In sports, an ejection
) is one of several disqualifying actions assessed to a player or coach by a game official (such as a referee
A referee is the person of authority, in a variety of sports, who is responsible for presiding over the game from a neutral point of view and making on the fly decisions that enforce the rules of the sport...
or umpire), usually for unsportsmanlike conduct
Unsportsmanlike conduct is a foul or offense in many sports that is not necessarily a violation of the respective sport's rules of play, but violates the sport's generally accepted rules of sportsmanship and/or participant conduct...
Many ejections occur for such actions as fighting (or attempting to instigate a fight), persistent arguing with a game official, or blatant violations of the rules deemed serious. Usually, a warning is given to the offender before he/she is actually ejected.
When the offender is ejected, he/she must leave the immediate playing area; in most cases, this means going to the locker room or other part of the venue out of sight of the playing area, or in extreme cases, leaving the stadium grounds. In the case of many High School Associations, ejected players are required to stay with their coach in the team area or an assistant coach may be required to leave the area with the player for supervision purposes. If a player or coach refuses to cooperate, additional sanctions may be levied (such as forfeiting a contest or being suspended).
In NBA and most other basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...
games, a player or coach is ejected from the game if he accumulates two technical foul
In basketball, a technical foul is any infraction of the rules penalized as a foul which does not involve physical contact during the course of play between players on the court, or is a foul by a non-player. The most common technical foul is for unsportsmanlike conduct...
s of an unsportsmanlike nature over the course of the game. Participants who commit fouls of violence or enter the stands are ejected summarily regardless of the number of technical fouls accumulated. Ejected players/coaches must leave the court area for the remainder of play, and must do so immediately, or else risk even heavier fines/suspensions. In the NBA, an ejection will result in, at minimum, a $1,000 fine; an ejection for leaving the bench during a fight carries at least a one game suspension as well. In domestic games, refusing to leave after being ejected can result in a player being put on report. If being put on report does not provide enough encouragement for a player to leave the court, the official may award the game to the opposing team, regardless of score. Players who incur 16 technical fouls in a single NBA season are automatically suspended for one game; an additional suspension is imposed for each increment of two thereafter. Should a player receive the 16th technical foul in the last regular-season game, he will be suspended for the first game in the next season. In the playoffs, players are suspended if they receive seven technicals.
A significant rule change was made in 1981 whereby the NBA eliminated the ejection of a coach for three technical fouls caused by an illegal defense. Also, in the NBA ejections are not permissible if a technical foul is caused by an excessive timeout, delay of game, accidental departure from the coach's box, the destruction of a backboard caused by a play (such as a dunk), defensive hanging on any part of the basket unit to successfully touch a ball (Rule 12), or any remaining in the game after six fouls when a team is out of players because of fouls, injuries, and ejections under Rule 3, Section I, paragraph b.
In FIBA sanctioned games, a player is ejected for two unsportsmanlike fouls or one disqualifying foul, but there is no automatic threshold for ejection after a certain number of technical fouls. A player can, theoretically at least, accumulate five technicals (technical fouls in FIBA include swinging of elbows without contact and flopping, which are not fouls in the NBA) as a game and then be fouled out, but not ejected. A coach can be ejected upon having incurred two coach technical fouls, or a combination of three bench and coach technical fouls.
In NFHS contests, ejected players must remain on the team bench, so that they may continue to be supervised by a coach or other adult team representative. If an adult team representative other than the head coach, such as an adult assistant coach, can provide supervision from the court and to the dressing/locker room for the duration of the contest, the player may leave the visual confines of the playing area with this representative.
In NCAA contests, ejected players are dismissed to the locker room, and no adult supervision is required.
