one cent....

 an hour; the payroll for the dam was among the largest in the nation. The workers were mainly pulled from Grant, Lincoln, Douglas, and Okanogan counties and women were allowed to work only in the dorms and the cookhouse. Around 8,000 people worked on the project, and Frank A. Banks served as the chief construction engineer. Bert A. Hall was the chief inspector who would accept the dam from the contractors. Orin G. Patch served as the chief of concrete. Construction conditions were dangerous and 77 workers died.

To prepare for construction, housing for workers was needed along with four bridges downstream of the dam site, one of which, the Grand Coulee Bridge, exists today. The Bureau of Reclamation provided housing and located their administrative building at Engineer's Town, which was located directly downstream of the construction site on the west side of the river. Opposite Engineer's Town, MWAK constructed Mason City in 1934. Mason city contained a hospital, post office, electricity and other amenities along with a population of 3,000. Three-bedroom houses in the city were rented for $32 a month. Of the two living areas, Engineer's City was considered to have the better housing. Several other living areas formed around the construction site in an area known as Shack Town, which did not have reliable access to electricity and the same amenities as the other towns. Incorporated in 1935, the city of Grand Coulee
Grand Coulee, Washington
Grand Coulee is a city in Grant County, Washington, United States. The population was 897 at the 2000 census.-History:Grand Coulee was officially incorporated on November 6, 1935...

 supported workers as well and is located just west of the dam on the plateau. MWAK eventually sold Mason City to Reclamation in 1937 before its contract was completed. In 1956, Reclamation combined both Mason City and Engineer's Town to form the city of Coulee Dam
Coulee Dam, Washington
Coulee Dam is a town in Douglas, Grant, and Okanogan counties in the U.S. state of Washington. The Douglas County portion of Coulee Dam is part of the Wenatchee–East Wenatchee, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 1,098 as of the 2010 census.-History:Coulee Dam was...

. It was incorporated as a city in .

Irrigation pumps


With the onset of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, power generation was given priority over irrigation. In 1943, Congress authorized the Columbia Basin Project
Columbia Basin Project
The Columbia Basin Project in Central Washington, USA, is the irrigation network that the Grand Coulee Dam makes possible. It is the largest water reclamation project in the United States, supplying irrigation water to over of the large project area, all of which was originally intended to be...

 and the Bureau of Reclamation began construction of irrigation facilities in 1948. Directly to the west and above the Grand Coulee Dam, the North Dam was constructed. This dam, along with the Dry Falls Dam
Dry Falls Dam
Dry Falls Dam is a rockfaced earthfill-type dam in the U.S. state of Washington. Located in Grant County near Coulee City, it was built as part of the Bureau of Reclamation's Columbia Basin Project. Water from the Columbia River, impounded by Grand Coulee Dam, is pumped into Grand Coulee, a...

 to the south, enclosed and created Banks Lake
Banks Lake
Banks Lake is a long reservoir in central Washington in the United States.Part of the Columbia Basin Project, Banks Lake occupies the northern portion of the Grand Coulee, a formerly dry coulee near the Columbia River, formed by the Missoula Floods during the Pleistocene epoch. Grand Coulee Dam,...

, which covered the northern 27 mi (43.5 km) of the Grand Coulee
Grand Coulee
The Grand Coulee is an ancient river bed in the U.S. state of Washington. This National Natural Landmark stretches for about sixty miles southwest from Grand Coulee Dam to Soap Lake, being bisected by Dry Falls into the Upper and Lower Grand Coulee....

. Additional dams, such as the Pinto and O'Sullivan Dam
O'Sullivan Dam
O'Sullivan Dam, one of the larger earthfill dams in the United States , is on Crab Creek in the U.S. state of Washington, about 45 km south of Ephrata and 25 km south of Moses Lake...

s, were constructed alongside siphons and canals, creating a vast irrigation supply network called the Columbia Basin Project. Irrigation began between 1951 and 1953 as six of the 12 pumps were installed and Banks Lake was filled.

Third Powerplant



After World War II, the growing demand for electricity sparked interest in constructing another power plant supported by the Grand Coulee Dam. One obstacle to an additional power plant was the great seasonality of the Columbia River's streamflow
Streamflow
Streamflow, or channel runoff, is the flow of water in streams, rivers, and other channels, and is a major element of the water cycle. It is one component of the runoff of water from the land to waterbodies, the other component being surface runoff...

