George Berkeley

George Berkeley

Overview
George Berkeley also known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne
Cloyne
Cloyne is a small town to the south-east of the town of Midleton in eastern County Cork, Province of Munster, Ireland. It is also a see city of the Anglican Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross, while also giving its name to a Roman Catholic diocese...

), was an Irish
Irish
Irish may refer to:*Irish cuisine* Ireland, an island in north-western Europe, on which are located:** Northern Ireland, a constituent country of the United Kingdom** Republic of Ireland, a sovereign state...

 philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism
Subjective idealism
Subjective idealism, or empirical idealism, is the monistic metaphysical doctrine that only minds and mental contents exist. It entails and is generally identified or associated with immaterialism, the doctrine that physical things do not exist...

" by others). This theory denies the existence of material substance
Matter
Matter is a general term for the substance of which all physical objects consist. Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles which have mass. A common way of defining matter is as anything that has mass and occupies volume...

 and instead contends that familiar objects like tables and chairs are only idea
Idea
In the most narrow sense, an idea is just whatever is before the mind when one thinks. Very often, ideas are construed as representational images; i.e. images of some object. In other contexts, ideas are taken to be concepts, although abstract concepts do not necessarily appear as images...

s in the mind
Mind
The concept of mind is understood in many different ways by many different traditions, ranging from panpsychism and animism to traditional and organized religious views, as well as secular and materialist philosophies. Most agree that minds are constituted by conscious experience and intelligent...

s of perceivers
Perception
Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of the environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information. All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical stimulation of the sense organs...

, and as a result cannot exist without being perceived.
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Quotations

Our youth we can have but to-day,We may always find time to grow old.

Can Love be controlled by Advice?, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919)

[Tar water] is of a nature so mild and benign and proportioned to the human constitution, as to warm without heating, to cheer but not inebriate.

Siris, paragraph 217. Compare: "Cups / That cheer but not inebriate", William Cowper, The Task, book iv, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919)

That there is no such thing as what philosophers call material substance, I am seriously persuaded: but if I were made to see any thing absurd or skeptical in this, I should then have the same reason to renounce this, that I imagine I have now to reject the contrary opinion.

Philonous to Hylas

Doth the reality of sensible things consist in being perceived? or, is it something distinct from their being perceived, and that bears no relation to the mind?

Philonous to Hylas

Seeing therefore they are both [heat and pain] immediately perceived at the same time, and the fire affects you only with one simple, or uncompounded idea, it follows that this same simple idea is both the intense heat immediately perceived, and the pain;and consequently, that the intense heat immediately perceived, is nothing distinct from a particular sort of pain.

Philonous to Hylas

Since therefore, as well those degrees of heat that are not painful, as those that are, can exist in a thinking substance; may we not conclude that external bodies are absolutely incapable of any degree of heat whatsoever?

Philonous to Hylas. Hylas replies with, "So it seems."
Encyclopedia
George Berkeley also known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne
Cloyne
Cloyne is a small town to the south-east of the town of Midleton in eastern County Cork, Province of Munster, Ireland. It is also a see city of the Anglican Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross, while also giving its name to a Roman Catholic diocese...

), was an Irish
Irish
Irish may refer to:*Irish cuisine* Ireland, an island in north-western Europe, on which are located:** Northern Ireland, a constituent country of the United Kingdom** Republic of Ireland, a sovereign state...

 philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism
Subjective idealism
Subjective idealism, or empirical idealism, is the monistic metaphysical doctrine that only minds and mental contents exist. It entails and is generally identified or associated with immaterialism, the doctrine that physical things do not exist...

" by others). This theory denies the existence of material substance
Matter
Matter is a general term for the substance of which all physical objects consist. Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles which have mass. A common way of defining matter is as anything that has mass and occupies volume...

 and instead contends that familiar objects like tables and chairs are only idea
Idea
In the most narrow sense, an idea is just whatever is before the mind when one thinks. Very often, ideas are construed as representational images; i.e. images of some object. In other contexts, ideas are taken to be concepts, although abstract concepts do not necessarily appear as images...

s in the mind
Mind
The concept of mind is understood in many different ways by many different traditions, ranging from panpsychism and animism to traditional and organized religious views, as well as secular and materialist philosophies. Most agree that minds are constituted by conscious experience and intelligent...

s of perceivers
Perception
Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of the environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information. All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical stimulation of the sense organs...

, and as a result cannot exist without being perceived. Thus, as Berkeley famously put it, for physical objects "esse est percipi" ("to be
Existence
In common usage, existence is the world we are aware of through our senses, and that persists independently without them. In academic philosophy the word has a more specialized meaning, being contrasted with essence, which specifies different forms of existence as well as different identity...

 is to be perceived
Perception
Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of the environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information. All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical stimulation of the sense organs...

"). Berkeley is also known for his critique of abstraction
Abstraction
Abstraction is a process by which higher concepts are derived from the usage and classification of literal concepts, first principles, or other methods....

, an important premise in his argument for immaterialism.

In 1709, Berkeley published his first major work, An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision, in which he discussed the limitations of human vision and advanced the theory that proper objects of sight are not material objects but light and color. This foreshadowed his chief philosophical work A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge in 1710 which, after its poor reception, he rewrote in dialogue form and published under the title Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous
Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous
Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous is a book written by George Berkeley in 1713.Three important concepts discussed in the Three Dialogues are perceptual relativity, the conceivability/master argument , and Berkeley's phenomenalism.Perceptual relativity argues that the same object can...

in 1713. In this book, Berkeley's views were represented by Philonous (Greek: 'lover of mind'), while Hylas (Greek: 'matter') embodies the Irish thinker’s opponents, in particular John Locke
John Locke
John Locke FRS , widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social...

