Bordeaux

Bordeaux

Overview
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River
Garonne
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of .-Source:The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret , the Ratera-Saboredo...

 in the Gironde
Gironde
For the Revolutionary party, see Girondists.Gironde is a common name for the Gironde estuary, where the mouths of the Garonne and Dordogne rivers merge, and for a department in the Aquitaine region situated in southwest France.-History:...

 department in southwestern France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

.

The Bordeaux-Arcachon
Arcachon
Arcachon is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France.It is a popular bathing location on the Atlantic coast southwest of Bordeaux in the Landes forest...

-Libourne
Libourne
Libourne is a commune in the Gironde department in Aquitaine in southwestern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.It is the wine-making capital of northern Gironde and lies near Saint-Émilion and Pomerol.-Geography:...

 metropolitan area, has a population of 1,010,000 and constitutes the sixth-largest urban area in France. It is the capital of the Aquitaine
Aquitaine
Aquitaine , archaic Guyenne/Guienne , is one of the 27 regions of France, in the south-western part of metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It comprises the 5 departments of Dordogne, :Lot et Garonne, :Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes...

 region
Régions of France
France is divided into 27 administrative regions , 22 of which are in Metropolitan France, and five of which are overseas. Corsica is a territorial collectivity , but is considered a region in mainstream usage, and is even shown as such on the INSEE website...

, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called Bordelais.

Bordeaux is the world's major wine industry capital.
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Encyclopedia
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River
Garonne
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of .-Source:The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret , the Ratera-Saboredo...

 in the Gironde
Gironde
For the Revolutionary party, see Girondists.Gironde is a common name for the Gironde estuary, where the mouths of the Garonne and Dordogne rivers merge, and for a department in the Aquitaine region situated in southwest France.-History:...

 department in southwestern France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

.

The Bordeaux-Arcachon
Arcachon
Arcachon is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France.It is a popular bathing location on the Atlantic coast southwest of Bordeaux in the Landes forest...

-Libourne
Libourne
Libourne is a commune in the Gironde department in Aquitaine in southwestern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.It is the wine-making capital of northern Gironde and lies near Saint-Émilion and Pomerol.-Geography:...

 metropolitan area, has a population of 1,010,000 and constitutes the sixth-largest urban area in France. It is the capital of the Aquitaine
Aquitaine
Aquitaine , archaic Guyenne/Guienne , is one of the 27 regions of France, in the south-western part of metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It comprises the 5 departments of Dordogne, :Lot et Garonne, :Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes...

 region
Régions of France
France is divided into 27 administrative regions , 22 of which are in Metropolitan France, and five of which are overseas. Corsica is a territorial collectivity , but is considered a region in mainstream usage, and is even shown as such on the INSEE website...

, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called Bordelais.

Bordeaux is the world's major wine industry capital. It is home to the world's main wine fair, Vinexpo, while the wine economy in the metro area moves 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine
Bordeaux wine
A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France. Average vintages produce over 700 million bottles of Bordeaux wine, ranging from large quantities of everyday table wine, to some of the most expensive and prestigious wines in the world...

 has been produced in the region since the 8th century. The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century.

History



Between 30,000 and 20,000 years ago the area of Bordeaux was inhabited by the Neanderthal
Neanderthal
The Neanderthal is an extinct member of the Homo genus known from Pleistocene specimens found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia...

, whose remains have been found at a famous cave known as Pair-non-Pair, near Bourg sur Gironde, just north of Bordeaux. In historical times, around 300 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci
Bituriges Vivisci
The Bituriges Vivisci was one of the tribes of Gaul. The tribe's capital was at Burdigala, modern day BordeauxBituriges is often taken to mean Kings of the World but whether there was any link to the Bituriges Cubi of the Berry region is not known...

, who named the town Burdigala, probably of Aquitainian origin. The name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city.

The city fell under Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 rule around 60 BC, its importance lying in the commerce of tin
Tin
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group 14 elements, germanium and lead and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4...

 and lead towards Rome. Later it became capital of Roman Aquitaine
Gallia Aquitania
Gallia Aquitania was a province of the Roman Empire, bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis...

, flourishing especially during the Severan dynasty
Severan dynasty
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. The dynasty was founded by the Roman general Septimius Severus, who rose to power during the civil war of 193, known as the Year of the Five Emperors....

 (third century). In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals
Vandals
The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. The Vandals under king Genseric entered Africa in 429 and by 439 established a kingdom which included the Roman Africa province, besides the islands of Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia and the Balearics....

. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414 and the Franks
Franks
The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

 in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian
Merovingian dynasty
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region largely corresponding to ancient Gaul from the middle of the 5th century. Their politics involved frequent civil warfare among branches of the family...

 kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban centre on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia
Duchy of Vasconia
The Duchy of Vasconia , or Wasconia, was originally a Frankish march formed by 602 to keep the Basques in check. It comprised the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the lands south of the Pyrenees centred on Pamplona.In the ninth century, civil war within...

.

The city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman
Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi
Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi , also known as Abd er Rahman, Abdderrahman, Abderame, and Abd el-Rahman, led the Andalusian Muslims into battle against the forces of Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours on October 10, 732 AD. for which he is primarily remembered in the West...

 in 732, after he had defeated Duke Eudes in the Battle of the River Garonne
Battle of the River Garonne
The Battle of the River Garonne was fought in 732 between an Umayyad army led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, governor of Al-Andalus, and Frankish forces led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine....

 near Bordeaux and before the former was killed during the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
The Battle of Tours , also called the Battle of Poitiers and in Battle of the Court of the Martyrs, was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, located in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about northeast of Poitiers...

 on 10 October. After Duke Eudes's defeat, Aquitaine pledged allegiance formally to the new rising Carolingian dinasty, but still remained out of Frankish central rule until 768 (Duke Waifer defeated). There are no bishops mentioned during the whole 8th century in Bordeaux.

Under the Carolingians were appointed a series of Counts of Bordeaux
Count of Bordeaux
The Count of Bordeaux or comes Burdagalensis was the ruler of the city of Bordeaux and its environs in the Merovingian and Carolingian periods. The names of the counts are scarcely known until the ninth century, when they start to take on a larger role because of their strategic importance in the...

 who held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia
Duke of Gascony
The Duchy of Vasconia , later known as Gascony, was a Merovingian creation: a frontier duchy on the Garonne, in the border with the rebel Basque tribes...

 (Duke Seguin
Seguin I of Gascony
Seguin I Lupo was Duke of Gascony from 812 until 816, when Louis the Pious deposed him "because of his boundless arrogance and wicked ways", according to the contemporary Frankish chroniclers. The "Basques across the Garonne and around the Pyrenees" rebelled against the removal of their duke, but...

 deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion). They were meant to keep in check the Basques and defend the mouth of the Garonne
Garonne
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of .-Source:The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret , the Ratera-Saboredo...

 from the Viking
Viking
The term Viking is customarily used to refer to the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th century.These Norsemen used their famed longships to...

s when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II
Seguin II of Gascony
Seguin II , called Mostelanicus, was the Count of Bordeaux and Saintes from 840 and Duke of Gascony from 845. He was either the son or grandson of Seguin I, the duke appointed by Charlemagne....

 marched on the Vikings assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes but was captured and put to death.

From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages. As well as being Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, she was queen consort of France and of England...

 with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans
Le Mans
Le Mans is a city in France, located on the Sarthe River. Traditionally the capital of the province of Maine, it is now the capital of the Sarthe department and the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Le Mans. Le Mans is a part of the Pays de la Loire region.Its inhabitants are called Manceaux...

, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England
Henry II of England
Henry II ruled as King of England , Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Henry, the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, was the...

. The city flourished, primarily due to wine trade, and the cathedral of St. André was built. It was also the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince
Edward, the Black Prince
Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine, KG was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault as well as father to King Richard II of England....

