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Canton of Glarus

Canton of Glarus

Overview
The Canton of Glarus (ˈɡlarʊs) is a canton
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the federal state of Switzerland. Each canton was a fully sovereign state with its own borders, army and currency from the Treaty of Westphalia until the establishment of the Swiss federal state in 1848...

 in east central Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

. The capital is Glarus
Glarus
Glarus is the capital of the Canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Glarus municipality since 1 January 2011 incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Netstal and Riedern....

.
The population speaks a variety of Alemannic German
Alemannic German
Alemannic is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. It is spoken by approximately ten million people in six countries: Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, France and Italy...

.
The majority of the population (81%) identifies as Christian, about evenly split between the Protestant
Swiss Reformed Church
The Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland was started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basel , Bern , St...

 and Catholic
Roman Catholicism in Switzerland
Roman Catholicism in Switzerland, organised in the six dioceses and two territorial abbeys, comprises approximately 3 million Catholics, about 42% of the Swiss population.The dioceses are the bishoprics of*Basel, currently headed by Bishop Felix Gmür...

 confessions.

According to legend, the inhabitants of the Linth
Linth
The Linth is a Swiss river starting above Linthal the mountains of Glarus near the Klausen Pass and flowing from there north through the Glarus valley passing Schwanden, where it is joined by its main tributary Sernft, Ennenda, the town of Glarus, Netstal, and Näfels, from where it is channeled to...

 Valley were converted to Christianity in the 6th century by the Irish
Hiberno-Scottish mission
The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a mission led by Irish and Scottish monks which spread Christianity and established monasteries in Great Britain and continental Europe during the Middle Ages...

 monk Saint Fridolin
Fridolin of Säckingen
Saint Fridolin, otherwise Fridolin of Säckingen, traditionally believed to have been born in Ireland, was a missionary, and the founder of Säckingen Abbey, Baden, in the 6th or 7th century. He is honoured as the apostle of the Alamanns.-Life:...

, the founder of Säckingen Abbey
Säckingen Abbey
Säckingen Abbey is a former Roman Catholic abbey located in Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The Abbey was founded in the 6th or 7th Century by Fridolin of Säckingen, an Irish monk...

 (d.
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Encyclopedia
The Canton of Glarus (ˈɡlarʊs) is a canton
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the federal state of Switzerland. Each canton was a fully sovereign state with its own borders, army and currency from the Treaty of Westphalia until the establishment of the Swiss federal state in 1848...

 in east central Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

. The capital is Glarus
Glarus
Glarus is the capital of the Canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Glarus municipality since 1 January 2011 incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Netstal and Riedern....

.
The population speaks a variety of Alemannic German
Alemannic German
Alemannic is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. It is spoken by approximately ten million people in six countries: Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, France and Italy...

.
The majority of the population (81%) identifies as Christian, about evenly split between the Protestant
Swiss Reformed Church
The Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland was started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basel , Bern , St...

 and Catholic
Roman Catholicism in Switzerland
Roman Catholicism in Switzerland, organised in the six dioceses and two territorial abbeys, comprises approximately 3 million Catholics, about 42% of the Swiss population.The dioceses are the bishoprics of*Basel, currently headed by Bishop Felix Gmür...

 confessions.

History


According to legend, the inhabitants of the Linth
Linth
The Linth is a Swiss river starting above Linthal the mountains of Glarus near the Klausen Pass and flowing from there north through the Glarus valley passing Schwanden, where it is joined by its main tributary Sernft, Ennenda, the town of Glarus, Netstal, and Näfels, from where it is channeled to...

 Valley were converted to Christianity in the 6th century by the Irish
Hiberno-Scottish mission
The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a mission led by Irish and Scottish monks which spread Christianity and established monasteries in Great Britain and continental Europe during the Middle Ages...

 monk Saint Fridolin
Fridolin of Säckingen
Saint Fridolin, otherwise Fridolin of Säckingen, traditionally believed to have been born in Ireland, was a missionary, and the founder of Säckingen Abbey, Baden, in the 6th or 7th century. He is honoured as the apostle of the Alamanns.-Life:...

, the founder of Säckingen Abbey
Säckingen Abbey
Säckingen Abbey is a former Roman Catholic abbey located in Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The Abbey was founded in the 6th or 7th Century by Fridolin of Säckingen, an Irish monk...