. Berkeley argued against Sir Isaac Newton's doctrine of absolute space
Space
Space is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum...

, time
Time
Time is a part of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify rates of change such as the motions of objects....

 and motion
Motion (physics)
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Change in action is the result of an unbalanced force. Motion is typically described in terms of velocity, acceleration, displacement and time . An object's velocity cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as...

 in De Motu (on Motion), published 1721. His arguments were a precursor to the views of Mach
Ernst Mach
Ernst Mach was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves...

 and Einstein
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

. In 1732, he published Alciphron
Alciphron (book)
Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher is a philosophical dialogue by the 18th-century Irish philosopher George Berkeley wherein Berkeley tried to combat the arguments of free-thinkers such as Mandeville and Shaftesbury against the Christian religion...

, a Christian
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 apologetic
Apologetics
Apologetics is the discipline of defending a position through the systematic use of reason. Early Christian writers Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the discipline of defending a position (often religious) through the systematic use of reason. Early Christian writers...

 against the free-thinkers, and in 1734, he published The Analyst
The Analyst
The Analyst, subtitled "A DISCOURSE Addressed to an Infidel MATHEMATICIAN. WHEREIN It is examined whether the Object, Principles, and Inferences of the modern Analysis are more distinctly conceived, or more evidently deduced, than Religious Mysteries and Points of Faith", is a book published by...

, an empiricist critique of the foundations of infinitesimal calculus
Infinitesimal calculus
Infinitesimal calculus is the part of mathematics concerned with finding slope of curves, areas under curves, minima and maxima, and other geometric and analytic problems. It was independently developed by Gottfried Leibniz and Isaac Newton starting in the 1660s...

, which was influential in the development of mathematics. His last major philosophical work, Siris (1744), begins by advocating the medicinal use of tar water
Tar water
Tar-water is a Medieval medicine consisting of pine tar and water. It was foul tasting and so slowly dropped in popularity, but was revived in the Victorian era....

, and then continues to discuss a wide range of topics including science, philosophy, and theology. Interest in Berkeley's work increased after World War 2, because he tackled many of the issues of paradigm interest to philosophy in the 20th century such as the problems of perception, the difference between primary and secondary qualities and the importance of language.

Life


Berkeley was born at his family home, Dysart Castle, near Thomastown
Thomastown
-Landmarks:Kilfane Glen is a restored historic 1790s garden of romantic era with waterfall, woodland walks and cottage orne. The garden is listed as an Irish Heritage garden and was awarded assistance in 1993 by the European Union Cultural Commission...

, County Kilkenny
County Kilkenny
County Kilkenny is a county in Ireland. It is part of the South-East Region and is also located in the province of Leinster. It is named after the city of Kilkenny. The territory of the county was the core part of the ancient Irish Kingdom of Osraige which in turn was the core of the Diocese of...

, Ireland, the eldest son of William Berkeley, a cadet of the English noble family of Berkeley
Berkeley family
The Berkeley family has an unbroken male line of descent from a Saxon ancestor before the Norman conquest of England in 1066 to the present day.-History:...

. He was educated at Kilkenny College
Kilkenny College
Kilkenny College or KCK is a co-educational secondary school located in Kilkenny, in the South-East of Ireland. It is a private school which caters for both boarders and day students. It is the largest co-educational boarding school in Ireland...

 and attended Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin , formally known as the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother of a university", Extracts from Letters Patent of Elizabeth I, 1592: "...we...found and...

, completing a Master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

 in 1707. He remained at Trinity College after completion of his degree as a tutor and Greek lecturer.

His earliest publication was on mathematics, but the first that brought him notice was his Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision, first published in 1709. In the essay, Berkeley examines visual distance, magnitude, position and problems of sight and touch. While this work raised much controversy at the time, its conclusions are now accepted as an established part of the theory of optics.

The next publication to appear was the Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge is a 1710 work by Anglo-Irish Empiricist philosopher George Berkeley. This book largely seeks to refute the claims made by his contemporary John Locke about the nature of human perception...

in 1710, which was followed in 1713 by Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous
Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous
Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous is a book written by George Berkeley in 1713.Three important concepts discussed in the Three Dialogues are perceptual relativity, the conceivability/master argument , and Berkeley's phenomenalism.Perceptual relativity argues that the same object can...

, in which he propounded his system of philosophy, the leading principle of which is that the world, as represented by our senses, depends for its existence, as such, on being perceived.

Of this theory, the Principles gives the exposition and the Dialogues the defence. One of his main objectives was to combat the prevailing materialism
Materialism
In philosophy, the theory of materialism holds that the only thing that exists is matter; that all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. In other words, matter is the only substance...

 of the time. The theory was largely received with ridicule; while even those, such as Samuel Clarke
Samuel Clarke
thumb|right|200px|Samuel ClarkeSamuel Clarke was an English philosopher and Anglican clergyman.-Early life and studies:...

 and William Whiston
William Whiston
William Whiston was an English theologian, historian, and mathematician. He is probably best known for his translation of the Antiquities of the Jews and other works by Josephus, his A New Theory of the Earth, and his Arianism...

, who did acknowledge his "extraordinary genius," were nevertheless convinced that his early principles were false.

Shortly afterward, Berkeley visited England, and was received into the circle of Addison
Joseph Addison
Joseph Addison was an English essayist, poet, playwright and politician. He was a man of letters, eldest son of Lancelot Addison...

, Pope
Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet, best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer. He is the third-most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, after Shakespeare and Tennyson...

 and Steele
Richard Steele
Sir Richard Steele was an Irish writer and politician, remembered as co-founder, with his friend Joseph Addison, of the magazine The Spectator....

