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or civic participation
has been defined as "Individual and collective action
Collective action is the pursuit of a goal or set of goals by more than one person. It is a term which has formulations and theories in many areas of the social sciences.-In sociology:...
s designed to identify and address issues of public concern."
Civic engagement can take many forms— from individual volunteerism to organizational involvement to electoral participation. It can include efforts to directly address an issue, work with others in a community
The term community has two distinct meanings:*a group of interacting people, possibly living in close proximity, and often refers to a group that shares some common values, and is attributed with social cohesion within a shared geographical location, generally in social units larger than a household...
to solve a problem or interact with the institutions of representative democracy
Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principle of elected individuals representing the people, as opposed to autocracy and direct democracy...
Another way of describing this concept is the sense of personal responsibility individuals should feel to uphold their obligations as part of any community.
"Youth civic engagement" has identical aims, only with consideration for youth voice.
In a study published by CIRCLE, the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement at Tufts divided into 3 categories: civic, electoral, and political voice.
|Measures of Civic Engagement
|| Political Voice
| Community problem solving
|| Regular voting
|| Contacting officials
| Regular volunteering for a non-electoral organization
|| Persuading others to vote
|| Contacting the print media
| Active membership in a group or association
|| Displaying buttons, signs, stickers
|| Contacting the broadcast media
| Participation in fund-raising run/walk/ride
|| Campaign contributions
| Other fund-raising for charity
|| Volunteering for candidate or political organizations
|| Email petitions
|| Written petitions
- Community building
Community building is a field of practices directed toward the creation or enhancement of community among individuals within a regional area or with a common interest...
- Community development
Community development is a broad term applied to the practices and academic disciplines of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of local communities....
- Civic courage
Civic courage is the willingness to talk directly to people in authority. Alternatives are avoiding authority all together, or communicating only what is perceived to be expected. Actions that require civic courage vary by culture.-See also:...
- Civic virtue
Civic virtue is the cultivation of habits of personal living that are claimed to be important for the success of the community. The identification of the character traits that constitute civic virtue have been a major concern of political philosophy...
Civics is the study of rights and duties of citizenship. In other words, it is the study of government with attention to the role of citizens ― as opposed to external factors ― in the operation and oversight of government....
- Civil society
Civil society is composed of the totality of many voluntary social relationships, civic and social organizations, and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society, as distinct from the force-backed structures of a state , the commercial institutions of the market, and private criminal...
Service-learning is a method of teaching, learning and reflecting, frequently youth service, throughout the community. As a teaching method, it falls under the philosophy of experiential education...
- Social capital
Social capital is a sociological concept, which refers to connections within and between social networks. The concept of social capital highlights the value of social relations and the role of cooperation and confidence to get collective or economic results. The term social capital is frequently...
- Youth empowerment
Youth empowerment is an attitudinal, structural, and cultural process whereby young people gain the ability, authority, and agency to make decisions and implement change in their own lives and the lives of other people, including youth and adults....