Basketball also features disqualification
, also known as fouling out
. A player who commits a certain number of personal foul
In basketball, a foul is an infraction of the rules concerning illegal personal contact with an opponent and/or unsportsmanlike behavior. A personal foul is the most common type of foul in basketball. Due to the nature of the game, personal fouls occur on occasion and are not always regarded as...
s in a game (5 or 6 in most leagues), is removed from the game and is said to have "fouled out". Unlike ejection, fouling out is not considered a punitive action—it is considered a "normal" part of the game. Players who foul out of a game are permitted to remain on the bench with the team (instead of being sent to the locker room, as with an ejected player); and are not subject to any further penalties (such as fines or suspensions). In the NBA, a technical foul (which does not count towards suspension or ejection) is also assessed for re-entering a game after fouling out of a game in emergency situations listed in Rule 3, Section I when a team is reduced to five players. Once that occurs, a technical foul is charged if a player remains in the game after his sixth or subsequent foul, or as the last player to foul out, re-enters the game in case of injury to an eligible player that must be removed.
also occurs at the High School level as the result of two technical fouls. Contrary to popular folklore, two technicals do not lead to automatic ejection, but instead, lead to disqualification. Due to this common misunderstanding, many disqualified players have ejected themselves, having committed severe unsporting acts after receiving their second technical foul.
In baseball, a player, coach
In baseball, a number of coaches assist in the smooth functioning of a team. They are assistants to the manager, or head coach, who determines the lineup and decides how to substitute players during the game...
In baseball, the field manager is an individual who is responsible for matters of team strategy on the field and team leadership. Managers are typically assisted by between one and six assistant coaches, whose responsibilities are specialized...
may be ejected from a game for unsportsmanlike conduct. The ejectable offense may be an excessively heated or offensive argument with an umpire
In baseball, the umpire is the person charged with officiating the game, including beginning and ending the game, enforcing the rules of the game and the grounds, making judgment calls on plays, and handling the disciplinary actions. The term is often shortened to the colloquial form ump...
, malicious game play (especially pitcher
In baseball, the pitcher is the player who throwsthe baseball from the pitcher's mound toward the catcher to begin each play, with the goal of retiring a batter, who attempts to either make contact with the pitched ball or draw a walk. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the...
s attempting to strike batters
In baseball, batting is the act of facing the opposing pitcher and trying to produce offense for one's team. A batter or hitter is a person whose turn it is to face the pitcher...
with the ball
A baseball is a ball used primarily in the sport of the same name, baseball. The ball features a rubber or cork center, wrapped in yarn and covered in leather. It is in circumference . The yarn or string used to wrap the baseball can be up to one mile in length...
or a manager caught ordering his pitcher to do so), illegally applying a foreign substance to or otherwise tampering with a ball, using a corked bat
In baseball, a corked bat is a specially modified baseball bat that has been filled with cork or other lighter, less dense substances to make the bat lighter without losing much power. A lighter bat gives a hitter a quicker swing and may improve the hitter's timing...
, charging the mound
In baseball, charging the mound is when a batter assaults the pitcher, usually the result of being hit by a pitch or nearly being hit by a pitch. The first incidence of a professional charging of the mound has not been identified but the practice certainly dates back to the game's early days...
, or otherwise fighting. Between players and umpires, there is a common understanding that a certain level of argument is permitted, but players who too vigorously question an umpire's judgment of balls
In baseball, the strike zone is a conceptual right pentagonal prism over home plate which defines the boundaries through which a pitch must pass in order to count as a strike when the batter does not swing.-Definition:...
In baseball, the strike zone is a conceptual right pentagonal prism over home plate which defines the boundaries through which a pitch must pass in order to count as a strike when the batter does not swing.-Definition:...
, or argue a balk
In baseball, a pitcher can commit a number of illegal motions or actions that constitute a balk. In games played under the Official Baseball Rules, a balk results in a dead ball or delayed dead ball. In certain other circumstances, a balk may be wholly or partially disregarded...
, may risk an ejection. Managers are ejected as soon as they argue balls and strikes, although they may come out to prevent their player from being ejected for doing the same.
Persons other than players, coaches and managers, such as spectators, ballpark staff, or members of the media, may be ejected at an umpire's discretion. Depending on the circumstances, spectators who are ejected may also face arrest and prosecution. Bat boys
A batboy is an individual who carries the baseball bats around to a baseball team. A batboy may also lay out the equipment and mud the baseballs to be used in the game.Mascots and batboys had both been part of baseball since the 1880s....
and ball boy
Ball Boy is a comic strip in the UK comic The Beano and also the name of the main character. It first appeared in issue 1735, dated 18 October 1975. It features a five-a-side football team that includes:* Ball Boy - the captain of the team, Ball Boy bears resemblances to The Dandy's Owen Goal...
s may be ejected for not wearing proper safety equipment.