 (1362–1372), but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon
Battle of Castillon
The Battle of Castillon of 1453 was the last battle fought between the French and the English during the Hundred Years' War. It resulted in a decisive French victory.-Context:...

 (1453) it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette (Trumpet Castle) and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France
Charles VII of France
Charles VII , called the Victorious or the Well-Served , was King of France from 1422 to his death, though he was initially opposed by Henry VI of England, whose Regent, the Duke of Bedford, ruled much of France including the capital, Paris...

, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its richness by halting the wine commerce with England.

In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the center of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies
Caribbean
The Caribbean is a crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north...

 along with the traditional wine.

Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Fronde
The Fronde was a civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. The word fronde means sling, which Parisian mobs used to smash the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin....

, being effectively annexed to the Kingdom of France only in 1653, when the army of Louis XIV
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV , known as Louis the Great or the Sun King , was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days...

 entered the city.
The 18th century was the golden age of Bordeaux. Many downtown buildings (about 5,000), including those on the quays, are from this period. Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
Victor-Marie Hugo was a Frenchpoet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights activist and exponent of the Romantic movement in France....

 found the town so beautiful he once said: "take Versailles, add Antwerp, and you have Bordeaux". Baron Haussmann
Baron Haussmann
Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann , was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris...

, a long-time prefect of Bordeaux, used Bordeaux's 18th century big-scale rebuilding as a model when he was asked by Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III of France
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was the President of the French Second Republic and as Napoleon III, the ruler of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I, christened as Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte...

 to transform a then still quasi-medieval Paris into a "modern" capital that would make France proud.

The French government relocated from Paris to Bordeaux very briefly during World War II, when it became apparent that Paris would soon fall into German hands (as in 1870 during war against Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

 and at the beginning of World War I). The French capital was soon moved again to Vichy
Vichy
Vichy is a commune in the department of Allier in Auvergne in central France. It belongs to the historic province of Bourbonnais.It is known as a spa and resort town and was the de facto capital of Vichy France during the World War II Nazi German occupation from 1940 to 1944.The town's inhabitants...

.

From 1940 to 1943, the Italian Royal Navy
Regia Marina
The Regia Marina dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification...

 (Regia Marina Italiana
Regia Marina
The Regia Marina dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification...

) established BETASOM
BETASOM
BETASOM BETASOM BETASOM (an Italian language acronym of Bordeaux Sommergibile. was a submarine base established at Bordeaux by the Italian Regia Marina Italiana during World War II....

, a submarine base at Bordeaux. Italian submarines participated in the Battle of the Atlantic from this base which was also a major base for German U-boats as headquarters of 12th U-boat Flotilla. The massive, reinforced concrete U-boat pens have proved impractical to demolish and are now partly used as a cultural centre for exhibitions.

Geography


Bordeaux is located close to the European Atlantic
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 coast, in the southwest of France and in the north of the Aquitaine region. It is around 500 km (310.7 mi) southwest of Paris. The city is built on a bend of the river Garonne
Garonne
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of .-Source:The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret , the Ratera-Saboredo...

, and is divided into two parts: the right bank to the east and left bank in the west. Historically, the left bank is more developed. In Bordeaux, the Garonne River
Garonne
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of .-Source:The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret , the Ratera-Saboredo...

 is accessible to ocean liner
Ocean liner
An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one seaport to another along regular long-distance maritime routes according to a schedule. Liners may also carry cargo or mail, and may sometimes be used for other purposes .Cargo vessels running to a schedule are sometimes referred to as...

s. The left bank of the Garonne is a low-lying, often marshy plain.

Climate


Bordeaux's climate is usually classified as an oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfb); however, the summers tend to be warmer and the winters milder than most areas of similar classification. Substantial summer rainfall prevents its climate from being classified as Mediterranean
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

.

Winters are mild because of the prevalence of westerly winds from the Atlantic. Summers are warm and long due to the influence from the Bay of Biscay (surface temperature reaches 21 to 22 °C (69.8 to 71.6 °F). The average seasonal winter temperature is 6.53 °C (43.8 °F), but recent winters have been warmer than this. The average summer seasonal temperature is 19.51 °C (67.1 °F), but every summer in the decade beginning 2001 has exceeded this average. The summer of 2003 set a record with an average temperature of 23.3 °C (73.9 °F).

Wine



Bordeaux has about 116160 hectares (287,037.4 acre) of vineyard
Vineyard
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice...

s, 57 appellations, 10,000 wine-producing châteaux and 13,000 grape growers. With an annual production of approximately 960 million bottles, Bordeaux produces large quantities of everyday wine as well as some of the most expensive wines in the world. Included among the latter are the area's five premier cru (first growth
First Growth
First Growth status refers to a classification of wines primarily from the Bordeaux region of France.-Bordeaux reds:The need for a classification of the best Bordeaux wines arose for the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris. The result was the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, a list...

) red wines (four from Médoc and one, Château Haut-Brion, from Graves), established by the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855
Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855
The Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 resulted from the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris, when Emperor Napoleon III requested a classification system for France's best Bordeaux wines which were to be on display for visitors from around the world...

:
The first growths are:
  • Château Lafite-Rothschild
  • Château Margaux
    Château Margaux
    Château Margaux, archaically La Mothe de Margaux, is a wine estate of Bordeaux wine, and was one of four wines to achieve Premier cru status in the Bordeaux Classification of 1855. The estate's best wines are very expensive...

  • Château Latour
    Château Latour
    Château Latour is a French wine estate, rated as a First Growth under the 1855 Bordeaux Classification. Latour lies at the very southeastern tip of the commune of Pauillac in the Médoc region to the north-west of Bordeaux, at its border with Saint-Julien, and only a few hundred metres from the...

  • Château Haut-Brion
    Château Haut-Brion
    Château Haut-Brion is a French wine, rated a Premier Cru Classé , produced in the Gironde region. It differs from the other wines on the list in its geographic location in the north of the wine-growing region of Graves...

  • Château Mouton-Rothschild
    Château Mouton Rothschild
    Château Mouton Rothschild is a wine estate located in the village of Pauillac in the Médoc, 50 km north-west of the city of Bordeaux, France. Its red wine of the same name is regarded as one of the world's greatest clarets. Originally known as Château Brane-Mouton it was renamed by Nathaniel...

    *


*In 1855 Mouton-Rothschild was ranked a Second Growth. In 1973, it was elevated to First Growth status.

Both red and white wines
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

 are made in Bordeaux. Red Bordeaux is called claret
Claret
Claret is a name primarily used in British English for red wine from the Bordeaux region of France.-Usage:Claret derives from the French clairet, a now uncommon dark rosé and the most common wine exported from Bordeaux until the 18th century...

 in the United Kingdom. Red wines are generally made from a blend of grapes, and may be made from Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley...

, Merlot
Merlot
Merlot is a darkly blue-coloured wine grape, that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines. The name Merlot is thought to derive from the Old French word for young blackbird, merlot, a diminutive of merle, the blackbird , probably from the color of the grape. Merlot-based wines...

, Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc is one of the major black grape varieties worldwide. It is principally grown for blending with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot in the Bordeaux style, but can also be vinified alone - as in the Loire's Chinon...

, Petit verdot
Petit verdot
Petit Verdot is a variety of red wine grape, principally used in classic Bordeaux blends. It ripens much later than the other varieties in Bordeaux, often too late, so it fell out of favour in its home region. When it does ripen, it is added in small amounts to add tannin, colour and flavour to the...

, Malbec
Malbec
Malbec is a purple grape variety used in making red wine. The grapes tend to have an inky dark color and robust tannins, and are long known as one of the six grapes allowed in the blend of red Bordeaux wine. The French plantations of Malbec are now found primarily in Cahors in the South West...

, and, less commonly in recent years, Carménère
Carmenère
The Carménère grape is a wine grape variety originally planted in the Médoc region of Bordeaux, France, where it was used to produce deep red wines and occasionally used for blending purposes in the same manner as Petit Verdot....