. In the period between 1714 and 1720, he interspersed his academic endeavors with periods of extensive travel in Europe, including one of the most extensive Grand Tours of the length and breadth of Italy ever undertaken. In 1721, he took Holy Orders
Holy Orders
The term Holy Orders is used by many Christian churches to refer to ordination or to those individuals ordained for a special role or ministry....

 in the Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
The Church of Ireland is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. The church operates in all parts of Ireland and is the second largest religious body on the island after the Roman Catholic Church...

, earning his doctorate
Doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...

 in divinity
Divinity
Divinity and divine are broadly applied but loosely defined terms, used variously within different faiths and belief systems — and even by different individuals within a given faith — to refer to some transcendent or transcendental power or deity, or its attributes or manifestations in...

, and once again chose to remain at Trinity College Dublin, lecturing this time in Divinity and in Hebrew
Hebrew language
Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Culturally, is it considered by Jews and other religious groups as the language of the Jewish people, though other Jewish languages had originated among diaspora Jews, and the Hebrew language is also used by non-Jewish groups, such...

. In 1724, he was made Dean of Derry
Derry
Derry or Londonderry is the second-biggest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-biggest city on the island of Ireland. The name Derry is an anglicisation of the Irish name Doire or Doire Cholmcille meaning "oak-wood of Colmcille"...

.
In 1725, he formed the project of founding a college in Bermuda
Bermuda
Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

 for training ministers and missionaries in the colony, in pursuit of which he gave up his deanery with its income of £1100.

In 1728, he married Anne Forster, daughter of the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. He then went to America on a salary of £100. He landed near Newport, Rhode Island
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

, where he bought a plantation in Middletown, Rhode Island
Middletown, Rhode Island
Middletown is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 16,150 at the 2010 census. It lies to the south of Portsmouth and to the north of Newport on Aquidneck Island, hence the name "Middletown."-Geography:...

the famous "Whitehall
Whitehall Museum House
Whitehall Museum House is the farmhouse modified by Dean George Berkeley, when he lived in the northern section of Newport, Rhode Island that comprises present-day Middletown, Rhode Island in 1729-31, while working to open his planned St Paul's College on Bermuda...

". He lived at the plantation while he waited for funds for his college to arrive. The funds, however, were not forthcoming and, in 1732, he left America and returned to London. While living in London's Saville Street, he took part in the efforts to create a home for the city's abandoned children. The Foundling Hospital
Foundling Hospital
The Foundling Hospital in London, England was founded in 1741 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram. It was a children's home established for the "education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children." The word "hospital" was used in a more general sense than it is today, simply...

 was founded by Royal Charter
Royal Charter
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organizations such as cities or universities. Charters should be distinguished from warrants and...

 in 1739 and Berkeley is listed as one of its original governors. In 1734, he was appointed Bishop of Cloyne
Bishop of Cloyne
The Bishop of Cloyne is an episcopal title which takes its name after the small town of Cloyne in County Cork, Ireland. In the Roman Catholic Church it is a separate title, but in the Church of Ireland it has been united with other bishoprics....

 in Ireland. Soon afterwards, he published Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher, directed against both Shaftesbury
Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury was an English politician, philosopher and writer.-Biography:...

 and Bernard de Mandeville
Bernard de Mandeville
Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville , was a philosopher, political economist and satirist. Born in the Netherlands, he lived most of his life in England and used English for most of his published works...

; and in 1735–37 The Querist.

His last two publications were Siris: Philosophical reflexions and inquiries concerning the virtues of tar-water, and divers other subjects connected together and arising from one another (1744) and Further Thoughts on Tar-water (1752). Pine tar
Pine tar
Pine tar is a sticky material produced by the high temperature carbonization of pine wood in anoxic conditions . The wood is rapidly decomposed by applying heat and pressure in a closed container; the primary resulting products are charcoal and pine tar.Pine tar consists primarily of aromatic...

 is an effective antiseptic and disinfectant when applied to cuts on the skin, but Berkeley argued for the use of pine tar as a broad panacea for diseases. It is said that his 1744 book on the medical benefits of pine tar was the best-selling book in his lifetime.

He remained at Cloyne until 1752, when he retired and went to Oxford to live with his son. He died soon afterward and was buried in Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford
Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford
Christ Church Cathedral is the cathedral of the diocese of Oxford, which consists of the counties of Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Berkshire. It is also, uniquely, the chapel of Christ Church, a college of the University of Oxford.-History:...

. His affectionate disposition and genial manners made him much loved and held in warm regard by many of his contemporaries.

Contributions to philosophy


Berkeley's contribution to philosophy is his thorough substantiation of the so-called "new principle" esse est percipi (to be is to be perceived).

According to the "esse est percipi" thesis, all the things surrounding us are nothing but our ideas. Sensible things have no other existence distinct from their being perceived by us. This also applies to human bodies. When we see our bodies or move our limbs, we perceive only certain sensations in our consciousness.

When identifying the sensuously perceived world with ideas of the knowing subject, Berkeley did not maintain that ideas exhausted the content of reality. There is perceiving, active being, or mental substance (mind, spirit, soul), in which ideas exist.

Hence, it follows that human knowledge is reduced to two heads: that of ideas and that of spirits (Principles #86). In contrast to ideas, spiritual substance cannot be perceived. A person's soul perceiving ideas is to be comprehended by inward feeling or reflection (Principles #89). Unlike John Locke
John Locke
John Locke FRS , widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social...

, Berkeley refused to use the term "idea" with regards to objects of reflection. Whereas Locke called them ideas, Berkeley restricted the meaning of the term "idea" to passive objects of perception. It being so, Berkeley introduced the word "notion" to account for discourse about spiritual substance and its operations (Principles ##89, 142). For Berkeley, we have no idea of spirits albeit we have a "notion" of them.