 (d. 538).
The Alemanni began to settle in the valley from the early 8th century. The Alemannic German language took hold only gradually, and was dominant by the 11th century.
From the 9th century, the area around Glarus
Glarus
Glarus is the capital of the Canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Glarus municipality since 1 January 2011 incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Netstal and Riedern....

 was owned by the Säckingen Abbey, town of Glarus being recorded as Clarona.
By 1288 the Habsburg
Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

s claimed all the abbey's rights.

Glarus joined the Old Swiss Confederacy
Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy was the precursor of modern-day Switzerland....

 in 1352 as one of the foundational eight cantons (Acht Orte) of the period of 1353–1481. The first recorded Landsgemeinde
Landsgemeinde
The Landsgemeinde or "cantonal assembly" is one of the oldest forms of direct democracy. The first historically documented assembly took place in 1294...

 of Glarus took place in 1387. Habsburgian attempts to reconquer the valley are repelled in the Battle of Näfels
Battle of Näfels
The Battle of Näfels was fought on 9 April 1388 between Glarus with their allies, the Old Swiss Confederation, and the Habsburgs. It was a decisive Glarner victory despite being outnumbered sixteen to one.-History:...

 of 1388. A banner depicting Saint Fridolin was used to rally the people of Glarus in that battle, and from that time Glarus has used the image of Saint Fridolin on its flags and in its coat of arms.

The county of Werdenberg
Werdenberg
Werdenberg may be* Werdenberg ** County of Werdenberg Sargans** Werdenberg *** Hartmann I. von Werdenberg , also Count of Kraiburg and Marquartstein...

 was annexed to Glarus in 1517.
Between 1506 and 1516 the later reformer Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of humanism...

 was priest in Glarus, but Glarus remained Catholic, and by 1564 all of Zwingli's followers were eliminated. This, however, did not end the struggles between the Protestants and the Catholics in the area. To secure peace it was decided that each party should have its own assembly (Landsgemeinde
Landsgemeinde
The Landsgemeinde or "cantonal assembly" is one of the oldest forms of direct democracy. The first historically documented assembly took place in 1294...

) in 1623, and at a later stage in 1683, each side was granted the right to have its own tribunals.

Between 1798 and 1803 Glarus was part of the Canton of Linth
Canton of Linth
Linth was a canton of the Helvetic Republic from 1798 to 1803, consisting of Glarus and its subject County of Werdenberg, the Höfe and March districts of Schwyz and the Züricher subject Lordship of Sax, along with a handful of shared territories....

 as established by Napoleon. In 1836 the constitution was adapted to unite the assemblies and establish a single Landsgemeinde.

On May 6, 2007 Glarus became the first Swiss canton to lower the voting age to 16.

Geography




The canton of Glarus is dominated by the deep valley of the Linth
Linth
The Linth is a Swiss river starting above Linthal the mountains of Glarus near the Klausen Pass and flowing from there north through the Glarus valley passing Schwanden, where it is joined by its main tributary Sernft, Ennenda, the town of Glarus, Netstal, and Näfels, from where it is channeled to...

 River and the smaller Sernftal
Sernftal
The Sernftal or Kleintal is an alpine valley within Glarus Süd, in the canton of Glarus, Switzerland. It is formed by the Sernf, a right tributary of the Linth. Situated in the Sernftal are the villages of Elm and Engi...

 on the east. Most of the area is mountainous
Swiss Alps
The Swiss Alps are the portion of the Alps mountain range that lies within Switzerland. Because of their central position within the entire Alpine range, they are also known as the Central Alps....

. The highest peak in the Glarus Alps
Glarus Alps
The Glarus Alps are a mountain range in central Switzerland. They extend from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass, and are bordered by the Urner Alps to the west, the Lepontine Alps to the south and the Appenzell Alps to the northeast...

 is the Tödi
Tödi
The Tödi , or Piz Russein, is the highest mountain in the Glarus Alps and the highest summit in the Canton of Glarus, Switzerland. It is located on the border between the cantons of Graubünden and Glarus...

 at 3614 metres (11,857 ft) Other mountains include the Hausstock
Hausstock
The Hausstock is a mountain in the Glarus Alps, on the border between the cantons of Glarus and Graubünden. It overlooks the valleys of Linthal and Surselva . The Hausstock was the site of the 1799 withdrawal of the Russian army under General Alexander Suvorov...