. Today the flow is closely managed—there is almost no seasonality. Historically, about 75% of the river's annual flow occurred between April and September. During low flow periods, the river's discharge
Discharge (hydrology)
In hydrology, discharge is the volume rate of water flow, including any suspended solids , dissolved chemical species and/or biologic material , which is transported through a given cross-sectional area...

 was between 50000 ft3/s and 80000 ft3/s while maximum spring runoff flows were around 500000 ft3/s. Only nine out of the dam's eighteen generators could run year-round. The remaining nine operated for less than six months a year. In 1952, Congress authorized $125,000 for Reclamation to conduct a feasibility study on the Third Powerplant which was completed in 1953 and recommended two locations. Nine identical 108 MW generators were recommended, but as matters stood, they would be able to operate only in periods of high water.

Further regulation of the Columbia's flows was necessary to make the new power plant feasible. Water storage and regulation projects in Canada would be needed, as well as a treaty resolving the many economic and political issues involved. The Bureau of Reclamation and Army Corps of Engineers explored alternatives that would not depend on a treaty with Canada, such as raising the level of Flathead Lake
Flathead Lake
Flathead Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake in the western part of the contiguous United States. With a surface area of between and , it is slightly larger than Lake Tahoe. The lake is a remnant of the ancient inland sea, Lake Missoula of the era of the last interglacial. Flathead Lake...

 or Pend Oreille Lake, but both proposals faced strong local opposition. The Columbia River Treaty
Columbia River Treaty
The Columbia River Treaty is an agreement between Canada and the United States of America on the development and operation of dams in the upper Columbia River basin for power and flood control benefits in both countries. For more information about the Columbia River Treaty, visit Columbia Basin...

, which had been discussed between the U.S. and Canada since 1944, was seen as the answer. Efforts to build the Third Powerplant were also influenced by competition with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, which had constructed power plants on the Volga River
Volga River
The Volga is the largest river in Europe in terms of length, discharge, and watershed. It flows through central Russia, and is widely viewed as the national river of Russia. Out of the twenty largest cities of Russia, eleven, including the capital Moscow, are situated in the Volga's drainage...

 that were larger than Grand Coulee. On , 1964, the Columbia River Treaty was ratified and included an agreement by Canada to construct the Duncan
Duncan Dam
Duncan Dam is a dam spanning the Duncan River in the Canadian province of British Columbia.Duncan Dam was the first dam built to satisfy the Columbia River Treaty, initiated after the 1948 Vanport Oregon flood. Construction began in 1965 and was completed in 1967. It is an earthfill dam with no...

, Keenleyside
Keenleyside Dam
Hugh Keenleyside Dam is a hydroelectric dam spanning the Columbia River, 12 km upstream of the city of Castlegar, British Columbia, Canada....

 and Mica Dam
Mica Dam
The Mica Dam is a hydroelectric dam spanning the Columbia River 135 kilometres north of Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. Completed in 1973 under the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty, the Mica powerhouse has a generating capacity of . The dam is operated by BC Hydro...

s upstream. Shortly afterward, Washington Senator Henry M. Jackson
Henry M. Jackson
Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson was a U.S. Congressman and Senator from the state of Washington from 1941 until his death...

, who was influential in constructing the new power plant, announced that Reclamation would present the project to Congress for appropriation and funding. To keep up with Soviet competition and increase the generating capacity it was determined that the generators could be upgraded to much larger designs. With the possibility of international companies bidding on the project, the Soviets who had just installed a 500 MW hydroelectric generator on the Yenisei River
Yenisei River
Yenisei , also written as Yenisey, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean. It is the central of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean...

 indicated their interest. To avoid the potential embarrassment of an international rival building a domestic power plant, the Department of the Interior declined international bidding. The Third Powerplant was approved and its appropriation bill was signed by President Lyndon Johnson on , 1966.


Between 1967 and 1974, the dam was expanded to add the Third Powerplant. Beginning in , this involved demolishing the northeast side of the dam and building a new fore-bay section. The excavation of 22000000 cu yd (16,820,207 m³) of dirt and rock had to be accomplished before the new 1725 ft (526 m) long section of dam was built. The addition made the original 4300 ft (1,310.6 m) dam almost a mile long. Original designs for the powerhouse had twelve smaller units but were altered to incorporate six of the largest generators available. To supply them with water, six 40 ft (12 m) diameter penstock
Penstock
A penstock is a sluice or gate or intake structure that controls water flow, or an enclosed pipe that delivers water to hydraulic turbines and sewerage systems. It is a term that has been inherited from the technology of wooden watermills....

s were installed. Of the new turbines and generators, three 600 MW units were built by Westinghouse
Westinghouse Electric (1998)
Westinghouse Licensing, doing business as Westinghouse Electric Corporation , is a Delaware General Corporation Law organized subsidiary that was founded by CBS Corporation in managing the intellectual property assets relating to the Westinghouse trademarks.Westinghouse Licensing has...

 and three 700 MW units by General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

. The first new generator was commissioned in 1975 and the final one in 1980. The three 700 MW units were later upgraded to 805 MW by Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

.