. White Bordeaux is made from Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon Blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. The grape most likely gets its name from the French word sauvage and blanc due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France., a possible descendant of savagnin...

, Sémillon
Sémillon
Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, most notably in France and Australia.-History:The origin of the Sémillon grape is hard to determine. It is known that it first arrived in Australia in the early 19th century and by the 1820s the grape covered over 90 percent...

, and Muscadelle
Muscadelle
Muscadelle is a white wine grape variety. It has a simple aroma of grape juice and raisins like grapes of the Muscat family of grapes, but it is unrelated....

. Sauternes is a subregion of Graves known for its intensely sweet, white, dessert wine
Dessert wine
Dessert wines are sweet wines typically served with dessert.There is no simple definition of a dessert wine. In the UK, a dessert wine is considered to be any sweet wine drunk with a meal, as opposed to the white fortified wines drunk before the meal, and the red fortified wines drunk after it...

s such as Château d'Yquem
Château d'Yquem
Château d'Yquem is a Premier Cru Supérieur wine from the Sauternes, Gironde region in the southern part of the Bordeaux vineyards known as Graves. In the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, Château d'Yquem was the only Sauternes given this rating, indicating its perceived superiority...

.

Because of a wine glut (wine lake
Wine lake
The wine lake refers to the continuing supply surplus of wine produced in the European Union. A major contributor to that glut is the Languedoc-Roussillon, which produces over one-third of the grapes grown in France. In 2007 it was reported that for the previous several vintages, European...

) in the generic production, the price squeeze induced by an increasingly strong international competition, and vine pull schemes
Vine pull schemes
Vine pull schemes are programs whereby grape growers receive a financial incentive to pull up their grape vines, a process known as arrachage in French. A large program of the kind was initiated by the European Union in 1988 to reduce the wine lake glut from overproduction and declining demand...

, the number of growers has recently dropped from 14,000 and the area under vine has also decreased significantly. In the meanwhile however, the global demand for the first growths and the most famous labels markedly increased and their prices skyrocketed.

Others


The Laser Mégajoule
Laser Mégajoule
Laser Mégajoule is an experimental inertial confinement fusion device being built near Bordeaux, in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA. Laser Mégajoule plans to deliver about 1.8 MJ of laser energy to its targets, making it about as powerful as its US counterpart, the...

 will be one of the most powerful lasers in the world, allowing fundamental research
Research
Research can be defined as the scientific search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method...

 and the development of the laser
Laser
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation...

 and plasma
Plasma (physics)
In physics and chemistry, plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. Heating a gas may ionize its molecules or atoms , thus turning it into a plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons or ions...

 technologies. This project, carried by the French Ministry of Defence
Minister of Defence (France)
The Minister of Defense and Veterans Affairs is the French government cabinet member charged with running the military of France....

, involves an investment of 2 billion euros. The "Road of the lasers", a major project of regional planning
Regional planning
Regional planning deals with the efficient placement of land use activities, infrastructure, and settlement growth across a larger area of land than an individual city or town. The related field of urban planning deals with the specific issues of city planning...

, promotes regional investment in optical and laser related industries leading to the Bordeaux area having the most important concentration of optical and laser expertise in Europe.

20,000 people work for the aeronautic industry in Bordeaux. The city has some of the biggest companies including Dassault
Dassault Aviation
Dassault Aviation is a French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional and business jets, a subsidiary of Dassault Group.It was founded in 1930 by Marcel Bloch as Société des Avions Marcel Bloch or "MB". After World War II, Marcel Bloch changed his name to Marcel Dassault, and the name of the...

, EADS Sogerma
EADS Sogerma
EADS Sogerma is a part of the division Airbus of EADS. It is engaged in the manufacture and development of aerostructures, cabin interior layout, airline seats....

, Snecma
Snecma
Snecma is a major French manufacturer of engines for commercial and military aircraft, and for space vehicles. The name is an acronym for Société Nationale d'Étude et de Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation .In 2005, the Snecma group, which included Snecma ,...

, Thales
Thales Group
The Thales Group is a French electronics company delivering information systems and services for the aerospace, defense, transportation and security markets...

, SNPE, and others. The Dassault Falcon
Dassault Aviation
Dassault Aviation is a French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional and business jets, a subsidiary of Dassault Group.It was founded in 1930 by Marcel Bloch as Société des Avions Marcel Bloch or "MB". After World War II, Marcel Bloch changed his name to Marcel Dassault, and the name of the...

 private jets are built there as well as the military aircraft
Military aircraft
A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type. Military aircraft can be either combat or non-combat:...

 Rafale
Dassault Rafale
The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine delta-wing multi-role jet fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Introduced in 2000, the Rafale is being produced both for land-based use with the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations with the French Navy...

 and Mirage 2000, the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

 cockpit
Cockpit
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. Most modern cockpits are enclosed, except on some small aircraft, and cockpits on large airliners are also physically separated from the cabin...

, the boosters of Ariane 5
Ariane 5
Ariane 5 is, as a part of Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit or low Earth orbit . Ariane 5 rockets are manufactured under the authority of the European Space Agency and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales...

, and the M51 SLBM missile
Missile
Though a missile may be any thrown or launched object, it colloquially almost always refers to a self-propelled guided weapon system.-Etymology:The word missile comes from the Latin verb mittere, meaning "to send"...

.

Tourism is a major industry, especially concerning wine-making
Winemaking
Winemaking, or vinification, is the production of wine, starting with selection of the grapes or other produce and ending with bottling the finished wine. Although most wine is made from grapes, it may also be made from other fruit or non-toxic plant material...

.

Access to the port from the Atlantic ocean is via the Gironde estuary
Gironde estuary
The Gironde is a navigable estuary , in southwest France and is formed from the meeting of the rivers Dordogne and Garonne just below the centre of Bordeaux...

. Almost 9 million tons of goods arrive and leave each year.

Major companies


This list includes both companies based in Bordeaux and outside companies with major operations in the city.
  • Arena
    Arena (swimwear)
    Arena is a brand of competitive swimwear created in 1973 at Adidas France, by its president Horst Dassler. Sold by Adidas in 1990, the brand now represents two unrelated product lines....

  • CDiscount
  • Dassault
    Dassault Group
    Dassault Group, is a French group of companies led by Serge Dassault.Managing directors are Claude Dassault and Olivier Costa De Beauregard.- Subsidiaries :*Dassault Aviation;...

  • EADS
    EADS
    The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company N.V. is a global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation and a leading defence and military contractor worldwide...

     composites
  • EADS Sogerma
  • EADS Space Transportation
  • Lectra
  • LU
  • Marie Brizard
    Marie Brizard et Roger International
    Marie Brizard et Roger International is a French alcoholic beverage company founded in 1755. It is a subsidiary of Belvédère, and is based in Bordeaux, France....

  • McKesson Corporation
  • Oxbow
    Oxbow (surfwear)
    Oxbow is a brand of clothing and athletic equipment. Since its creation in 1985 in Pont-Audemer, France, Oxbow has positioned itself in the world of boardsports as an international brand. Oxbow restarted the World Longboard Championship in 1992, and sponsors athletes such as surfer Laird Hamilton...

  • Ricard
    Pernod Ricard
    Pernod Ricard is a French company that produces distilled beverages. The company's eponymous products, Pernod Anise and Ricard Pastis, are both anise-flavoured liqueurs and are often referred to simply as Pernod or Ricard...

  • Sanofi Aventis
    Sanofi-Aventis
    Sanofi S.A. is a multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Paris, France, the world's fourth-largest by prescription sales. Sanofi engages in the research and development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical products for sale principally in the prescription market, but the...

