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Film format

Film format

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A film format is a technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film
Photographic film
Photographic film is a sheet of plastic coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive silver halide salts with variable crystal sizes that determine the sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film...

, for either stills or movies. It can also apply to projected film, either slides or movies. The primary characteristic of a film format is its size and shape.

In the case of motion picture film, the format may also include audio parameters (though often not). Other characteristics usually include the film gauge
Film gauge
Film gauge is a physical property of photographic or motion picture film stock which defines its width. Traditionally the major film gauges in usage are 8 mm, 16 mm, 35 mm, and 65/70 mm...

, pulldown method, lens anamorphosis
Anamorphosis
Anamorphosis or anamorphism may refer to any of the following:*Anamorphosis, in art, the representation of an object as seen, for instance, altered by reflection in a mirror...

 (or lack thereof), and film gate
Film gate
The film gate is the rectangular opening in the front of a motion picture camera where the film is exposed to light. The film gate can be seen by removing the lens and rotating the shutter out of the way...

 or projector
Movie projector
A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying moving pictures by projecting them on a projection screen. Most of the optical and mechanical elements, except for the illumination and sound devices, are present in movie cameras.-Physiology:...

 aperture dimensions, all of which need to be defined for photography as well as projection, as they may differ.

Multiple image


Designation (A) Type Introduced Discontinued Image size Exposures Comment
101 roll film
Roll film
Rollfilm or roll film is any type of spool-wound photographic film protected from white light exposure by a paper backing, as opposed to film which is protected from exposure and wound forward in a cartridge. Confusingly, roll film was originally often referred to as "cartridge" film because of its...

1895 1956 3½" × 3½"
102 roll film 1896 1933 1½" × 2" One flange has gear teeth
103 roll film 1896 1949 3¾" × 4¾"
104 roll film 1897 1949 4¾" × 3¾"
105 roll film 1897 1949 2¼" × 3¼" Like 120 film with 116-size flanges
106 for roll holder 1898 1924 3½" × 3½" Roll holder films were wound inside out
107 for roll holder 1898 1924 3¼" × 4¼"
108 for roll holder 1898 1929 4¼" × 3¼"
109 for roll holder 1898 1924 4" × 5"
110
110 film (roll format)
110 was the number later given by Kodak to a roll film format originally introduced in 1898. 110 film produced 5×4-inch images and was discontinued in October 1929....


(early roll film)
for roll holder 1898 1929 5" × 4" No relation to the later 110 cartridge format for "pocket" cameras.
110
110 film
110 is a cartridge-based film format used in still photography. It was introduced by Kodak in 1972. 110 is a miniaturised version of Kodak's earlier 126 film format. Each frame is , with one registration hole....


("Pocket Instamatic")
cartridge 1972 2009 13 × 17 mm Introduced with Kodak's "Pocket Instamatic" series
111 for roll holder 1898 Unknown 6½" × 4¾"
112 for roll holder 1898 1924 7" × 5"
113 for roll holder 1898 Unknown 9 × 12 cm
114 for roll holder 1898 Unknown 12 × 9 cm
115 roll film 1898 1949 6¾" × 4¾"
116 roll film 1899 1984 2½" × 4¼" Like 616 film with wider flanges
117 roll film 1900 1949 2¼" × 2¼" 12 Like 620 spool with 120 keyslot
118 roll film 1900 1961 3¼" × 4¼" 3.474" spool
119 roll film 1900 1940 4¼" × 3¼"
120
120 film
120 is a film format for still photography introduced by Kodak for their Brownie No. 2 in 1901. It was originally intended for amateur photography but was later superseded in this role by 135 film...

roll film 1901 Present 2¼" × 3¼"
6 cm × 7 cm
2¼" × 2¼"
2¼" × 1⅝"
8
10
12
16
121 roll film 1902 1941 1⅝" × 2½"
122 roll film 1903 1971 3¼" × 5½" 6 or 10 Postcard format
123 roll film 1904 1949 4" × 5"
124 roll film 1905 1961 3¼" × 4¼" 3.716" spool - same picture size as 118 with longer spool
125 roll film 1905 1949 3¼" × 2½" x 2 for stereo pairs
126
126 film (roll format)
126 was the name later given to a roll film format originally introduced by Kodak in 1906, for images 4¼ × 6½ inches. It was discontinued in March 1949....


