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Gara Garayev

Gara Garayev

Overview

Gara Abulfaz oghlu Garayev ' onMouseout='HidePop("61587")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Baku">Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea.
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Gara Abulfaz oghlu Garayev ' onMouseout='HidePop("61587")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Baku">Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

 - May 13, 1982, Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

), also spelled as Qara Qarayev or Kara [Abulfazovich] Karayev, was a prominent Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani people
The Azerbaijanis are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as in the neighbourhood states, Georgia, Russia and formerly Armenia. Commonly referred to as Azeris or Azerbaijani Turks , they also live in a wider area from the Caucasus to...

 composer of the Soviet period
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. Garayev wrote nearly 110 musical pieces, including ballet
Ballet
Ballet is a type of performance dance, that originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century, and which was further developed in France and Russia as a concert dance form. The early portions preceded the invention of the proscenium stage and were presented in large chambers with...

s, opera
Opera
Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance...

s, symphonic
Symphony
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, scored almost always for orchestra. A symphony usually contains at least one movement or episode composed according to the sonata principle...

 and chamber
Chamber music
Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. Most broadly, it includes any art music that is performed by a small number of performers with one performer to a part...

 pieces, solos
Solo (music)
In music, a solo is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer...

 for piano, cantata
Cantata
A cantata is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment, typically in several movements, often involving a choir....

s, songs and marches
March (music)
A march, as a musical genre, is a piece of music with a strong regular rhythm which in origin was expressly written for marching to and most frequently performed by a military band. In mood, marches range from the moving death march in Wagner's Götterdämmerung to the brisk military marches of John...

, and rose to prominence not only in Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Azerbaijan SSR for short, was one of the republics that made up the former Soviet Union....

 but also in the rest of the Soviet Union and worldwide.

Early life


Garayev was born in the family of pediatrician, who was famous in Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

. His mother, Sona, was among the first graduates of the Baku-based school of the Russian
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 Music Society. Garayev's younger brother, Mursal, became a surgeon, but died at an early age.

In 1926, at the age of eight, Gara Garayev first entered the junior music school at the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire, currently known as the Baku Music Academy. Due to his musical talents, in 1933 Garayev was allowed to enroll simultaneously in two faculties at the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire. Among his teachers were Georgi Sharoyev, Leonid Rudolf, and the prominent Azerbaijani composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov
Uzeyir Hajibeyov
Uzeyir bey Abdul Hussein oglu Hajibeyov was an Azerbaijani and Soviet composer, conductor, publicist, playwright, teacher, translator, and social figure from Azerbaijan. He is recognized as the father of Azerbaijani classical music and opera...

. In 1937, Garayev joined the Union of Composers of Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Azerbaijan SSR for short, was one of the republics that made up the former Soviet Union....

.

Career


In 1938, at the age of twenty, Garayev composed his first musical piece, a cantata "The Song of the Heart" to the poem by Rasul Rza
Rasul Rza
Rasul Rza , , was Azerbaijani writer, Hero of Socialist Labour , People's Poet of Azerbaijan, Laureate of Soviet State Award and the Chairman of the Writers' Union of Azerbaijan...

. It was performed in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

's Bolshoi Theater in attendance of Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 to 5 March 1953. He was among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who brought about the October Revolution and had held the position of first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee...

 in the same year. Garayev conducted his cantata during the Decade of Azerbaijani Art festival in the Bolshoi Theater, an event also attended by Stalin. In the same year, Garayev moved to Moscow State Conservatoire, where he became a student and a good friend of Dmitri Shostakovich
Dmitri Shostakovich
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich was a Soviet Russian composer and one of the most celebrated composers of the 20th century....

.