 (3158 metres (10,360.9 ft)) and the Glärnisch
Glärnisch
The Glärnisch is a mountain of the Glarus Alps, overlooking the valley of the Linth in the canton of Glarus. It consists of several summits of which the highest is distinguished by the name Bächistock, followed by the Vrenelisgärtli and the Ruchen .The massif of the Glärnisch consists of two...

 (2910 metres (9,547.2 ft)). The canton contains part of a thrust fault that was declared a geologic UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 world heritage site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

, under the name Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona
Glarus thrust
The Glarus thrust is a major thrust fault in the Alps of eastern Switzerland. Along the thrust the Helvetic nappes were thrusted more than 100 km to the north over the external Aarmassif and Infrahelvetic complex...

, in 2008. Famous outcrops in ths Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona include those at Lochsite near Glarus
Glarus
Glarus is the capital of the Canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Glarus municipality since 1 January 2011 incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Netstal and Riedern....

 and in a mountain cliff called Tschingelhörner
Tschingelhörner
Tschingelhörner is a mountain in the Glarus Alps, located on the border between the cantons of Glarus and Graubünden in Switzerland. It is in fact composed of differents summits on a 1 km long ridge, situated south-west of Piz Segnas. The mountain is part of the Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona...

between Elm
Elm, Switzerland
-Culture:In 1981, the Wakker Prize was awarded to Elm for the development and preservation of its architectural heritage....

 and Flims
Flims
Flims is a municipality in the district of Imboden in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. The town of Flims is dominated by the Flimserstein which you can see from almost anywhere in the area....

 (in the same cliff is a natural hole called the Martinsloch). There is also a large lake called Walensee (Lake Walen
Lake Walen
Walensee is one of the larger lakes in Switzerland, for about 2/3 of its surface in the Canton of St. Gallen and for 1/3 in the Canton of Glarus. It is also known as Lake Walen or Lake Walenstadt, after Walenstadt. Other towns and villages at the lake include: Weesen, Quinten, Quarten, and Murg.The...

) on the north. The total area of the canton of Glarus is 685 square kilometres (264.5 sq mi), of which about half is considered productive. Forestry is an important branch of industry in the canton.

Municipalities


With the Landsgemeinde
Landsgemeinde
The Landsgemeinde or "cantonal assembly" is one of the oldest forms of direct democracy. The first historically documented assembly took place in 1294...

(cantonal assembly) of 2006, it was decided that the 25 municipalities of Glarus be reduced to only three: Glarus Nord
Glarus Nord
Glarus Nord is one of three municipalities of the canton of Glarus, Switzerland .Effective from 1 January 2011, Glarus Nord incorporates the former municipalities of Bilten, Filzbach, Mollis, Mühlehorn, Näfels, Niederurnen, Oberurnen and Obstalden....

, Glarus
Glarus
Glarus is the capital of the Canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Glarus municipality since 1 January 2011 incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Netstal and Riedern....

and Glarus Süd
Glarus Süd
Glarus Süd is one of three municipalities of the canton of Glarus, Switzerland .Effective from 1 January 2011, Glarus Süd incorporates the former municipalities of Betschwanden, Braunwald, Elm, Engi, Haslen, Linthal, Luchsingen, Matt, Mitlödi, Rüti, Schwanden, Schwändi and Sool.With an area of ,...

. The reform has taken effect on 1 January 2011.

The following are the 25 municipalities as they stood until 31 December 2010:
  • Betschwanden
    Betschwanden
    Betschwanden is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Betschwanden is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.-Geography:...

  • Bilten
    Bilten
    Bilten is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Bilten is part of the municipality of Glarus Nord.-Geography:...

  • Braunwald
    Braunwald
    Braunwald is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Braunwald is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.-Geography:...

  • Elm
    Elm, Switzerland
    -Culture:In 1981, the Wakker Prize was awarded to Elm for the development and preservation of its architectural heritage....

  • Engi
  • Ennenda
    Ennenda
    Ennenda is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Ennenda is part of the municipality of Glarus.-History:Ennenda is first mentioned around 1303-07 as Obront-Ennant-A and Nydern-Ennant-A....

  • Filzbach
    Filzbach
    Filzbach is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Filzbach is part of the municipality of Glarus Nord.-Geography:...

  • Glarus
    Glarus
    Glarus is the capital of the Canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Glarus municipality since 1 January 2011 incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Netstal and Riedern....

