is a dormitory at Hampden-Sydney College
Hampden–Sydney College is a liberal arts college for men located in Hampden Sydney, Virginia, United States. Founded in 1775, Hampden–Sydney is the oldest private charter college in the Southern U.S., the last college founded before the American Revolution, and one of only three four-year,...
in southside Virginia. Built in sections from 1822–1833, Cushing Hall is the oldest four story dormitory still in use in the United States. The building is listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register
The Virginia Landmarks Register is a list of historic properties in the state of Virginia. The state's official list of important historic sites, it was created in 1966. The Register serves the same purpose as the National Register of Historic Places...
(1969) and on the National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...
Cushing Hall was designed by William Phaup and Reuben Perry in the Federal style of architecture. The east wing and center section were completed by 1824, and the west section by 1833. Cushing Hall almost entirely replaced all the older buildings on the campus and was called "the College" (or "New College") until the early 20th century, when it was named Cushing Hall in honor of the College's seventh president, Jonathan P. Cushing.
After almost a decade after being founded at the University of Virginia
The University of Virginia is a public research university located in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, founded by Thomas Jefferson...
, Pi Kappa Alpha was "re-founded" as part of the Hampden-Sydney Convention, held in a student room of Cushing Hall in the late 1870s
The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires, imperialism and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. America was recovering from the Civil War. Germany declared independence in 1871 and began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the later part of...
. The four delegates to the Hampden-Sydney Convention are referred to as the Junior Founders. It was at this convention that the fraternity defined itself as belonging to "the South." At the New Orleans Convention in 1909, Pi Kappa Alpha officially decided to declare itself a national organization.
The exterior has been restored and the interior modernized (first in 1910, more recently in 1998). Porches were added in 1910, along with a slate roof, replacing the original cedar shakes. Interestingly, the front of the building was originally the back, which faced the eighteenth century campus (which it also replaced).
Cushing Hall is the model for Venable Hall
Venable Hall is a dormitory at Hampden-Sydney College in southside Virginia. Built in sections from 1824–1830, Venable Hall is the second oldest dormitory on Hampden-Sydney's campus...
(which originally housed Hampden-Sydney's seminary school, now used primarily as a dormitory) and the Randolph-Macon Building in Boydton, Virginia
Boydton is a town in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, United States. The population was 454 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Mecklenburg County, and it is near the Mecklenburg Correctional Center.-Geography:...
As with many 19th Century buildings in academia, Cushing Hall has been used for a myriad of functions throughout its lifetime. Since the 1820s, the building has been used as an auditorium, chapel, library, classrooms, and residence hall.