Theology


A convinced adherent of Christianity, Berkeley believed God
God
God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

 to be present as an immediate cause
Causality
Causality is the relationship between an event and a second event , where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first....

 of all our experiences.

He did not evade the question of the external source of the diversity of the sense data at the disposal of the human individual. He strove simply to show that the causes of sensations could not be things, because what we called things, and considered without grounds to be something different from our sensations, were built up wholly from sensations. There must consequently be some other external source of the inexhaustible diversity of sensations The source of our sensations, Berkeley concluded, could only be God; He gave them to man, who had to see in them signs and symbols that carried God’s word.

Here is Berkeley's proof of the existence of God:

Whatever power I may have over my own thoughts, I find the ideas actually perceived by Sense have not a like dependence on my will. When in broad daylight I open my eyes, it is not in my power to choose whether I shall see or no, or to determine what particular objects shall present themselves to my view; and so likewise as to the hearing and other senses; the ideas imprinted on them are not creatures of my will. There is therefore some other Will or Spirit that produces them (Berkeley. Principles #29)



Berkeley’s mystic idealism (as Kant aptly christened it) claimed that nothing separated man and God (except materialist misconceptions, of course), since nature or matter did not exist as a reality independent of consciousness. The revelation of God was directly accessible to man, according to this doctrine; it was the sense-perceived world, the world of man's sensations, which came to him from on high for him to decipher and so grasp the divine purpose.


God is not the distant engineer of Newtonian
Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton PRS was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."...

 machinery that in the fullness of time led to the growth of a tree in the university quadrangle. Rather, my perception of the tree is an idea that God's mind has produced in mine, and the tree continues to exist in the quadrangle when "nobody" is there, simply because God is an infinite mind
Mind
The concept of mind is understood in many different ways by many different traditions, ranging from panpsychism and animism to traditional and organized religious views, as well as secular and materialist philosophies. Most agree that minds are constituted by conscious experience and intelligent...

 that perceives all.

The philosophy of David Hume
David Hume
David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment...

 concerning causality and objectivity is an elaboration of another aspect of Berkeley's philosophy. A.A. Luce, the most eminent Berkeley scholar of the 20th century, constantly stressed the continuity of Berkeley's philosophy. The fact that Berkeley returned to his major works throughout his life, issuing revised editions with only minor changes, also counts against any theory that attributes to him a significant volte-face
Volte-face
Volte-face is a total change of position, as in policy or opinion; an about-face.The expression comes through French, from Italian voltafaccia and Portuguese volte face, composed of volta and faccia ....

.

Relativity arguments


John Locke (Berkeley's predecessor) states that we define an object by its primary and secondary qualities
Primary/secondary quality distinction
The primary/secondary quality distinction is a conceptual distinction in epistemology and metaphysics, concerning the nature of reality. It is most explicitly articulated by John Locke in his Essay concerning Human Understanding, but earlier thinkers such as Galileo and Descartes made similar...

. He takes heat as an example of a secondary quality. If you put one hand in a bucket of cold water, and the other hand in a bucket of warm water, then put both hands in a bucket of lukewarm water, one of your hands is going to tell you that the water is cold and the other that the water is hot. Locke says that since two different objects (both your hands) perceive the water to be hot and cold, then the heat is not a quality of the water.

While Locke used this argument to distinguish primary from secondary qualities, Berkeley extends it to cover primary qualities in the same way. For example, he says that size is not a quality of an object because the size of the object depends on the distance between the observer and the object, or the size of observer. Since an object is a different size to different observers, then size is not a quality of the object. Berkeley rejects shape with a similar argument and then asks: if neither primary qualities nor secondary qualities are of the object, then how can we say that there is anything more than the qualities we observe?

New theory of vision



In his Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision Berkeley frequently criticised the views of the so-called Optic Writers, who seem to have included Molyneux, Wallis, Malebranche and Descartes. In sections 1-51, Berkeley argued against the classical scholars of optics by holding that: spatial depth, as the distance that separates the perceiver from the perceived object is itself invisible; namely, that space is perceived by experience instead of the senses per se. Berkeley goes on to argue that visual cues, such as the perceived extension or "confusion" of an object, can only be used to indirectly judge distance because the viewer learns to associate visual cues with tactile sensations. Berkeley gives the following analogy regarding indirect distance perception: one perceives distance indirectly just as one perceives a person's embarrassment indirectly. When looking at an embarrassed person, we infer indirectly that the person is embarrassed by observing the red color on the person's face. We know through experience that a red face tends to signal embarrassment, as we've learned to associate the two.

The question concerning the visibility of space was central to the Renaissance perspective
Perspective
- Literally, in visual topics :* Perspective , the way in which objects appear to the eye.* Perspective , representing the effects of visual perspective in graphic arts- Metaphorically, in relation to cognitive topics :...

 tradition and its reliance on classical optics in the development of pictorial representations of spatial depth. This matter was debated by scholars since the times of the 11th century Arab polymath and mathematician Alhazen (al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham) who affirmed in experimental contexts the visibility of space. This issue, which was raised in Berkeley's theory of vision, was treated at length in the Phenomenology of Perception of Maurice Merleau-Ponty in the context of confirming the visual perception of spatial depth (la profondeur) and by way of refuting Berkeley's thesis.

Berkeley wrote about the perception of size in addition to that of distance. He is frequently misquoted as believing in size-distance invariance – a view held by the Optic Writers. This is the idea that we scale the image size according to distance in a geometrical manner. The error may have become commonplace because the eminent historian and psychologist E.G. Boring perpetuated it. In fact Berkeley argued that the same cues that evoke distance also evoke size, and that we do not first see size and then calculate distance. It is worth quoting Berkeley’s words on this issue (Section 53):

“What inclines men to this mistake (beside the humour of making one see by geometry) is, that the same perceptions or ideas which suggest distance, do also suggest magnitude… I say they do not first suggest distance, and then leave it to the judgement to use that as a medium, whereby to collect the magnitude; but they have as close and immediate a connexion with the magnitude as with the distance; and suggest magnitude as independently of distance, as they do distance independently of magnitude.”