  • SMURFIT
  • SNECMA
    Snecma
    Snecma is a major French manufacturer of engines for commercial and military aircraft, and for space vehicles. The name is an acronym for Société Nationale d'Étude et de Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation .In 2005, the Snecma group, which included Snecma ,...

  • SNPE
  • Solectron
    Solectron
    Solectron Corporation was a global electronics manufacturing company for original equipment manufacturers . It pioneered the electronics manufacturing services industry in 1977 and was a leader in the field...

  • Thales Group
    Thales Group
    The Thales Group is a French electronics company delivering information systems and services for the aerospace, defense, transportation and security markets...

  • William Pitters


Demographics


In the 1999 census, there were 215,363 inhabitants in the city (commune
Communes of France
The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are roughly equivalent to incorporated municipalities or villages in the United States or Gemeinden in Germany...

) of Bordeaux. The 2005 census showed a significant increase, as this figure reached 230,600 inhabitants. The majority of the population is French, but there are sizable groups of Italians
Italian people
The Italian people are an ethnic group that share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Within Italy, Italians are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence , and are distinguished from people...

, Spaniards
Spanish people
The Spanish are citizens of the Kingdom of Spain. Within Spain, there are also a number of vigorous nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history....

, Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

, Turks
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

, Germans
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

 and North Africans.. The built-up area has grown swiftly in recent years with urban sprawl
Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a...

.

University



The university was created by the archbishop Pey Berland
Pey Berland
Blessed Pey Berland was the Archbishop of Bordeaux from 1430 until his abdication, during a pivotal time in the history of the city and of Gascony...

 in 1441 and was abolished in 1793, during the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

, before reappearing in 1808 with Napoleon I
Napoleon I of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

. Bordeaux accommodates approximately 70,000 students on one of the largest campuses of Europe (235 ha).
The University of Bordeaux is divided into four:
  • The University Bordeaux 1 (Physical sciences and Technologies), 10,693 students in 2002
  • The University Bordeaux 2 (Medicine and Life sciences), 15,038 students in 2002
  • The University Bordeaux 3 (Liberal Arts
    Liberal arts
    The term liberal arts refers to those subjects which in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free citizen to study. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic were the core liberal arts. In medieval times these subjects were extended to include mathematics, geometry, music and astronomy...

    , Humanities, Languages, History), 14,785 students in 2002
  • The University Bordeaux 4 (Law, Economy and Management). 12,556 students in 2002

Schools


Bordeaux has numerous public and private schools offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs.

Engineering schools:
  • École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers
    École Nationale Supérieure d'Arts et Métiers
    Arts et Métiers ParisTech is the French leading engineering school in the fields of mechanics and industrialization.The school trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation in 1780 by the Duke of La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt....

  • École d'ingénieurs en modélisation mathématique et mécanique
  • École nationale supérieure d'électronique, informatique, radiocommunications de Bordeaux
  • École supérieure de technologie des biomolécules de Bordeaux
  • École nationale d'ingénieurs des travaux agricoles de Bordeaux
  • École nationale supérieure de chimie et physique de Bordeaux
    École nationale supérieure de chimie et de physique de Bordeaux
    The École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie et de Physique de Bordeaux or ENSCPB - which can be translated as Graduate School of Chemistry and Physics of Bordeaux - is one of the French "grandes écoles ", whose main purpose is to form chemical and physical engineers...

  • Institut des sciences et techniques des aliments de Bordeaux
  • Institut de cognitique
    Institut de cognitique
    In Bordeaux, the Cognitique Institute is a public education institution, founded by the University of Bordeaux 2, that includes a cognitive engineering training program, two Masters programs and a PhD program in cognitive science....

  • École supérieure d'informatique
  • École privée des sciences informatiques


Business and management schools:
  • IUT Techniques de Commercialisation of Bordeaux (Business School)
  • Bordeaux école de management (Bordeaux Management School)
  • EBP International
  • Institut des hautes études économiques et commerciales (INSEEC)
  • École de commerce européenne


Other:
  • Institut d'études politiques de Bordeaux
    Institut d'études politiques de Bordeaux
    Sciences Po Bordeaux, or Institut d'études politiques de Bordeaux, is a French political science grande école situated on the university campus of Pessac, 8 km from the centre of Bordeaux and is attached to the Montesquieu University - Bordeaux IV. It was established in 1948...

     (Institute of political science
    Political science
    Political Science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior...

    s)
  • École nationale de la magistrature
    French National School for the Judiciary
    The French National School for the Judiciary is a French school, where French judges and public prosecutors are trained. The institution was created in 1959 as the "National Centre for Judicial Studies" . It became the French National School for the Judiciary in 1972...

     (National school for Magistrate)
  • École du service de santé des armées
  • École d'architecture et de paysage de Bordeaux
  • École des beaux-arts de Bordeaux
  • École française des attachés de presse et des professionels de la communication (EFAP)
  • Conservatoire national des arts et métiers d'Aquitaine (CNAM)

Main sights





Bordeaux is classified "City of Art and History". The city has been inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage List
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble".

Bordeaux is home to one of Europe's biggest 18th century architectural urban areas, making it a sought-after destination for tourists and cinema production crews. It stands out as one of the first French cities, after Nancy, to have entered an era of urbanism
Urbanism
Broadly, urbanism is a focus on cities and urban areas, their geography, economies, politics, social characteristics, as well as the effects on, and caused by, the built environment.-Philosophy:...

 and metropolitan big scale projects, with the team Gabriel father and son, architects for King Louis XV
Louis XV of France
Louis XV was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death. He succeeded his great-grandfather at the age of five, his first cousin Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, served as Regent of the kingdom until Louis's majority in 1723...

, under the supervision of two intendants (Governors), first Nicolas-François Dupré de Saint-Maur
Nicolas-François Dupré de Saint-Maur
Nicolas-François Dupré de Saint-Maur was a French economist and statistician.-Life:From a family of jurists and financial figures, he was the son of a correcteur in the Chambre des comptes and cousin of Jean-Baptiste-Henri de Valincour...

 then the Marquis (Marquess) de Tourny.

Buildings


Main sights include:
  • Esplanade des Quinconces, one of the largest squares in France.
  • Colonnes des Girondins
  • Grand Théâtre
    Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux
    Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux, is a Theatre in Bordeaux, France, first inaugurated on 17 April 1780. It was in this theatre that the ballet La Fille Mal Gardée premiered in 1789, and where a young Marius Petipa staged some of his first ballets....

    , a large neoclassical theater built in the 18th century.
  • Allées de Tourny
  • Cours de l'Intendance
  • Place du Chapelet
  • Pont de pierre
  • Saint-André Cathedral, consecrated by Pope Urban II
    Pope Urban II
    Pope Urban II , born Otho de Lagery , was Pope from 12 March 1088 until his death on July 29 1099...

     in 1096. Of the Original Romanesque edifice only a wall in the nave remain. The Royal Gate is from the early 13th century, while the rest of the construction is mostly from the 14th–15th centuries.
  • Tour Pey Berland
    Pey Berland
    Blessed Pey Berland was the Archbishop of Bordeaux from 1430 until his abdication, during a pivotal time in the history of the city and of Gascony...

    (1440–1450), a massive, quadrangular tower annexed to the cathedral.
  • Église Sainte-Croix
    Église Sainte-Croix
    right|thumb|250px|Église Sainte-Croix.The Église Sainte-Croix is an Roman Catholic abbey church in Bordeaux, southern France....

    (Church of the Holy Cross). It lies on the site of a 7th century abbey destroyed by the Saracens. Rebuilt under the Carolingians, it was again destroyed by the Normans in 845 and 864. It is annexed to a Benedictine abbey founded in the 7th century, and was built in the late 11th-early 12th centuries. The façade is in Romanesque style
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

  • The gothic Basilica of Saint Michael, constructed in the late 14th–15th centuries.
  • Basilica of Saint-Seurin, the most ancient church in Bordeaux. It was built in the early 6th century on the site of a palaeochristian necropolis. It has an 11th century portico
    Portico
    A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls...