(early roll film)
roll film 1906 1949 4¼" × 6½" No relation to the 126 cartridge format introduced in 1963.
126
126 film
126 is the number given to a cartridge-based film format used in still photography. It was introduced by Kodak in 1963, and is associated mainly with low-end point-and-shoot cameras, particularly Kodak's own Instamatic series of cameras....


("Instamatic")
cartridge 1963 2008 26.5 × 26.5 mm 12, 20 (later 24) Introduced with first "Instamatic" cameras under the name "Kodapak"
127
127 film
127 is a film format for still photography. The image format is usually a square 4×4 cm, but rectangular 4×3 cm and 4×6 cm are also standard. Oddly, C. F. Foth & Co. used 36×24 mm for its first “Derby” model....

roll film 1912 Present 4 × 6 cm
4 × 4 cm
4 × 3 cm
8
12
16
"Vest Pocket"
128 roll film 1912 1941 1½" × 2¼" for Houghton Ensignette #E1
129 roll film 1912 1951 1⅞" × 3" for Houghton Ensignette #E2
130 roll film 1916 1961 2⅞" × 4⅞"
135
135 film
The term 135 was introduced by Kodak in 1934 as a designation for cartridge film wide, specifically for still photography. It quickly grew in popularity, surpassing 120 film by the late 1960s to become the most popular photographic film format...

cartridge 1934 Present 24 × 36 mm 24 or 36 formerly available in 12, 20, or 72 exposures
220
120 film
120 is a film format for still photography introduced by Kodak for their Brownie No. 2 in 1901. It was originally intended for amateur photography but was later superseded in this role by 135 film...

roll film 1965 Present varies 8, 10, 12 or 16 Twice as long as 120, no backing paper
235
135 film
The term 135 was introduced by Kodak in 1934 as a designation for cartridge film wide, specifically for still photography. It quickly grew in popularity, surpassing 120 film by the late 1960s to become the most popular photographic film format...

loading spool 1934 Unknown 24 × 36 mm 35 mm film in daylight-loading spool
240 / APS
Advanced Photo System
Advanced Photo System is a film format for still photography first produced in 1996. It was marketed by Eastman Kodak under the brand name Advantix, by FujiFilm under the name Nexia, by AgfaPhoto under the name Futura and by Konica as Centuria.- Design :The film is 24 mm wide, and has three...

cartridge 1996 Present (corrected) 30.2 × 16.7 mm 15, 25, or 40 Daylight, Transparency, Black & White (Chromogenic 400CN)
335
135 film
The term 135 was introduced by Kodak in 1934 as a designation for cartridge film wide, specifically for still photography. It quickly grew in popularity, surpassing 120 film by the late 1960s to become the most popular photographic film format...

stereo pairs 1952 Unknown 24 × 24 mm For stereo pairs
435
135 film
The term 135 was introduced by Kodak in 1934 as a designation for cartridge film wide, specifically for still photography. It quickly grew in popularity, surpassing 120 film by the late 1960s to become the most popular photographic film format...

loading spool 1934 Unknown 24 × 36 mm 35 mm film in daylight-loading spool
500 film pack 1¼" × 2⅜" 12
515 film pack 5" × 7" 12
516 film pack 2½" × 4¼" 12
518 film pack 3¼" × 4¼" 12 sheets
520 film pack 2¼" × 3¼" 16 sheets
522 film pack 3¼" × 5½" 12 sheets 3A postcard
523 film pack 4" × 5" 12 sheets
541 film pack 9 cm × 12 cm 12
543 film pack 10 cm × 15 cm 12
616
616 film
616 film was originally produced by Kodak in 1932 along with 620 film for the Kodak Six-16 camera. Seventy millimetres wide, the film produced 2.5 in. × 4.25 in. negatives. It was the same format as that of 116 film but on a slimmer spool, for use in more compact cameras. The format was used...