Philosophy of physics



"Berkeley’s works display his keen interest in natural philosophy ... from his earliest writings (Arithmetica, 1707) to his latest (Siris, 1744). Moreover, much of his philosophy is shaped fundamentally by his engagement with the science of his time." How profound this interest was can be judged from numerous entries in Berkeley’s Philosophical Commentaries (1707–1708), e.g. "Mem. to Examine & accurately discuss the scholium of the 8th Definition of Mr Newton’s Principia." (#316)

Philosophy of mathematics


In addition to his contributions to philosophy, Bishop Berkeley was also very influential in the development of mathematics, although in a rather indirect sense. "Berkeley was concerned with mathematics and its philosophical interpretation from the earliest stages of his intellectual life."
Berkeley’s “Philosophical Commentaries” (1707–1708) witness to his interest in mathematics:

Axiom. No reasoning about things whereof we have no idea. Therefore no reasoning about Infinitesimals. (#354)

Take away the signs from Arithmetic & Algebra, & pray wt remains? (#767)
These are sciences purely Verbal, & entirely useless but for Practise in Societys of Men. No speculative knowledge, no comparison of Ideas in them. (#768)

In 1707, Berkeley published two treatises on mathematics. In 1734, he published The Analyst
The Analyst
The Analyst, subtitled "A DISCOURSE Addressed to an Infidel MATHEMATICIAN. WHEREIN It is examined whether the Object, Principles, and Inferences of the modern Analysis are more distinctly conceived, or more evidently deduced, than Religious Mysteries and Points of Faith", is a book published by...

, subtitled A DISCOURSE Addressed to an Infidel Mathematician, a critique of the calculus
Calculus
Calculus is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theorem...

. Florian Cajori
Florian Cajori
Florian Cajori was one of the most celebrated historians of mathematics in his day.- Biography :...

 called this treatise “the most spectacular event of the century in the history of British mathematics.” The infidel mathematician in question is believed to have been either Edmond Halley
Edmond Halley
Edmond Halley FRS was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist who is best known for computing the orbit of the eponymous Halley's Comet. He was the second Astronomer Royal in Britain, following in the footsteps of John Flamsteed.-Biography and career:Halley...

, or Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton PRS was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."...

 himself—though if to the latter, the discourse was then posthumously addressed, as Newton died in 1727. The Analyst represented a direct attack on the foundations and principles of Infinitesimal calculus
Infinitesimal calculus
Infinitesimal calculus is the part of mathematics concerned with finding slope of curves, areas under curves, minima and maxima, and other geometric and analytic problems. It was independently developed by Gottfried Leibniz and Isaac Newton starting in the 1660s...

 and, in particular, the notion of fluxion
Method of Fluxions
Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. The book was completed in 1671, and published in 1736. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus...

 or infinitesimal
Infinitesimal
Infinitesimals have been used to express the idea of objects so small that there is no way to see them or to measure them. The word infinitesimal comes from a 17th century Modern Latin coinage infinitesimus, which originally referred to the "infinite-th" item in a series.In common speech, an...

 change, which Newton and Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German philosopher and mathematician. He wrote in different languages, primarily in Latin , French and German ....

 used to develop the calculus. Berkeley coined the phrase Ghosts of departed quantities, familiar to students of calculus (see Ian Stewart
Ian Stewart (mathematician)
Ian Nicholas Stewart FRS is a professor of mathematics at the University of Warwick, England, and a widely known popular-science and science-fiction writer. He is the first recipient of the , awarded jointly by the LMS and the IMA for his work on promoting mathematics.-Biography:Stewart was born...

's book From Here to Infinity
From Here to Infinity (book)
From Here to Infinity: A Guide to Today's Mathematics, a 1996 book by mathematician and science popularizer Ian Stewart, is a guide to modern mathematics for the general reader. It aims to answer questions such as "What is mathematics?", "What is it for " and "What are mathematicians doing nowadays?"...

, chapter 6), which captures the gist of his criticism.

Berkeley regarded his criticism of calculus as part of his broader campaign against the religious implications of Newtonian mechanics as a defense of traditional Christianity against deism
Deism
Deism in religious philosophy is the belief that reason and observation of the natural world, without the need for organized religion, can determine that the universe is the product of an all-powerful creator. According to deists, the creator does not intervene in human affairs or suspend the...

, which tends to distance God from His worshippers.

The difficulties raised by Berkeley were still present in the work of Cauchy whose approach to infinitesimal calculus was a combination of infinitesimals and a notion of limit, and were eventually sidestepped by Weierstrass by means of his (ε, δ) approach, which eliminated infinitesimals altogether. More recently, Abraham Robinson
Abraham Robinson
Abraham Robinson was a mathematician who is most widely known for development of non-standard analysis, a mathematically rigorous system whereby infinitesimal and infinite numbers were incorporated into mathematics....

 restored infinitesimal methods in his 1966 book Non-standard analysis
Non-standard analysis
Non-standard analysis is a branch of mathematics that formulates analysis using a rigorous notion of an infinitesimal number.Non-standard analysis was introduced in the early 1960s by the mathematician Abraham Robinson. He wrote:...

by showing that they can be used rigorously.