In some cases, an ejection is followed by a fine or a suspension by the league if the player, or manager or coach, reacts in a very hostile manner towards the umpire. Also, any ejection for malicious game play will normally result in a suspension. Some managers, such as Lou Piniella
Louis Victor Piniella is a former Major League Baseball outfielder and manager. He has been nicknamed "Sweet Lou," both for his swing as a major league hitter and, facetiously, to describe his demeanor as a player and manager...
, occasionally engage in raving arguments with umpires to provoke an ejection, in hopes of inspiring a rally
Pep rallies are events that occur primarily in the United States and Canada. A pep rally is a gathering of people, typically students of middle school, high school and college age, before a sports event. The purpose of such a gathering is to encourage school spirit and to support members of the...
from their team. Bobby Cox
Robert Joseph "Bobby" Cox is a former Major League Baseball third baseman and manager. He first led the Atlanta Braves from 1978 to 1981, and then managed the Toronto Blue Jays from 1982 to 1985. He later rejoined the Braves in 1985 as a general manager...
holds the MLB record for most ejections with 161. Baseball has a rich vocabulary for describing ejections: a player or coach may be ejected, run, thrown out, banned, given the ol' heave-ho, sent to the clubhouse, hit the showers, tossed, kicked out, sent off,(#) is gone, pitched, bounced out, canned, chucked, or booted.
Any player or team official who commits a personal foul (i.e. striking, kicking, kneeing) against another player or team official, is unnecessarily rough
Game play in American football consists of a series of downs, individual plays of short duration, outside of which the ball is dead or not in play. These can be plays from scrimmage—passes, runs, punts, or field goal attempts—or free kicks such as kickoffs...
against another player or team official, commits an act of unsportsmanlike conduct, or commits a palpably unfair act is liable to be disqualified from further participation if the act is found to be flagrant. Any player or team official who fights with another player or team official, intentionally makes contact with or assaults a game official, or uses any item of equipment as a weapon is automatically ejected. If a player or team official is ejected, his team is assessed a 15-yard penalty, but if a player or team official is ejected for a palpably unfair act, the distance or score penalty will be determined by the referee after consultation with the other officials.
In high school football, a player or team official is automatically ejected if he/she receives two unsportsmanlike conduct penalties in the same game.
In association football, a player is dismissed from the field of play by the referee showing him a red card if he commits a dismissable offense or has committed a second cautionable (yellow card) offense having already received a yellow card in the same game. The act of ejection is referred to in the sport as "sending off".
A difference between being dismissed in football and the above mentioned sports is that in football, a player may not be replaced, forcing his team to play a man down. Additionally, a dismissal in any professional league results in an automatic suspension of at least one match. In National Federation of State High School Associations
The National Federation of State High School Associations is the body that writes the rules of competition for most high school sports and activities in the United States. Most high schools, whether public or private, belong to their state's high school association; in turn, each state association...
games, however, a player who has earned two yellow cards is shown the red card and disqualified, but may be substituted for. The philosophy is to refrain from punishing the team because of the actions of one individual.
It is also possible for the manager
In association football, a manager is responsible for running a football club or a national team. The manager of a professional club is responsible directly to the club president. The position of manager is almost exclusively used in British football...
or other team official to be 'sent off', which requires him to leave his dugout and sit in the stands away from the touch line. This usually requires another member of the coaching staff to make decisions for the team, such as substitutes and formation
In association football, the formation describes how the players in a team are positioned on the pitch. Different formations can be used depending on whether a team wishes to play more attacking or defensive football....
. Also, depending upon the rules of the association presiding over the game, the manager or team official may not be allowed on the bench or to communicate with assistants for at least his team's next game.
In all codes of rugby, a player may be temporarily suspended for a period of the match. In rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...
and rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...