Pump-Generating Plant



After power shortages in the Northwest during the 1960s, it was determined that the six remaining planned pumps be pump-generators. When energy demand is high, the pump-generators can generate electricity with water from the Banks Lake feeder canal adjacent to the dam at a higher elevation. By 1973, the Pump-Generating Plant was completed and the first three generators were operational. In 1983, two more generators went online, and by the final was operational. The six pump-generators added 314 MW to the dam's capacity. In , the Pump-Generating Plant was officially renamed the John W. Keys III Pump-Generating Power Plant after John W. Keys III
John W. Keys
John W. Keys III was the director of the United States Bureau of Reclamation from 2001 to 2006.- Early life and education :Keys graduated from High School in Sheffield, Alabama. He then received a bachelors degree in civil engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1964 and a master's...

, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's commissioner from 2001 to 2006.

Overhauls


A major overhaul of the Third Powerplant, which contains generators numbered G19 through G24, began in and will be continuing for many years. Among the projects to be completed before the generators themselves can begin to be overhauled include replacing underground 500 kV oil-filled cables for G19, G20 and G21 generators with overhead transmission lines (started in ), new 236 MW transformers for G19 and G20 (started in ), and several other projects. Planning, design, procurement and site preparation for the 805 MW G22, G23 and G24 generator overhauls are scheduled to begin in 2011, with the overhauls themselves to start in 2013 with the G22 generator, then G23 starting in 2014, and finally G24 starting in 2016, with planned completions in 2014, 2016 and 2017, respectively. The generator overhauls for G19, G20 and G21 have not been scheduled as of 2010.

Operation and benefits



The dam's primary goal, irrigation, was postponed as the wartime need for electricity increased. The dam's powerhouse began production around the time World War II began, and its electricity was vital to the war effort. The dam powered aluminum smelters in Longview
Longview, Washington
Longview is a city in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States. It is the principal city of the "Longview, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area", which encompasses all of Cowlitz County. Longview's population was 36,648 at the time of the 2010 census and is the largest city in Cowlitz County...

 and Vancouver, Washington
Vancouver, Washington
Vancouver is a city on the north bank of the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington. Incorporated in 1857, it is the fourth largest city in the state with a 2010 census population of 161,791 as of April 1, 2010...

, Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

 factories in Seattle and Vancouver, and Portland's shipyards. In 1943, its electricity was also used for plutonium
Plutonium
Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, forming a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation...

 production in Richland, Washington
Richland, Washington
Richland is a city in Benton County in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Washington, at the confluence of the Yakima and the Columbia Rivers. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 48,058. April 1, 2011 estimates from the Washington State Office of Financial Management put the...

, at the Hanford Site
Hanford Site
The Hanford Site is a mostly decommissioned nuclear production complex on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington, operated by the United States federal government. The site has been known by many names, including Hanford Works, Hanford Engineer Works or HEW, Hanford Nuclear Reservation...

, which was part of the then top-secret Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and development program, led by the United States with participation from the United Kingdom and Canada, that produced the first atomic bomb during World War II. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the US Army...

. The demand for power at that project was so great that in 1943, two generators originally intended for the Shasta Dam
Shasta Dam
Shasta Dam is an arch dam across the Sacramento River in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, at the north end of the Sacramento Valley. The dam mainly serves long-term water storage and flood control in its reservoir, Shasta Lake, and also generates hydroelectric power...

 were installed at Grand Coulee in an effort to hurry the generator installation schedule.

Irrigation



Water is pumped via the Pump-Generating Plant's 12 feet (3.7 m) diameter pipes 280 ft (85.3 m) from Lake Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake
Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake is the reservoir created in 1941 by the impoundment of the Columbia River by the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington state. It is named for Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was President during the construction of the dam...

 to a 1.6 mi (2.6 km) feeder canal. From the feeder canal, the water is transferred to Banks Lake which has an active storage of 715000 acre.ft. The plant's twelve 65,000–70,000 horsepower pumps can transfer up to 1605 ft3/s to the lake. Currently, the Columbia Basin Project irrigates 670000 acres (2,711.4 km²) with a potential for . Over 60 different crops are grown within the project and distributed throughout the United States.