Moral philosophy


The tract Passive Obedience (1712) is

Berkeley’s main contribution to moral and political philosophy. ... Other important sources for Berkeley’s views on morality are Alciphron
Alciphron (book)
Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher is a philosophical dialogue by the 18th-century Irish philosopher George Berkeley wherein Berkeley tried to combat the arguments of free-thinkers such as Mandeville and Shaftesbury against the Christian religion...

(1732), especially dialogues I-III, and the Discourse to Magistrates (1738).


Place in the history of philosophy


Berkeley's Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge is a 1710 work by Anglo-Irish Empiricist philosopher George Berkeley. This book largely seeks to refute the claims made by his contemporary John Locke about the nature of human perception...

was published three years before the publication of Arthur Collier
Arthur Collier
Arthur Collier was an English Anglican priest and philosopher.-Early life:Collier was born at the rectory of Steeple Langford, Wiltshire...

's Clavis Universalis, which made assertions similar to those of Berkeley's. However, there seemed to have been no influence or communication between the two writers.

German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher known for his pessimism and philosophical clarity. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four separate manifestations of reason in the phenomenal...

 once wrote of him: "Berkeley was, therefore, the first to treat the subjective starting-point really seriously and to demonstrate irrefutably its absolute necessity. He is the father of idealism
Idealism
In philosophy, idealism is the family of views which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing...

...".

George Berkeley has gone down in the handbooks as a great spokesman of British empiricism
Empiricism
Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily via sensory experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism, idealism and historicism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence,...

.

Today, every student of the history of philosophy is familiar with the view that there was a sort of linear development involving three great “British Empiricists”, leading from Locke through Berkeley to Hume.

Berkeley influenced many modern philosophers
Modern philosophy
Modern philosophy is a type of philosophy that originated in Western Europe in the 17th century, and is now common worldwide. It is not a specific doctrine or school , although there are certain assumptions common to much of it, which helps to distinguish it from earlier philosophy.The 17th and...

, especially David Hume
David Hume
David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment...

. Thomas Reid
Thomas Reid
The Reverend Thomas Reid FRSE , was a religiously trained Scottish philosopher, and a contemporary of David Hume, was the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense, and played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment...

 admitted that he put forward a drastic criticism of Berkeleianism after he had been an admirer of Berkeley’s philosophical system for a long time. Berkeley’s “thought made possible the work of Hume and thus Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher from Königsberg , researching, lecturing and writing on philosophy and anthropology at the end of the 18th Century Enlightenment....

, notes Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead, OM FRS was an English mathematician who became a philosopher. He wrote on algebra, logic, foundations of mathematics, philosophy of science, physics, metaphysics, and education...

.” Some authors draw a parallel between Berkeley and Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was a philosopher and mathematician and the founder of the 20th century philosophical school of phenomenology. He broke with the positivist orientation of the science and philosophy of his day, yet he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic...

.

During Berkeley’s lifetime his philosophical ideas were comparatively uninfluential. But interest in his doctrine grew from the 1870s when Alexander Campbell Fraser
Alexander Campbell Fraser
Alexander Campbell Fraser was a Scottish philosopher.Born at Ardchattan, Argyll, the son of the parish minister, he was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, where, from 1846 to 1856, he was professor of Logic at New College...

, “the leading Berkeley scholar of the nineteenth century,” published “The Works of George Berkeley.” A powerful impulse to serious studies in Berkeley’s philosophy was given by A. A. Luce
A. A. Luce
Arthur Aston Luce MC was professor of philosophy at Trinity College, Dublin and also Precentor of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin . Throughout his life he held many clerical appointments and was Vice-Provost of Trinity from 1946-1952. He was widely known as an authority on the philosopher George...

 and Thomas Edmund Jessop, “two of the twentieth century’s foremost Berkeley scholars,” thanks to whom Berkeley scholarship was raised to the rank of a special area of historico-philosophical science.

The proportion of Berkeley scholarship in literature on the history of philosophy is becoming increasingly greater. This can be judged from the most comprehensive bibliographies on George Berkeley. During the period of 1709-1932 about 300 writings on Berkeley were published. That amounted to 1 ½ publication per annum. During the course of 1932-79 over one thousand works were brought out, i.e. 20 works per annum. Of late, the number of publications has reached 30 per annum. In 1977 publication began in Ireland of a special journal on Berkeley’s life and thought (Berkeley Studies
Berkeley Studies
Berkeley Studies is an annual on-line journal established in 1977. Berkeley Studies publishes scholarly articles on anything related to George Berkeley...

).

Commemoration


The city of Berkeley, California
Berkeley, California
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of the San Francisco Bay in Northern California, United States. Its neighbors to the south are the cities of Oakland and Emeryville. To the north is the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington...

, was named after him, although the pronunciation has evolved to suit American English
American English
American English is a set of dialects of the English language used mostly in the United States. Approximately two-thirds of the world's native speakers of English live in the United States....

: (ˈ ). The naming was suggested in 1866 by a trustee of the then College of California
College of California
The College of California was the predecessor of the University of California system of public universities. The private college was founded in 1855 by noted educator Dr. Samuel H. Willey...

, Frederick Billings. Billings was inspired by Berkeley's Verses on the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America, particularly the final stanza: "Westward the course of empire takes its way; The first four Acts already past, A fifth shall close the Drama with the day; Time's noblest offspring is the last."