, the standard suspension period is 10 minutes (out of an 80-minute game). In union this is generally referred to as a 'yellow card' as players are generally shown one in a manner similar to football. Suspended players are said to be sent to the sin bin and is signalled by the referee showing two outstretched hands to the offender (league) or by a yellow card (union). In rugby union sevens
Rugby sevens, also known as seven-a-side or VIIs, is a variant of rugby union in which teams are made up of seven players, instead of the usual 15, with shorter matches. Rugby sevens is administered by the International Rugby Board , the body responsible for rugby union worldwide...
, which normally lasts 14 minutes (20 in finals), the suspension period is 2 minutes.
Temporary suspensions are usually given for repeated infringements (by either the same player or team), professional fouls and foul play, such as high tackles. A player cannot be replaced while temporarily suspended, though may be at the conclusion of the suspension period. Special conditions exist for when the suspended player is a front-row forward in rugby union to enable contested scrums to continue.
For more serious offences or a second infraction warranting a temporary suspension sanction, a player may be sent off for the rest of the game, with no replacement allowable, but special conditions exist in rugby union for the replacement of a sent-off front-row forward.
Referees also have the power to send team officials to the stands, similar to that in football.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...
, there is no provision in the rules for a player to be ejected, as the spirit of the game is against behaviour reaching the point at which such action would be required. However, a player may be fined and/or suspended upon a post-game review of his/her conduct.
In keeping with the spirit of the game, however, the umpires have the power to eject a bowler from the team's bowling attack for the remainder of the innings (or in the case of a one-innings match or the second innings of a two-innings match, the remainder of the match) if the bowler, after having received one or two prior warnings (depending on prior offences), is guilty of throwing (law 24.4), ball-tampering (law 42.3), dangerous and unfair bowling (laws 42.6 and 42.7), or running onto the protected area of the pitch (law 42.12). Any bowler who is guilty of deliberately bowling a high full-pitched ball (law 42.9) is automatically ejected.
If a bowler is ejected, the umpires will direct the captain of the fielding team, once the ball is dead, to take the bowler off forthwith. If there is an over in progress when the bowler is ejected, it shall be completed by another bowler who shall neither have bowled the previous over nor be allowed to bowl the next over.
The Laws of Cricket (MCC)
In ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...
, there are several types of ejections: 'a game ejection,' 'a game misconduct penalty,' 'a match penalty' and, formerly 'a gross misconduct.'
During games sanctioned by Hockey Canada, a "game ejection" is issued for 3 stick infraction penalties and is rather rare. These penalties include cross checking, high sticking, butt ending, slashing and spearing.
A game misconduct penalty is usually issued against a player for unsportsmanlike play, escalating a fight, or leaving the penalty box
The penalty box is the area in ice hockey, rugby league, rugby union and some other sports where a player sits to serve the time of a given penalty, for an offense not severe enough to merit outright expulsion from the contest...
before he has completed serving time for another penalty. If a player incurs three game misconducts in a season, he will be given a one-match ban. The player must leave the ice immediately, and a substitute may take over. However, if any other penalties are incurred by the ejected player in the same incident, they must be served in the penalty box by the substituting player.
A match penalty is usually issued against a player for deliberately attempting to injure another player, such as stomping on him with his skate or a malicious hit. In addition to the offending player being immediately ejected (and usually subject to suspension), another player must serve a five-minute major penalty in the penalty box in addition to any other penalties imposed. The only exception is if a match penalty is against a goaltender, in which case the replacement goaltender can enter the ice immediately and a non-goaltender player serves the penalties. Match penalties may also be automatically flagged for review and supplementary discipline, depending on the league or association.
Prior to 2000, a gross misconduct was normally issued for an action far outside the normal level of acceptable behavior, and was commonly given when a player has "made a travesty of the game."
In some instances, a player or coach who is ejected must serve a suspension. Often, this is one game for the first offense, with harsher penalties depending on subsequent ejections and the severity of the offense. Sometimes in professional sports, a fine may be sanctioned against a player or coach.
Most NFHS contests require ejected players to remain in the team area, so they may be supervised by a responsible team adult, usually the head or assistant coach (as requiring a minor to leave an area unsupervised can lead to legal liabilities). If the player continues to be unruly, creative solutions may be implemented such as requiring an assistant coach to leave the area with the player, handing the player over to the school administrator on duty, or requiring the player's parents to take the player home.