roll film 1931 1984 2½" × 4¼" or 2½" × 2⅛" 6, later 8 Similar to 116 film but on a thinner spool
620 roll film 1932 1995 Similar to 120 film but on a thinner spool
828
828 film
828 is a film format for still photography. Kodak introduced it in 1935, only a year after 135 film. 828 film was introduced with the Kodak Bantam, a consumer-level camera....

roll film 1935 1985 28 × 40 mm, 8 35mm, one perforation per frame Bantam
35 roll film 1916 1933 1¼" × 1¾" 35 mm unperforated
00 UniveX roll film 1933 1½" × 1⅛" 6 made by Gevaert
Hit (a.k.a. Mycro) roll film 1937 unknown 14 × 14 mm 10 17.5 mm; used in imported miniature toy cameras
Disc
Disc film
thumb|Cartridge of disc filmDisc film was a still-photography film format aimed at the consumer market, and introduced by Kodak in 1982.The film was in the form of a flat disc, and was fully housed within a plastic cartridge...

cassette 1982 1998 8 × 11 mm
Half-frame
Half-frame camera
A half-frame camera is a camera using a film format at half the intended exposure format. A common variety is the 18x24mm format on regular 135 film. It is the normal exposure format on 35mm movie cameras...

cartridge later than 1934 Present 18 × 24 mm 48 or 72 135 film
135 film
The term 135 was introduced by Kodak in 1934 as a designation for cartridge film wide, specifically for still photography. It quickly grew in popularity, surpassing 120 film by the late 1960s to become the most popular photographic film format...

 in "half-frame" cameras
Minox
Minox
The Minox is a subminiature camera conceived in 1922 and invented in 1936 by German-Latvian Walter Zapp, which Latvian factory VEF manufactured from 1937 to 1943. After World War II, the camera was redesigned and production resumed in Germany in 1948. Originally envisioned as a luxury item, it...

cartridge 1938 Present 8 × 11 mm 15, 36 or 50 nominally 9.5 mm wide (in reality 9.2-9.3 mm)
Karat cartridge 1936 1963 Early AGFA
Agfa-Gevaert
Agfa-Gevaert N.V. is a European multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue and digital imaging products and systems, as well as IT solutions. The company has three divisions. Agfa Graphics offers integrated prepress and industrial inkjet systems to the...

 cartridge for 35 mm film
Rapid cartridge 1964 1990s 12 AGFA
Agfa-Gevaert
Agfa-Gevaert N.V. is a European multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue and digital imaging products and systems, as well as IT solutions. The company has three divisions. Agfa Graphics offers integrated prepress and industrial inkjet systems to the...

 cartridge for 35 mm film (replaced Karat, same system)
SL cartridge 1958 1990 24x36 mm
24x24 mm
18x24 mm
12
16
24
Orwo
ORWO
ORWO was an East German manufacturer of photographic film and magnetic tape. The basis for ORWO was the Agfa Wolfen plant, where the first modern colour film with incorporated colour couplers, Agfacolor, was developed in 1936....

 Schnell-Lade Kassette for 35 mm film
Kassette 16 cartridge 1978 1990s 13 x 17 mm 20 Orwo
ORWO
ORWO was an East German manufacturer of photographic film and magnetic tape. The basis for ORWO was the Agfa Wolfen plant, where the first modern colour film with incorporated colour couplers, Agfacolor, was developed in 1936....

, 16 mm wide, central perforation (holes between frames)
Introduced exclusively for the Pentacon k16 camera


(A) Unless otherwise noted, all formats were introduced by Kodak, who began allocating the number series in 1913. Before that, films were simply identified by the name of the cameras they were intended for.