A residential college
Berkeley College (Yale)
Berkeley College is a residential college at Yale University, constructed in 1934. The eighth of Yale's 12 residential colleges, it was named in honor of Reverend George Berkeley , dean of Derry and later bishop of Cloyne, in recognition of the assistance in land and books that he gave to Yale in...

 and an Episcopal seminary
Berkeley Divinity School
Berkeley Divinity School, founded in 1854, is an official seminary of the Episcopal Church, based in New Haven, Connecticut. The seminary was originally founded as a middle-way between the Anglo-Catholic leaning General Theological Seminary in New York, and the Evangelical-leaning Virginia...

 at Yale University
Yale University
Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...

 also bear Berkeley's name, as does the Berkeley Library
Trinity College Library, Dublin
Trinity College Library Dublin, the centrally-administered library of Trinity College, Dublin, is the largest library in Ireland. As a "copyright library", it has legal deposit rights for material published in the Republic of Ireland; it is also the only Irish library to hold such rights for the...

 at Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin , formally known as the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother of a university", Extracts from Letters Patent of Elizabeth I, 1592: "...we...found and...

.

Veneration


Berkeley is honored together with Joseph Butler
Joseph Butler
Joseph Butler was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. He was born in Wantage in the English county of Berkshire . He is known, among other things, for his critique of Thomas Hobbes's egoism and John Locke's theory of personal identity...

 with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA)
Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church in the United States of America)
The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important people of the Christian faith. The usage of the term "saint" is similar to Roman Catholic and Orthodox traditions. Those in the Anglo-Catholic tradition may...

 on June 16.

Berkeley's writings

  • Arithmetica (1707)
  • Miscellanea Mathematica (1707)
  • Philosophical Commentaries or Common-Place Book (1707–08, notebooks)
  • An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision (1709)
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, Part I (1710)
  • Passive Obedience, or the Christian doctrine of not resisting the Supreme Power (1712)
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous
    Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous
    Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous is a book written by George Berkeley in 1713.Three important concepts discussed in the Three Dialogues are perceptual relativity, the conceivability/master argument , and Berkeley's phenomenalism.Perceptual relativity argues that the same object can...

    (1713)
  • An Essay Towards Preventing the Ruin of Great Britain (1721)
  • De Motu
    De Motu (Berkeley's essay)
    De Motu is an essay written by George Berkeley and published in 1721. Its full title is De Motu or The Principle and Nature of Motion and the Cause of the Communication of Motions. The essay was unsuccessfully submitted for a prize that had been offered by the Royal Academy of Sciences at...

    (1721)
  • A Proposal for Better Supplying Churches in our Foreign Plantations, and for converting the Savage Americans to Christianity by a College to be erected in the Summer Islands (1725)
  • A Sermon preached before the incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1732)
  • Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher (1732)
  • The Theory of Vision, or Visual Language, shewing the immediate presence and providence of a Deity, vindicated and explained (1733)
  • The Analyst: a Discourse addressed to an Infidel Mathematician
    The Analyst
    The Analyst, subtitled "A DISCOURSE Addressed to an Infidel MATHEMATICIAN. WHEREIN It is examined whether the Object, Principles, and Inferences of the modern Analysis are more distinctly conceived, or more evidently deduced, than Religious Mysteries and Points of Faith", is a book published by...

    (1734)
  • A Defence of Free-thinking in Mathematics, with Appendix concerning Mr. Walton's vindication of Sir Isaac Newton's Principle of Fluxions (1735)
  • Reasons for not replying to Mr. Walton's Full Answer (1735)
  • The Querist, containing several queries proposed to the consideration of the public (three parts, 1735-7).
  • A Discourse addressed to Magistrates and Men of Authority (1736)
  • Siris, a chain of philosophical reflections and inquiries, concerning the virtues of tar-water (1744).
  • A Letter to the Roman Catholics of the Diocese of Cloyne (1745)
  • A Word to the Wise, or an exhortation to the Roman Catholic clergy of Ireland (1749)
  • Maxims concerning Patriotism (1750)
  • Farther Thoughts on Tar-water (1752)
  • Miscellany (1752)

Writings on Berkeley


See also


  • Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius
    Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius
    "Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius" is a short story by the 20th century Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges. The story was first published in the Argentine journal Sur, May 1940. The "postscript" dated 1947 is intended to be anachronistic, set seven years in the future...

  • List of people on stamps of Ireland
  • Yogacara
    Yogacara
    Yogācāra is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and ontology through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices. It developed within Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism in about the 4th century CE...

     and Consciousness-only schools
  • George Edward Moore
    George Edward Moore
    George Edward Moore OM, was an English philosopher. He was, with Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of the analytic tradition in philosophy...

     The Refutation of Idealism (1903) - a famous criticism of Berkeley's principle "to be is to be perceived" (esse est percipi).
  • Roy Wood Sellars
    Roy Wood Sellars
    Roy Wood Sellars was an American philosopher of critical realism and religious humanism, and a proponent of emergent evolution. His son was the philosopher Wilfrid Sellars...

     Referential transcendence // "Philosophy and Phenomenological Research" (Philadelphia) 1961, vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 1–15. - Against Berkeley's analysis of perception.
  • Arthur Collier
    Arthur Collier
    Arthur Collier was an English Anglican priest and philosopher.-Early life:Collier was born at the rectory of Steeple Langford, Wiltshire...

  • Solipsism
    Solipsism
    Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. The term comes from Latin solus and ipse . Solipsism as an epistemological position holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure. The external world and other minds cannot be known, and might not...

  • Brain in a vat
    Brain in a vat
    In philosophy, the brain in a vat is an element used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of our ideas of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, and meaning...

  • Berkeley Studies
    Berkeley Studies
    Berkeley Studies is an annual on-line journal established in 1977. Berkeley Studies publishes scholarly articles on anything related to George Berkeley...


Primary


The Works of George Berkeley. Ed. by Alexander Campbell Fraser
Alexander Campbell Fraser
Alexander Campbell Fraser was a Scottish philosopher.Born at Ardchattan, Argyll, the son of the parish minister, he was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, where, from 1846 to 1856, he was professor of Logic at New College...