    , while the apse
    Apse
    In architecture, the apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome...

     and transept
    Transept
    For the periodical go to The Transept.A transept is a transverse section, of any building, which lies across the main body of the building. In Christian churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform building in Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architecture...

     are from the following century. The 13th century nave has chapels from the 11th and the 14th centuries. The ancient crypt houses sepulchres of the Merovingian
    Merovingian dynasty
    The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region largely corresponding to ancient Gaul from the middle of the 5th century. Their politics involved frequent civil warfare among branches of the family...

     family.
  • Palais Rohan (Exterior:)
  • Palais Gallien, the remains of a late second century Roman
    Ancient Rome
    Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

     amphitheatre
    Amphitheatre
    An amphitheatre is an open-air venue used for entertainment and performances.There are two similar, but distinct, types of structure for which the word "amphitheatre" is used: Ancient Roman amphitheatres were large central performance spaces surrounded by ascending seating, and were commonly used...

  • Porte Cailhau, a gate of the old city walls.
  • La Grosse Cloche (15th century) is the second remaining gate of the Medieval walls. It was the belfry of the old Town Hall. It consists of two 40 m-high circular towers and a central bell tower
    Bell tower
    A bell tower is a tower which contains one or more bells, or which is designed to hold bells, even if it has none. In the European tradition, such a tower most commonly serves as part of a church and contains church bells. When attached to a city hall or other civic building, especially in...

     housing a bell
    Bell (instrument)
    A bell is a simple sound-making device. The bell is a percussion instrument and an idiophone. Its form is usually a hollow, cup-shaped object, which resonates upon being struck...

     weighing 7800 kilograms (17,196.1 lb). The watch is from 1759.
  • Église Saint-Éloi
  • Place de la Bourse(1730–1775), designed by the Royal architect Jacques Ange Gabriel
    Ange-Jacques Gabriel
    Ange-Jacques Gabriel was the most prominent French architect of his generation.Born to a Parisian family of architects and initially trained by the royal architect Robert de Cotte and his father , whom he assisted in the creation of the Place Royale at Bordeaux , the younger Gabriel...

     as landscape for an equestrian statue of Louis XV.
  • Place du Parlement
  • Place Saint-Pierre
  • Rue Sainte-Catherine
    Sainte-Catherine Street (Bordeaux)
    This article is about the street in Bordeaux. For other streets of this name, see Rue Sainte-Catherine .The rue Sainte-Catherine, a 1.2 km long pedestrian street, is the main shopping street in Bordeaux, France....

    , the longest and busiest street in the old town of Bordeaux.
  • The BETASOM
    BETASOM
    BETASOM BETASOM BETASOM (an Italian language acronym of Bordeaux Sommergibile. was a submarine base established at Bordeaux by the Italian Regia Marina Italiana during World War II....

     submarine base


Saint-André Cathedral, Saint-Michel Basilica and Saint-Seurin Basilica are part of the World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France
World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France
In 1998, several sites in France were added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites under the description: Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France....

.

Contemporary architecture

  • Fire Station, la Benauge, Claude Ferret/Adrien Courtois/Yves Salier, 1951–1954
  • Court of first instance
    Tribunal d'instance
    In France, the Tribunal d'instance , is a judicial inferior court of record of first instance for general civil suits and includes a criminal division, the Police Court , which hears cases of misdemeanors or summary offences...

    , Richard Rogers
    Richard Rogers
    Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside CH Kt FRIBA FCSD is a British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs....

    , 1998
  • CTBA, wood and furniture research centre, A. Loisier, 1998
  • Hangar 14 on the Quai des Chartrons, 1999
  • The Management Science faculty on the Bastide, Anne Lacaton/Jean-Philippe Vassal, 2006
  • The Jardin botanique de la Bastide
    Jardin botanique de la Bastide
    The Jardin botanique de la Bastide is a municipal botanical garden located along the right bank of the Garonne along the Allée Jean Giono in Bordeaux, Gironde, Aquitaine, France; it is open daily without charge...

    , Catherine Mosbach/Françoise Hélène Jourda/Pascal Convert, 2007
  • The Nuyens School complex on the Bastide, Yves Ballot/Nathalie Franck, 2007
  • Seeko'o Hotel on the Quai des Chartrons, King Kong architects, 2007

Museums

  • Musée des Beaux Arts
    Musée des beaux-arts de Bordeaux
    The Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux is the fine arts museum of the city of Bordeaux, France. Established in 1801 it is one of the largest art galleries of France outside Paris. The museum is housed in a dependency of the Palais Rohan in central Bordeaux. Its collections regroup paintings,...

     (Fine arts museum), one of the finest painting galleries in France
  • Musée d'Aquitaine
    Musée d'Aquitaine
    The Museum of Aquitaine is a collection of objects and documents from the history of Bordeaux and Aquitane.- Location :...

  • Musée du Vin et du Négoce
  • Musée des Arts Décoratifs
  • Musée d'Histoire Naturelle
  • CAPC
  • Musée National des Doines
  • Vinorama
  • Musée Goupil
  • Casa de Goya
    Francisco Goya
    Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns. Goya was a court painter to the Spanish Crown, and through his works was both a commentator on and chronicler of his era...

  • Cap Sciences
  • Centre Jean Moulin

Parks and gardens

  • Jardin botanique de Bordeaux
    Jardin botanique de Bordeaux
    The Jardin botanique de Bordeaux is a municipal botanical garden located at Place Bardineau, Bordeaux, Gironde, Aquitaine, France; it is open daily without charge...

  • Jardin botanique de la Bastide
    Jardin botanique de la Bastide
    The Jardin botanique de la Bastide is a municipal botanical garden located along the right bank of the Garonne along the Allée Jean Giono in Bordeaux, Gironde, Aquitaine, France; it is open daily without charge...

  • La Maison des Chameaux (Camel Park)

Shopping


Bordeaux has many shopping options. In the heart of Bordeaux is Rue Sainte-Catherine
Sainte-Catherine Street (Bordeaux)
This article is about the street in Bordeaux. For other streets of this name, see Rue Sainte-Catherine .The rue Sainte-Catherine, a 1.2 km long pedestrian street, is the main shopping street in Bordeaux, France....

. This pedestrian only shopping street has 1.2 kilometre (0.745647283979768 mi) of shops, restaurants and cafés; it is also one of the longest shopping streets in Europe. Rue Sainte-Catherine starts at Place de la Victoire and ends at Place de la Comédie by the Grand Théâtre. The shops become progressively more upmarket as one moves towards Place de la Comédie and the nearby Cours de l'Intendance is where one finds the more exclusive shops and boutiques.

Culture


Bordeaux is also the first city in France to have created, in the 1980s, an architecture exhibition and research centre, Arc en rêve, still the most prestigious in France besides Paris IFA.
Bordeaux offers a large number of cinemas, theatres and is the home of the Opéra national de Bordeaux
Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux
Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux, is a Theatre in Bordeaux, France, first inaugurated on 17 April 1780. It was in this theatre that the ballet La Fille Mal Gardée premiered in 1789, and where a young Marius Petipa staged some of his first ballets....

. There are many music venues of varying capacity. The city also offers several festivals throughout the year.

Road


Bordeaux is an important road and motorway junction
Interchange (road)
In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that typically uses grade separation, and one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without directly crossing any other traffic stream. It differs from a standard intersection, at which...

. The city is connected to Paris by the A10
A10 autoroute (France)
The A10, also called L'Aquitaine, is an Autoroute in France, running for 549 km from the A6 south of Paris to the A630 at Bordeaux. It generally parallels the N10 Route Nationale, but deviates significantly from the older N10 between Paris and Tours and between Poitiers and Bordeaux...

 motorway, with Lyon by the A89
A89 autoroute
The A89 autoroute is a motorway in central France. It is known as the La Transeuropéenne. It will connect Lyon with Bordeaux.-Completed Sections:* Antenne de Balbigny* Combronde-Saint-Julien-Puy-Lavèze-Ussel-Tulle-Saint-Germain-les-Vergnes...