Power


Grand Coulee Dam supports four different power houses containing 33 hydroelectric generators. The original Left and Right Powerhouses contain 18 main generators and the Left has an additional three service generators for total installed capacity of 2,280 MW. The first generator was commissioned in 1941 and all 18 were operating by 1950. The Third Powerplant contains a total of six main generators with a 4,215 MW installed capacity. Generators G-19, G-20 and G-21 in the Third Powerplant have a 600 MW installed capacity but can operate at a maximum capacity of 690 MW which brings the overall maximum capacity of the dam's power facilities to 7,079 MW. The Pump-Generating Plant contains six pump-generators with an installed capacity of 314 MW. When pumping water into Banks Lake they consume 600 MW of electricity. Each generator is supplied with water by an individual penstock
Penstock
A penstock is a sluice or gate or intake structure that controls water flow, or an enclosed pipe that delivers water to hydraulic turbines and sewerage systems. It is a term that has been inherited from the technology of wooden watermills....

. The largest of these feed the Third Powerplant and are 40 ft (12.2 m) in diameter and can supply up to 35000 ft3/s. The dam's power facilities originally had an installed capacity of 1,974 MW but expansions and upgrades have increased generation to 6,809 MW installed, 7,079 MW maximum. In 2008, 21 billion kWh of electricity was generated with a plant factor
Capacity factor
The net capacity factor or load factor of a power plant is the ratio of the actual output of a power plant over a period of time and its potential output if it had operated at full nameplate capacity the entire time...

 of 38.24%.
Hydroelectric generators at Grand Coulee Dam
Location Type Quantity Capacity (MW) Total capacity (MW)
Left Powerhouse Francis turbine
Francis turbine
The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B. Francis in Lowell, Massachusetts. It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts....

, service generator 
3 (LS1-LS3) 10 30
Francis turbine, main generator 9 (G1-G9) 125 1,125
Right Powerhouse Francis turbine, main generator 9 (G10-G18) 125 1,125
Third Powerplant Francis turbine, main generator 3 (G22-G24) 805 2,415
Francis turbine, main generator 3 (G19-G21) 600 (Max: 690 MW) 1,800
Pump-Generating Plant Pump-generator, peak generator 4 (PG9-PG12) 53.5 214
Pump-generator, peak generator 2 (PG7-PG8) 50 100
Totals 33 6,809

Spillway



Grand Coulee Dam's spillway
Spillway
A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area, typically being the river that was dammed. In the UK they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways release floods so that the water does not overtop and damage or even destroy...

 is 1650 feet (502.9 m) long and is an overflow, drum-gate controlled type with a 1000000 ft3/s maximum capacity. A record flood in May and flooded lowland below the dam and highlighted its limited flood control capability at the time, as its spillway and turbines hit a record flow of 637800 ft3/s. The flood damaged downstream riverbanks and deteriorated the face of the dam and its flip bucket at the base (toe) of the spillway. The flood spurred the Columbia River Treaty and its provisions for dams constructed upstream in Canada, which would regulate the Columbia's flow.

Cost benefits


The Bureau of Reclamation in 1932 estimated the cost of constructing Grand Coulee Dam (not including the Third Powerplant) to be $168 million; its actual cost was $163 million ($1.85 billion in 1998). Expenses to finish the power stations and repair design flaws with the dam throughout the 1940s and '50s added another $107 million, bringing the total cost to $270 million ($2.6 billion in 1998), about 33% over estimates. The Third Powerplant was estimated to cost in 1967, but higher construction costs and labor disputes drove the project's final cost in 1973 to ( in 1998), about 55% over estimates. Despite estimates being exceeded, the dam became an economic success, particularly with the Third Powerplant exhibiting a benefit-cost ratio of 2:1. Although Reclamation has only irrigated about half of the land predicted, the gross value of crop output (in constant dollars) had doubled from 1962 to 1992, largely due to different farming practices and crop choices.

Environmental and social consequences


The dam had severe negative consequences for the local Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 tribes whose traditional way of life revolved around salmon
Salmon
Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the same family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, but this distinction does not strictly hold true...

 and the original shrub steppe habitat of the area. Because it lacks a fish ladder
Fish ladder
A fish ladder, also known as a fishway, fish pass or fish steps, is a structure on or around artificial barriers to facilitate diadromous fishes' natural migration. Most fishways enable fish to pass around the barriers by swimming and leaping up a series of relatively low steps into the waters on...