. In 4 Volumes. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1901.
Ewald, William B., ed., 1996. From Kant to Hilbert: A Source Book in the Foundations of Mathematics, 2 vols. Oxford Uni. Press.
  • 1707. Of Infinites, 16–19.
  • 1709. Letter to Samuel Molyneaux, 19–21.
  • 1721. De Motu, 37–54.
  • 1734. The Analyst, 60–92.

Secondary


p. 349.
    • "Shows a thorough mastery of the literature on Berkeley, along with very perceptive remarks about the strength and weaknesses of most of the central commentators. ... Exhibits a mastery of all the material, both primary and secondary..." Charles Larmore, for the Editorial Board, Journal of Philosophy.
    • R. Muehlmann is one of the Berkeley Prize Winners.
  • New Interpretations of Berkeley’s Thought. Ed. by S. H. Daniel. N. Y.: Humanity Books, 2008, 319 pp. ISBN 978-1-59102-557-3.
    • For reviews see:
    • Reviewed by Marc A. Hight, Hampden-Sydney College
      Hampden-Sydney College
      Hampden–Sydney College is a liberal arts college for men located in Hampden Sydney, Virginia, United States. Founded in 1775, Hampden–Sydney is the oldest private charter college in the Southern U.S., the last college founded before the American Revolution, and one of only three four-year,...

    • Reviewed by Thomas M. LennonBerkeley Studies
      Berkeley Studies
      Berkeley Studies is an annual on-line journal established in 1977. Berkeley Studies publishes scholarly articles on anything related to George Berkeley...

       19 (2008):51-56.
    • Reviewed by Alasdair Richmond — British Journal for the History of Philosophy
      British Journal for the History of Philosophy
      The British Journal for the History of Philosophy is a quarterly academic journal publishing articles on the history of philosophy. The editor-in-chief is G. A. J. Rogers....

      . — Volume 18. — Issue 4 (September 2010). — Pp. 724 – 726.
  • Edward Chaney (2000), 'George Berkeley's Grand Tours: The Immaterialist as Connoisseur of Art and Architecture', in E. Chaney, The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations since the Renaissance, 2nd ed. London, Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4577-9

  • Costica Bradatan (2006), The Other Bishop Berkeley. An Exercise in Reenchantment, Fordham University Press, New York


Secondary literature available on the Internet
  • Most sources listed below are suggested by Dr. Talia M. Bettcher in Berkeley: a Guide for the Perplexed (2008). See the textbook's description.
  • Berman, David. George Berkeley: Idealism and the Man. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
  • The Cambridge Companion to Berkeley. (EPUP, Google Books, and in PDF format). Ed. by Kenneth P. Winkler. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0521450330 ISBN 9780521450331
  • Daniel, Stephen H., ed. Reexamining Berkeley’s Philosophy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007. ISBN 0802093485 ISBN 9780802093486
  • Luce, A. A. Berkeley and Malebranche. A Study in the Origins of Berkeley's Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1934. (2nd edn, with additional Preface, 1967).
    • Reviewed by: Désirée Park. Studi internazionali filosofici 3 (1971):228‑30; G. J. Warnock
      Geoffrey Warnock
      Sir Geoffrey James Warnock was a philosopher and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University. Before his knighthood , he was commonly known as G. J. Warnock.- Life :...

      . Journal of Philosophy 69, 15 (1972):460-62; Günter Gawlick "Menschheitsglück und Wille Gottes: Neues Licht auf Berkeleys Ethik." Philosophische Rundschau 1-2 (January 1973):24-42; H. M. Bracken. Eighteenth-Century Studies 3 (1973): 396-97; and Stanley Grean. Journal of the History of Philosophy 12, 3 (1974): 398-403.
  • Roberts, John. A Metaphysics for the Mob: The Philosophy of George Berkeley (EPUP, Google Books, and in PDF format). New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. — 172 p. ISBN 978-0-19-531393-2
    • Reviewed by Marc A. Hight, University of Tartu
      University of Tartu
      The University of Tartu is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia. University of Tartu is the national university of Estonia; it is the biggest and highest-ranked university in Estonia...

      /Hampden-Sydney College
      Hampden-Sydney College
      Hampden–Sydney College is a liberal arts college for men located in Hampden Sydney, Virginia, United States. Founded in 1775, Hampden–Sydney is the oldest private charter college in the Southern U.S., the last college founded before the American Revolution, and one of only three four-year,...

  • Russell B.
    Bertrand Russell
    Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, and social critic. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had never been any of these things...

     Berkeley // Bertrand Russell A History of Western Philosophy 3:1:16
  • Tipton, I. C. Berkeley, The Philosophy of Immaterialism London: Methuen, 1974. ISBN 0-416-70440-9 ISBN 978-0-416-70440-2
    • “Ian C. Tipton, one of the world’s great Berkeley scholars and longtime president of the International Berkeley Society. ... Of the many works about Berkeley that were published in the twentieth century, few rival in importance his Berkeley: The Philosophy of Immaterialism ... The philosophical insight, combined with the mastery of Berkeley’s texts, that Ian brought to this work make it one of the masterpieces of Berkeley scholarship. It is not surprising therefore that, when the Garland Publishing Company brought out, late in the 1980's, a 15-volume collection of major works on Berkeley, Ian's book was one of only two full-length studies of Berkeley published after 1935 to be included” (Charles J. McCracken. In Memoriam: Ian C. Tipton // The Berkeley Newsletter
      Berkeley Studies
      Berkeley Studies is an annual on-line journal established in 1977. Berkeley Studies publishes scholarly articles on anything related to George Berkeley...

       17 (2006), p. 4).
  • Winkler, Kenneth P. Berkeley: An Interpretation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. ISBN 0198249071 ISBN 9780198249078

External links