, with Toulouse by the A62
A62 autoroute
The A62 autoroute is a French motorway forming part of the Autoroute de Deux Mers.The road is the western portion of the Autoroute de Deux Mers connecting Toulouse with Bordeaux with a junction with the A630...

, and with Spain by the A63
A63 autoroute
The A63 autoroute is a motorway in southwest France. It is made up of two sections; the northern one is toll-free, connecting Bordeaux with Belin-Béliet. The southern section is operated by ASF and links Bordeaux to the border with Spain...

. There is a 45 km (28 mi) ring road called the "Rocade" which is often very busy. The building of another ring road is under consideration.

Bordeaux has four road bridges that cross the Garonne
Garonne
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of .-Source:The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret , the Ratera-Saboredo...

, the Pont de pierre built in the 1820s and three modern bridges built after 1960: the Pont Saint Jean, just south of the Pont de pierre (both located downtown), the Pont d'Aquitaine, a suspended bridge downstream from downtown, and the Pont François Mitterrand, located upstream of downtown. These two bridges are part of the ring road around Bordeaux. There is also a railway bridge, completed in 2008(??).

Rail


The main railway station
Train station
A train station, also called a railroad station or railway station and often shortened to just station,"Station" is commonly understood to mean "train station" unless otherwise qualified. This is evident from dictionary entries e.g...

, Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean
Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean
Bordeaux-Saint-Jean or Bordeaux-Midi is the main railway station in the French city of Bordeaux. It is the southern terminus of the Paris–Bordeaux railway, and the western terminus of the Chemin de Fer du Midi main line to Toulouse. The current station building opened in 1898. As well as Midi...

, near the centre of the city, has 4 million passengers a year. It is served by the French national (SNCF
SNCF
The SNCF , is France's national state-owned railway company. SNCF operates the country's national rail services, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network...

) railway's high speed train, the TGV
TGV
The TGV is France's high-speed rail service, currently operated by SNCF Voyages, the long-distance rail branch of SNCF, the French national rail operator....

, that gets to Paris in three hours, with connections to major European centres such as Lille
Lille
Lille is a city in northern France . It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country behind those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium...

, Brussels, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

, Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

, Geneva and London. The TGV
TGV
The TGV is France's high-speed rail service, currently operated by SNCF Voyages, the long-distance rail branch of SNCF, the French national rail operator....

 also serves Toulouse
Toulouse
Toulouse is a city in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern FranceIt lies on the banks of the River Garonne, 590 km away from Paris and half-way between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea...

 and Irun
Irun
Irun is a town of the Bidasoa-Txingudi region in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain...

 from Bordeaux. A regular train service is provided to Nantes
Nantes
Nantes is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast. The city is the 6th largest in France, while its metropolitan area ranks 8th with over 800,000 inhabitants....

, Nice, Marseille
Marseille
Marseille , known in antiquity as Massalia , is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 852,395 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1,420,000 on an area of...

 and Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

. The Gare Saint-Jean is the major hub for regional trains (TER) operated by the SNCF
SNCF
The SNCF , is France's national state-owned railway company. SNCF operates the country's national rail services, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network...

 to Arcachon
Arcachon
Arcachon is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France.It is a popular bathing location on the Atlantic coast southwest of Bordeaux in the Landes forest...

, Limoges
Limoges
Limoges |Limousin]] dialect of Occitan) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and the administrative capital of the Limousin région in west-central France....

, Agen
Agen
Agen is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in Aquitaine in south-western France. It lies on the river Garonne southeast of Bordeaux. It is the capital of the department.-Economy:The town has a higher level of unemployment than the national average...

, Périgueux
Périgueux
Périgueux is a commune in the Dordogne department in Aquitaine in southwestern France.Périgueux is the prefecture of the department and the capital of the region...

, Pau and Bayonne
Bayonne
Bayonne is a city and commune in south-western France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department, of which it is a sub-prefecture...

.

Historically the train line used to terminate at a station on the right bank of the river Garonne near the Pont de Pierre, and passengers crossed the bridge to get into the city. Subsequently a single track steel railway bridge was constructed in the 1850s, by Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
Alexandre Gustave Eiffel was a French structural engineer from the École Centrale Paris, an architect, an entrepreneur and a specialist of metallic structures...

, to bring trains across the river direct into Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean
Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean
Bordeaux-Saint-Jean or Bordeaux-Midi is the main railway station in the French city of Bordeaux. It is the southern terminus of the Paris–Bordeaux railway, and the western terminus of the Chemin de Fer du Midi main line to Toulouse. The current station building opened in 1898. As well as Midi...

. The old station was later converted and in 2010 comprised a cinema and restaurants.

The single track Eiffel bridge became a bottleneck and a new bridge was built, opening in 2008(??). During the planning there was much lobbying by the Eiffel family and other supporters to preserve the old bridge as a footbridge across the Garonne, with possibly a museum to document the history of the bridge and Gustav Eiffel's contribution. The decision was taken to save the bridge, but by early 2010 no plans had been announced as to its future use. The bridge remains intact, but unused and without any means of access.

Air


Bordeaux is served by an international airport
International airport
An international airport is any airport that can accommodate flights from other countries and are typically equipped with customs and immigration facilities to handle these flights to and from other countries...

, Aéroport de Bordeaux Mérignac, located 8 km (5 mi) from the city centre in the suburban city of Mérignac
Mérignac, Gironde
Mérignac is a commune in the Gironde department in Aquitaine in southwestern France.It is the largest suburb of the city of Bordeaux and is adjacent to it on the west...

.

Trams, buses and boats


Bordeaux has an important public transport system called Tram et Bus de la CUB
Tram et Bus de la CUB
Tram et bus de la CUB is a public transport system for the 27 communes of the Urban Community of Bordeaux . It also provides service to part of the commune of Cadaujac....

 (TBC). This company is run by the Keolis group. The network consists of:
  • 3 tram lines
    Tramway de Bordeaux
    The Bordeaux tramway network consists of three lines serving the city of Bordeaux in southwestern France. The first line was opened on 21 December 2003; further extensions have increased the route length to . The system is notable for using a ground-level power supply of the Alimentation par Sol...

     (A
    Bordeaux Tramway Line A
    The A line of the Bordeaux tramway is operated by the Tram et Bus de la CUB, and connects Lormont and Floirac to Mérignac. It connects the left and right banks of the Garonne, passing by the Pierre bridge and the center of Bordeaux.- History :...

    , B
    Bordeaux Tramway Line B
    The B line of the Bordeaux tramway is operated by the Tram et Bus de la CUB, and connects Station Pessac Centre in Pessac to Claveau in north Bordeaux.-Equipment:...

     and C
    Bordeaux Tramway Line C
    The C line of the Bordeaux tramway is operated by the Tram et Bus de la CUB, and connects Les Aubiers to Terres Neuves.Being connected to the line A and line B, it will link Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean to different communes of the CUB.- History :...

    )
  • 75 bus routes
    Bus lines in Bordeaux
    The Urban Community of Bordeaux Public Transport System manages 65 regular bus and tram lines in Bordeaux and Bordeaux's suburbs. These tram and bus lines comprise:* 13 high frequency services...

    , all connected to the tramway network (from 1 to 96)
  • 13 night bus routes (from 1 to 16)
  • An electric bus
    Trolleybus
    A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

     shuttle in the city centre
  • A boat shuttle on the Garonne river

This network is operated from 5 am to 1 am.