For roll holder means film for cartridge roll holders, allowing roll film
Roll film
Rollfilm or roll film is any type of spool-wound photographic film protected from white light exposure by a paper backing, as opposed to film which is protected from exposure and wound forward in a cartridge. Confusingly, roll film was originally often referred to as "cartridge" film because of its...

 to be used with cameras designed to use glass plates. These were spooled with the emulsion facing outward, rather than inward as in film designed for native roll-film cameras.

The primary reason there were so many different negative formats in the early days was that prints were made by contact
Contact print
A contact print is a photographic image produced from film; sometimes from a film negative, and sometimes from a film positive. The defining characteristic of a contact print is that the photographic result is made by exposing through the film negative or positive, onto a light sensitive material...

, without use of an enlarger
Enlarger
An enlarger is a specialized transparency projector used to produce photographic prints from film or glass negatives using the gelatin silver process, or from transparencies.-Construction:...

. The film format would thus be exactly the same as the size of the print—so if you wanted large prints, you would have to use a large camera and corresponding film format.

Single image


























Size (in inches) Type
1⅝×2⅛"sixteenth-plate" tintype
Tintype
Tintype, also melainotype and ferrotype, is a photograph made by creating a direct positive on a sheet of iron metal that is blackened by painting, lacquering or enamelling and is used as a support for a collodion photographic emulsion....

s
2×2½"ninth-plate" tintypes
2×3sheet film
Sheet film
Sheet film is large format and medium format photographic film supplied on individual sheets of acetate or polyester film base rather than rolls. Sheet film was initially supplied as an alternative to glass plates...

2½×3½"sixth-plate" tintypes
3×4sheet film
3⅛×4⅛"quarter-plate" tintypes
3¼×4¼"quarter-plate" glass plates
Photographic plate
Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a means of photography. A light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was applied to a glass plate. This form of photographic material largely faded from the consumer market in the early years of the 20th century, as more convenient and less fragile...

3¼×5½postcard or 3A
4×5glass plate,sheet film
4¾×6½"half-plate" glass plates, sheet film
4½×5½"half-plate" tintypes
4×10sheet film
5×7sheet film
7×17sheet film
8×10glass plates,sheet film
8×20sheet film
8½×6½"whole-plate" glass plates, sheet film, tintypes
11×14sheet film
12×20sheet film
14×17sheet film
16×20sheet film
20×24sheet film










Size (in cm) Type
6.5 × 9 sheet film
9 × 12 glass plate, sheet film
10 × 15 sheet film
13 × 18 sheet film
18 × 24 sheet film
24 × 30 sheet film

Instant image









Designation Type
Type 37 Polaroid roll film cartridge
Type 47 Polaroid roll film cartridge
Type 88 Polaroid flat film cartridge

See http://www.rwhirled.com/landlist/landfilm.htm for a full list of Polaroid films.

Fuji produce instant films and film backs for sheet film cameras.

See also

  • Film base
    Film base
    A film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. Despite the numerous layers and coatings associated with the emulsion layer, the base generally accounts for the vast majority of the thickness of any given film stock...

  • Film gauge
    Film gauge
    Film gauge is a physical property of photographic or motion picture film stock which defines its width. Traditionally the major film gauges in usage are 8 mm, 16 mm, 35 mm, and 65/70 mm...

  • Film stock
    Film stock
    Film stock is photographic film on which filmmaking of motion pictures are shot and reproduced. The equivalent in television production is video tape.-1889–1899:...

  • Keykode
    Keykode
    KeyKode is an Eastman Kodak Company advancement on edge numbers, which are letters, numbers and symbols placed at regular intervals along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm film to allow for frame-by-frame specific identification...

  • Large format
  • Medium format
  • Microform
    Microform
    Microforms are any forms, either films or paper, containing microreproductions of documents for transmission, storage, reading, and printing. Microform images are commonly reduced to about one twenty-fifth of the original document size...


External links