  • Haslen
    Haslen
    Haslen is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. On July 1, 2006, Haslen incorporated the neighbouring municipalities of Leuggelbach and Nidfurn.Effective from 1 January 2011, Haslen is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd....

     (united former municipalities Leuggelbach
    Leuggelbach
    Leuggelbach is a village and former municipality in the canton of Glarus, Switzerland.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Haslen in 2006. At that time Leuggelbach municipality had a population of 171.-References:...

    , Nidfurn
    Nidfurn
    Nidfurn is a village and former municipality in the canton of Glarus, Switzerland.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Haslen in 2006. At that time Nidfurn municipality had a population of 255.-References:...

     and Haslen)
  • Linthal
    Linthal
    Linthal is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Linthal is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.-Geography:...

  • Luchsingen
    Luchsingen
    Luchsingen is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Since 2004 the former municipalities of Hätzingen and Diesbach have been part of Luchsingen. Effective from 1 January 2011, Luchsingen is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd....

     (united former municipalities Diesbach
    Diesbach
    Diesbach is a village and former municipality in the canton of Glarus, Switzerland.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Luchsingen in 2004. At that time Diesbach municipality had a population of 221....

    , Hätzingen
    Hätzingen
    Hätzingen is a village and former municipality in the canton of Glarus, Switzerland.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Luchsingen in 2004. At that time Hätzingen municipality had a population of 359.-References:...

     and Luchsingen)
  • Matt
    Matt, Switzerland
    Matt is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. It is located in Sernftal . Effective from 1 January 2011, Matt is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.-Geography:...

  • Mitlödi
    Mitlödi
    Mitlödi is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Mitlödi is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.-Geography:...

  • Mollis
    Mollis
    Mollis is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Mollis is part of the municipality of Glarus Nord.-Geography:...

  • Mühlehorn
    Mühlehorn
    Mühlehorn is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Mühlehorn is part of the municipality of Glarus Nord.-Geography:...

  • Näfels
    Näfels
    Näfels is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Näfels is part of the municipality of Glarus Nord.-History:Näfels is first mentioned in 1240 as Nevels....

  • Netstal
    Netstal
    Netstal is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Netstal is part of the municipality of Glarus.-Geography:...

  • Niederurnen
    Niederurnen
    Niederurnen is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Niederurnen is part of the municipality of Glarus Nord.-History:...

  • Oberurnen
    Oberurnen
    Oberurnen is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Oberurnen is part of the municipality of Glarus Nord.-Geography:...

  • Obstalden
    Obstalden
    Obstalden is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Obstalden is part of the municipality of Glarus Nord.-Geography:...

  • Riedern
    Riedern
    Riedern is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Riedern is part of the municipality of Glarus.-Geography:...

  • Rüti
    Rüti, Glarus
    Rüti is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Rüti is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.-Geography:...

  • Schwanden
    Schwanden, Glarus
    Schwanden is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Schwanden is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.-Geography:...

  • Schwändi
    Schwändi
    Schwändi is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Schwändi is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.-Geography:...

  • Sool
    Sool, Switzerland
    Sool is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Sool is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.-Geography:...


  • Demographics


    The population of the canton (as of ) is . , the population included 7,314 foreigners (or 19.13% of the total population).

    The population is nearly evenly split between Protestants
    Protestantism
    Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

     (44%) and Roman Catholics (37%).

    83.6% is German
    Swiss German
    Swiss German is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy. Occasionally, the Alemannic dialects spoken in other countries are grouped together with Swiss German as well, especially the dialects of Liechtenstein and Austrian Vorarlberg...

    -speaking and 6.8% is Italian
    Italian language
    Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

    -speaking.

    Economy



    The geography of the canton helped to establish slate works in the 17th century. The mountainous surroundings of Glarus were also an advantage in industrialisation. Cotton spinning was important in the 18th century, complementing traditional woolen spinning. Industrialisation also brought cotton printing, hydroelectric plants and later metal and machinery factories, as well as paper mills.

    Dairy farming
    Dairy farming
    Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats and sheep, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.Most dairy farms...

     and cattle breeding
    Animal husbandry
    Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.- History :Animal husbandry has been practiced for thousands of years, since the first domestication of animals....

    were not replaced by industrial advances. Cattle graze on mountain pastures. Cattle breeding and dairying are important on the mountain pastures.

    External links