There had been several plans for a subway network to be set up, but they stalled for both geological and financial reasons. Work on the Tramway de Bordeaux
Tramway de Bordeaux
The Bordeaux tramway network consists of three lines serving the city of Bordeaux in southwestern France. The first line was opened on 21 December 2003; further extensions have increased the route length to . The system is notable for using a ground-level power supply of the Alimentation par Sol...

 system was started in the autumn of 2000, and services started in December 2003 connecting Bordeaux with its suburban areas. The tram system uses ground-level power supply technology (APS)
Ground-level power supply
Ground-level power supply, also known as surface current collection and Alimentation par Sol is a modern method of third-rail electrical pick-up for street trams. It was invented for the Bordeaux tramway, which was constructed from 2000 and opened in 2003. Until 2011, this is the only place it is...

, a new cable-free technology developed by French company Alstom
Alstom
Alstom is a large multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and transport markets. According to the company website, in the years 2010-2011 Alstom had annual sales of over €20.9 billion, and employed more than 85,000 people in 70 countries. Alstom's headquarters are...

 and designed to preserve the aesthetic environment by eliminating overhead cables in the historic city. Conventional overhead cables are used outside the city. The system was controversial for its considerable cost of installation, maintenance and also for the numerous initial technical problems that paralysed the network. Many streets and squares along the tramway route became pedestrian areas, with limited access
Limited-access road
A limited-access road known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway and expressway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway , including limited or no access to adjacent...

 for cars.

Sport


The Stade Chaban-Delmas
Stade Chaban-Delmas
Stade Chaban-Delmas is a sporting stadium located in the city of Bordeaux, France. It is the home ground of FC Girondins de Bordeaux.Until 2001, the stadium's name was the Stade du Parc Lescure...

 is the largest stadium. It can host 35000 spectators.
There are two major sport teams in Bordeaux:
  • Girondins de Bordeaux
    FC Girondins de Bordeaux
    Football Club des Girondins de Bordeaux is a French association football club based in the city of Bordeaux. The club currently play in Ligue 1, the first division of French football, and won its last Ligue 1 title in the 2008–09 season....

     is the football team. It is part of the Ligue 1
    Ligue 1
    Ligue 1 , is the French professional league for association football clubs. It is the country's primary football competition and serves as the top division of the French football league system. Ligue 1 is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel, the other being Ligue 2....

     in the French football
    Football in France
    Football is the most popular sport in France. The Fédération Française de Football is the national governing bodyand is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the game of association football in the country, both professional and amateur...

     championship.
  • Union Bordeaux Bègles is the rugby
    Rugby union
    Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

     team. It is part of the Top 14 in the Ligue Nationale de Rugby.
  • Bordeaux is the home of one of the strongest cricket
    Cricket
    Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

     teams in France and are the current champions of the South West League.


There is a 250 m (820.2 ft) wooden velodrome
Velodrome
A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights...

, Vélodrome du Lac, in Bordeaux which hosts international cycling competition in the form of UCI Track Cycling World Cup
UCI Track Cycling World Cup Classics
The UCI Track Cycling World Cup Classics is the elite men and women's season-long competition in track cycling, which now comprises several rounds, each held in a different country. The 1995 World Cup had six rounds, this was reduced to four in 1998, 1999-2001 compromised of five rounds before...

 events.

Personalities


Bordeaux was the birthplace of:
  • Bertrand Andrieu
    Bertrand Andrieu
    Bertrand Andrieu was a French engraver of medals from Bordeaux. In France he was considered as the restorer of the art, which had declined after the time of Louis XIV, and during the last twenty years of his life the French government commissiond him to undertake several works...

     (1761–1822), engraver
  • Jean Anouilh
    Jean Anouilh
    Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh was a French dramatist whose career spanned five decades. Though his work ranged from high drama to absurdist farce, Anouilh is best known for his 1943 play Antigone, an adaptation of Sophocles' Classical drama, that was seen as an attack on Marshal Pétain's...

     (1910–1987), dramatist
  • Yvonne Arnaud
    Yvonne Arnaud
    Yvonne Arnaud was a French-born pianist, singer and actress.Germaine Yvonne Arnaud was born in 1892. She entered the Paris Conservatoire at age 9, studying piano under Alphonse Duvernoy and other teachers...

     (1892–1958), actress
  • Decimus Magnus Ausonius
    Ausonius
    Decimius Magnus Ausonius was a Latin poet and rhetorician, born at Burdigala .-Biography:Decimius Magnus Ausonius was born in Bordeaux in ca. 310. His father was a noted physician of Greek ancestry and his mother was descended on both sides from long-established aristocratic Gallo-Roman families...

     (c. 310–395), Roman poet and rhetorician
  • Floyd Ayité
    Floyd Ayité
    Floyd Ayité is a French-Togolese offensive midfielder currently playing in France for Angers SCO on loan from Bordeaux.-External links:*...

    , footballer
  • Jonathan Ayité
    Jonathan Ayité
    Jonathan Ayité is a French-born Togolese football striker who currently plays for Stade Brest in Ligue 1.-External links:* *...

    , footballer
  • François Bigot
    François Bigot
    François Bigot was a French government official. He served as the Financial Commissary on Île Royale and as Intendant of New France. He was the last official ever to hold the latter position, losing it on the occasion of the British Conquest of Québec in 1759...

     (1703–1778), last "Intendant" of New France
  • Samuel Boutal
    Samuel Boutal
    Samuel Boutal is a former French football striker or offensive midfielder.-External links:...

    , footballer
  • Edmond de Caillou
    Edmond de Caillou
    Edmond de Caillou or Raymond de Caillou, was a Gascon soldier who fought during the First War of Scottish Independence.-Life:...

     (d.c.February 1316) Gascon knight fighting in Scotland
  • René Clément (1913–1996), actor, director, writer
  • Jean-René Cruchet
    Jean-René Cruchet
    Jean-René Cruchet was a French pathologist born in Bordeaux.In 1902 he obtained his medical doctorate at Bordeaux and subsequently became chef de clinique médicale. In 1907 he received his habilitation and became médecin des hôpitaux...

     (1875–1959), pathologist
  • Damia
    Marie-Louise Damien
    Marie-Louise Damien was a French singer and actress better known by the stage name Damia.-Robert Hollard:...

     (1899–1978), singer
  • Lili Damita
    Lili Damita
    Lili Damita was a French actress who appeared in 33 movies between 1922 and 1937.-Early life and education:...

     (1901–1994), actress
  • Frédéric Daquin
    Frédéric Daquin
    Frédéric "Freddie" Daquin is a French association football player.Daquin was signed for Dunfermline Athletic on 27 January 2006 by Pars manager Jim Leishman. He succeeded in becoming a regular in the team, appearing in the 2006 Scottish League Cup Final against Celtic...

    , footballer
  • Danielle Darrieux
    Danielle Darrieux
    Danielle Yvonne Marie Antoinette Darrieux is a French actress and singer, who has appeared in more than 110 films since 1931. She is one of France's great movie stars and her eight-decade career is among the longest in film history....

     (born 1917), actress
  • David Diop
    David Diop
    David Mandessi Diop was one of the most promising French West African poets known for his contribution to the Négritude literary movement. His work reflects his hatred of colonial rulers and his hope for an independent Africa....

    , poet
  • Jacques Ellul
    Jacques Ellul
    Jacques Ellul was a French philosopher, law professor, sociologist, lay theologian, and Christian anarchist. He wrote several books about the "technological society" and the interaction between Christianity and politics....

     (1912–1994), sociologist, theologian, Christian anarchist
  • Marie Fel
    Marie Fel
    Marie Fel was a French opera singer, daughter of the organist Henri Fel.Marie Fel was born at Bordeaux. She made her debut at the Paris Opera in 1733 and sang regularly at the Concert Spirituel...

     (1713–1794), opera singer
  • Jérôme Gnako
    Jérôme Gnako
    Jérôme Gnako is a French former football player, who played for several French clubs and twice for France national team.-References:* * * *...