, Grand Coulee Dam permanently blocks fish migration, removing over 1100 mi (1,770 km) of natural spawning habitat. By largely eliminating anadromous fish above the Okanogan River, the Grand Coulee Dam also set the stage for the subsequent decision not to provide for fish passage at Chief Joseph Dam
Chief Joseph Dam
The Chief Joseph Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Columbia River, upriver from Bridgeport, Washington, USA. The dam was authorized as Foster Creek Dam and Powerhouse for power generation and irrigation by the River and Harbor Act of 1946...

 (built in 1953). Chinook, Steelhead, Sockeye and Coho salmon (as well as other important species including Lamprey) are now unable to spawn in the reaches of the Upper Columbia Basin. The extinction of the spawning grounds upstream from the dam has prevented the Spokane and other tribes from holding the first salmon ceremony.

Grand Coulee Dam flooded over 21,000 acres (85 km2) of prime bottom land where Native Americans had been living and hunting for thousands of years, forcing the relocation of settlements and graveyards. Kettle Falls, once a primary Native American fishing grounds, was inundated. The average catch of over 600,000 salmon per year was eliminated. In one study, the Army Corps of Engineers estimated the annual loss was over fish. In , Native Americans throughout the Northwest met at the Falls for a Ceremony of Tears, marking the end of fishing there. One month later, the falls were inundated. The town of Kettle Falls, Washington
Kettle Falls, Washington
Kettle Falls is a city in Stevens County, Washington, United States, named for the nearby Kettle Falls on the Columbia River, an ancient and important fishing site for Native Americans...

, was relocated. The Columbia Basin Project has affected habitat ranges for species such as whitetail and mule deer, pygmy rabbits and burrowing owls, resulting in decreased populations. However, it has created new habitats such as wetlands, and riparian corridors
Riparian zone
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream. Riparian is also the proper nomenclature for one of the fifteen terrestrial biomes of the earth. Plant habitats and communities along the river margins and banks are called riparian vegetation, characterized by...

. The environmental impact of the dam effectively ended the traditional way of life of the native inhabitants. The government eventually compensated the Colville Indians
Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation
The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation is the federally recognized tribe that controls the Colville Indian Reservation, which is located in Washington, United States....

 in the 1990s with a lump settlement of approximately , plus annual payments of approximately .

Tourism


Built in the late 1970s, the Visitor Center contains many historical photos, geological samples, turbine and dam models, and a theater. The building was designed by Marcel Breuer
Marcel Breuer
Marcel Lajos Breuer , was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect and furniture designer of Jewish descent. One of the masters of Modernism, Breuer displayed interest in modular construction and simple forms.- Life and work :Known to his friends and associates as Lajkó, Breuer studied and taught at...

 and resembles a generator rotor. Since , on summer evenings, the laser light show at Grand Coulee Dam
Laser Light Show (Grand Coulee Dam)
The laser light show at Grand Coulee Dam, which began in 1989, is one of the largest light shows in the U.S.. The 37 minute show runs daily from Memorial Day through September 30. An addition of fireworks lights up the sky above the dam each Memorial Weekend Sunday and July 4.The Grand Coulee Dam...

 is projected onto the dam's wall. The show includes full-size images of battleships and the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886...

, as well as some environmental comments. Tours of the Third Powerplant are available to the public and last about an hour. Visitors currently take a shuttle to view the generators and also travel across the main dam span (otherwise closed to the public) as the formerly used glass elevator is indefinitely out of service.

See also


  • John L. Savage
    John L. Savage
    John Lucian Savage was an American civil engineer. He is best known for supervising the design and construction of the Hoover Dam, Shasta Dam and Grand Coulee Dam in the United States along with surveying for the future Three Gorges Dam in China...

     – Bureau of Reclamation's chief design engineer during construction.
  • Chief Joseph Dam
    Chief Joseph Dam
    The Chief Joseph Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Columbia River, upriver from Bridgeport, Washington, USA. The dam was authorized as Foster Creek Dam and Powerhouse for power generation and irrigation by the River and Harbor Act of 1946...

     – next dam downstream.
  • List of largest power stations in the world

Further reading

  • Brentz, J. Harlen (1932), The Grand Coulee, American Geographical Society
  • Gresko, Marcia S. (1999), Building America - The Grand Coulee Dam, Blackbirch Press, ISBN 1-56711-174-2
  • Sundborg, George (1954), Hail Columbia: The Thirty-year Struggle for Grand Coulee Dam, New York: Macmillan.
  • White, Richard (1996), The Organic Machine: The Remaking of the Columbia River, New York: Hill and Wang, ISBN 0-8090-1583-8

External links