In 1941 Garayev returned to Baku to teach at Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Society. In 1945, Garayev and Jovdat Hajiyev
Jovdat Hajiyev
Ahmad Jovdat Ismayil oglu Hajiyev was one of the major Azerbaijani composers of the Soviet period. He is remembered for his monumental orchestral works, having been the first Azerbaijani to compose a symphony...

 wrote the Motherland ("Vətən") opera, for which they were awarded a prestigious Stalin Prize. In 1948, at the age of 30, Garayev was again awarded this prize for his symphonic poem Leyli and Majnun, based on the same-titled famous work of Nizami Ganjavi. Upon the death of Uzeyir Hajibeyov
Uzeyir Hajibeyov
Uzeyir bey Abdul Hussein oglu Hajibeyov was an Azerbaijani and Soviet composer, conductor, publicist, playwright, teacher, translator, and social figure from Azerbaijan. He is recognized as the father of Azerbaijani classical music and opera...

 in 1948, Garayev became the Chair of the Union of Composers of Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Azerbaijan SSR for short, was one of the republics that made up the former Soviet Union....

 and the rector
Rector
The word rector has a number of different meanings; it is widely used to refer to an academic, religious or political administrator...

 of Azerbaijan State Conservatoire. In the latter position, Garayev retained Uzeyir Hajibeyov's traditional emphasis on Azerbaijani folk music in teaching, and also promoted the contemporary genres, such as jazz
Jazz
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

, in Azerbaijani music. In 1948 Garayev also became the delegate to the First National USSR Congress of Soviet Composers. In the same year Garayev also headed the Music Department at the Azerbaijan Architecture and Art Institute.

In 1952, under the direction of the choreograph P. A. Gusev, Garayev's Seven Beauties
Seven Beauties (ballet)
Seven Beauties is a ballet, composed by Gara Garayev in 1947/48 to mark the 800th anniversary of classical poet Nizami Ganjavi. The ballet lasted in the repertoire of the Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater for many years, but was taken off the stage later on. A new version was...

ballet was staged at the Azerbaijani Theater of Opera and Ballet. Based on Nizami Ganjavi's famous poem, Seven Beauties ("Yeddi gözəl") became the first Azerbaijani ballet and opened a new chapter in the history of classical music of Azerbaijan. Garayev's only other ballet, Path of Thunder ("İldırımlı yollarla"), staged in 1958, was dedicated to racial conflicts in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

. In the same year, Garayev also wrote the score for the documentary film A Story About the Oil Workers of the Caspian Sea, directed by Roman Karmen
Roman Karmen
Roman Lazarevich Karmen was a Soviet war camera-man and film director and one of the most influential figures in documentary film making; insofar as his propaganda is concerned he could be considered USSR's answer to Leni Riefenstahl, though the comparison is by no means absolute.-Communist...

 and set at the Oil Rocks
Oil Rocks
Neft Daşları is an industrial settlement in Baku, Azerbaijan. The settlement forms part of the municipality of Çilov-Neft Daşları in Əzizbəyov raion. It lies away from the Azeri capital Baku, and from the nearest shore in the Caspian Sea...

.

During his teaching career at the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire, Garayev tutored a number of prominent Azerbaijani musicians and composers, including Niyazi
Niyazi
Niyazi Zulfigar oglu Tagizade Hajibeyov was a prominent Soviet Azerbaijani musical conductor, composer, author of the famous "Rast" symphonic mugam.-Early life:...

, Arif Malikov
Arif Malikov
Arif Malikov is an Azerbaijani and Soviet composer. He graduated from the Baku Conservatory as a music composer in 1958. He shot to fame in 1961 when his first major composition "Legend of Love" was staged at the Kirov State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Leningrad and received...

, Khayyam Mirzazade and Ismayil Hajibeyov among others. Garayev's own son, Faraj (born 1943) was also his student, who went on to compose single-act ballets such as Shadows of Qobustan ("Qobustanın kölgələri") and Kaleidoscope, and later led the musical avantgarde movement in Azerbaijan.

In June 1961, amidst the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

, Garayev and Tikhon Khrennikov
Tikhon Khrennikov
Tikhon Nikolayevich Khrennikov was a Russian and Soviet composer, pianist, leader of the Union of Soviet Composers, who was also known for his political activities...

 were the only two Soviet composers who attended the first International Los Angeles Music Festival held at UCLA. Fifteen composers from seven nations presented their works, including Arnold Schoenberg
Arnold Schoenberg
Arnold Schoenberg was an Austrian composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School...

 and Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky ; 6 April 1971) was a Russian, later naturalized French, and then naturalized American composer, pianist, and conductor....

. On June 11, Franz Waxman
Franz Waxman
Franz Waxman was a German-American composer, known for his bravura Carmen Fantasie for violin and orchestra, based on musical themes from the Bizet opera Carmen, and for his musical scores for films....

 conducted the Festival Symphony Orchestra with a suite from Garayev's Path of Thunder.

In 1962 Garayev became a member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and visited the United States, Ethiopia and Lebanon. In 1972 he visited Poland.

Later life



Garayev suffered from heart disease, which prevented him from attending his own 60th jubilee celebration held in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, where he was awarded the title of the Hero of Socialist Labor
Hero of Socialist Labor
Hero of Socialist Labour was an honorary title in the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact countries. It was the highest degree of distinction for exceptional achievements in national economy and culture...

. Garayev spent the last five years of his life in Moscow, away from the public, although his love for Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

 remained strong and was reflected in his writing:
Garayev died on May 13, 1982 in Moscow at the age of 64. His body was flown to Baku and buried at the Alley of Honor.

Appraisals



  • Dmitri Shostakovich
    Dmitri Shostakovich
    Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich was a Soviet Russian composer and one of the most celebrated composers of the 20th century....

    , Russian composer and Garayev's mentor:

  • Niyazi
    Niyazi
    Niyazi Zulfigar oglu Tagizade Hajibeyov was a prominent Soviet Azerbaijani musical conductor, composer, author of the famous "Rast" symphonic mugam.-Early life:...

    , Azerbaijani conductor and composer, student of Garayev:

  • Tahir Salahov
    Tahir Salahov
    Tahir Salahov is an Azerbaijani painter and draughtsman....

    , Azerbaijani painter:

  • Tikhon Khrennikov
    Tikhon Khrennikov
    Tikhon Nikolayevich Khrennikov was a Russian and Soviet composer, pianist, leader of the Union of Soviet Composers, who was also known for his political activities...

    , Russian composer:

  • Rodion Shchedrin
    Rodion Shchedrin
    Rodion Konstantinovich Shchedrin is a Russian composer. He was one оf the leading Soviet composers, and was the chairman of the Union of Russian Composers from 1973 until 1990.-Life and Works:...

    , Russian composer:

  • Fikret Amirov
    Fikret Amirov
    Fikret Mashadi Jamil oghlu Amirov |Ganja]] - February 20, 1984, Baku) was a prominent Azerbaijani composer of the Soviet period.Fikret Amirov grew up in an atmosphere of Azerbaijani folk music...

    , Azerbaijani composer:

  • Khayyam Mirzazade, Azerbaijani composer and Garayev's student:

  • Imran Qasymov, Azerbaijani writer:

  • Arif Malikov
    Arif Malikov
    Arif Malikov is an Azerbaijani and Soviet composer. He graduated from the Baku Conservatory as a music composer in 1958. He shot to fame in 1961 when his first major composition "Legend of Love" was staged at the Kirov State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Leningrad and received...

    , Azerbaijani composer and Garayev's student:

Major works

  • 1942 - Film score for A Story About the Oil Workers of the Caspian Sea.
  • 1943 - Opera Motherland, with Jovdat Hajiyev
    Jovdat Hajiyev
    Ahmad Jovdat Ismayil oglu Hajiyev was one of the major Azerbaijani composers of the Soviet period. He is remembered for his monumental orchestral works, having been the first Azerbaijani to compose a symphony...

    , premiered in Baku in 1945.
  • 1947 - Symphonic poem Leyli and Majnun. Edits Muslim Magomayev's opera Shah Ismayil.
  • 1949 - Seven Beauties, a suite for symphonic orchestra.
  • 1950 - Six children's pieces for piano.
  • 1952 - Albanian Rhapsody, children's pieces for piano.
  • 1957 - Path of Thunder ballet.
  • 1958 - Film score for Her Great Heart, three nocturne
    Nocturne
    A nocturne is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night...

    s for jazz orchestra.
  • 1960 - Symphony Don Quixote.

External links