    , footballer
  • Eugène Goossens
    Eugène Goossens, fils
    Eugène Goossens was a French conductor and violinist.He was born in Bordeaux, and studied in Bruges and the conservatoire in Brussels...

     (1867–1958), conductor, violinist
  • Lucenzo
    Lucenzo
    Filipe Oliveira , commonly known by his stage name Lucenzo, is a Portuguese-French singer, songwriter, and producer. His parents emigrated to France from Bragança, north of Portugal. Lucenzo signed with the Universal Music record label.He is best known for his recent dance hit "Vem dançar kuduro"...

     (born 1983), singer
  • Bruno Marie-Rose
    Bruno Marie-Rose
    Bruno Marie-Rose is a retired sprinter from France . He was a member of the French team which set a world record in the 4 x 100 metres relay in 1990 with a time of 37.79 seconds to win the gold medal at the European Championships...

    , athlete
  • François Mauriac
    François Mauriac
    François Mauriac was a French author; member of the Académie française ; laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature . He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur .-Biography:...

     (1885–1970), writer, Nobel laureate
  • Édouard Molinaro
    Édouard Molinaro
    Édouard Molinaro is a French film director, actor, and screenwriter. He was born in Gironde, Bordeaux.He is best known for his comedies with Louis de Funès , My Uncle Benjamin , Dracula and Son , and the Academy Award-nominated La Cage aux Folles Édouard Molinaro (born 13 May 1928) is a French...

     (born 1928), film director, producer
  • Michel de Montaigne
    Michel de Montaigne
    Lord Michel Eyquem de Montaigne , February 28, 1533 – September 13, 1592, was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance, known for popularising the essay as a literary genre and is popularly thought of as the father of Modern Skepticism...

     (1533–1592), essayist
  • Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty
    Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty
    Count Étienne-Marie-Antoine-Champion de Nansouty was a French cavalry commander during the French Revolutionary Wars who rose to the rank of General of Division in 1803 and subsequently held important military commands during the Napoleonic Wars. Of noble Burgundian descent, he was a student at...

     (1768–1815), general
  • Pierre Palmade
    Pierre Palmade
    Pierre Palmade is a French actor and comedian.-Biography:He has done dubbing for the films, Pédale douce and Pédale dure...

     (born 1968), actor, author
  • St. Paulinus of Nola
    Paulinus of Nola
    Saint Paulinus of Nola, also known as Pontificus Meropius Anicius Paulinus was a Roman senator who converted to a severe monasticism in 394...

     (354–431), educator, religious figure
  • Georges Antoine Pons Rayet
    Georges Rayet
    Georges-Antoine-Pons Rayet was a French astronomer.He was born in Bordeaux, France. He began working at the Paris Observatory in 1863. He worked on meteorology in addition to astronomy...

     (1839–1906), astronomer, discoverer of the Wolf-Rayet stars, & founder of the Bordeaux Observatory
  • Richard II of England
    Richard II of England
    Richard II was King of England, a member of the House of Plantagenet and the last of its main-line kings. He ruled from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard was a son of Edward, the Black Prince, and was born during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III...

     (1367–1400)
  • Pierre Rode
    Pierre Rode
    Jacques Pierre Joseph Rode was a French violinist and composer.-Biography:Born in Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France, Pierre Rode traveled to Parisat the age of 13 and soon became a favourite pupil of the great Giovanni Battista Viotti who found the boy so talented that he charged him no fee for the...

     (1774–1830), violinist
  • Jean-Jacques Sempé
    Jean-Jacques Sempé
    Jean-Jacques Sempé, usually known as Sempé , is a French cartoonist. Some of his cartoons are quite striking, but retain a sentimental and often a somewhat gentle edge to them, even if the topic is a difficult one to approach...

     (born 1932), cartoonist
  • Florent Serra
    Florent Serra
    Florent Lucien Serra is a French male tennis player. A right-hander, he has won two ATP titles during his career and is coached by Pierre Cherret.-Early life and junior career:...

    , tennis player
  • Philippe Sollers
    Philippe Sollers
    Philippe Sollers is a French writer and critic. In 1960 he founded the avant garde journal Tel Quel , published by Seuil, which ran until 1982...

    , writer
  • Wilfried Tekovi
    Wilfried Tekovi
    Wilfried Tekovi is a Togolese international footballer who plays professionally as a defender for French side FC Gueugnon.-Club career:...

    , footballer


Twin towns – sister cities


Bordeaux is twinned with:
Bristol
Bristol
Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, with an estimated population of 433,100 for the unitary authority in 2009, and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone with an estimated 1,070,000 residents in 2007...

, United Kingdom, since 1947 Lima
Lima
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central part of the country, on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima...

, Peru, since 1957 Quebec City
Quebec City
Quebec , also Québec, Quebec City or Québec City is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec and is located within the Capitale-Nationale region. It is the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal, which is about to the southwest...

, Canada, since 1962 Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, Germany, since 1964 Los Angeles, United States, since 1968
Porto
Porto
Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

, Portugal, since 1978 Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Fukuoka most often refers to the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture.It can also refer to:-Locations:* Fukuoka, Gifu, a town in Gifu Prefecture, Japan* Fukuoka, Toyama, a town in Toyama Prefecture, Japan...

, Japan, since 1982 Bilbao
Bilbao
Bilbao ) is a Spanish municipality, capital of the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country. With a population of 353,187 , it is the largest city of its autonomous community and the tenth largest in Spain...

, Spain Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Spain, since 1984 Ashdod, Israel, since 1984
Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

, Azerbaijan, since 1985 Casablanca
Casablanca
Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

, Morocco, since 1988 Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia, since 1993 Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

, China, since 1998 Oran
Oran
Oran is a major city on the northwestern Mediterranean coast of Algeria, and the second largest city of the country.It is the capital of the Oran Province . The city has a population of 759,645 , while the metropolitan area has a population of approximately 1,500,000, making it the second largest...

, Algeria, since 2003 Zahlé
Zahlé
Zahlé is the capital and largest city of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon. With around 50,000 inhabitants, it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon, after Beirut, Tripoli and Jounieh...

, Lebanon, since 2006

Partnerships

Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

, Poland, since 1993 Riga
Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

, Latvia Samsun
Samsun
Samsun is a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey. It is the provincial capital of Samsun Province and a major Black Sea port.-Name:...

, Turkey, since 2010

See also

  • Archdiocese of Bordeaux
  • Battle of Bordeaux
    Battle of Bordeaux (football)
    The Battle of Bordeaux is an informal name for the World Cup football match between Brazil and Czechoslovakia on June 12, 1938 in the Parc Lescure in Bordeaux, France, one of the quarter-finals of the 1938 World Cup finals...

    , an informal name for the World Cup
    1938 FIFA World Cup
    The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 June to 19 June. Italy retained the championship, beating Hungary 4–2 in the final.-Host selection:...

     football match between Brazil
    Brazil national football team
    The Brazil national football team represents Brazil in international men's football and is controlled by the Brazilian Football Confederation , the governing body for football in Brazil. They are a member of the International Federation of Association Football since 1923 and also a member of the...

     and Czechoslovakia
    Czechoslovakia national football team
    The Czechoslovakia national football team was the national association football team of Czechoslovakia from 1922 to 1993. At the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the team was participating in UEFA qualifying Group 4 for the 1994 World Cup; it completed this campaign under the name...

     on 12 June 1938 in Bordeaux
  • Bordeaux–Paris, a former professional road bicycle racing
    Road bicycle racing
    Road bicycle racing is a bicycle racing sport held on roads, using racing bicycles. The term "road racing" is usually applied to events where competing riders start simultaneously with the winner being the first to the line at the end of the course .Historically, the most...

  • Bordeaux wine regions
    Bordeaux wine regions
    The wine regions of Bordeaux are the area around the city of Bordeaux within the Gironde department of Aquitaine. The region is naturally divided by the Gironde River into a Left Bank area which includes the Médoc and the subregions of St-Estèphe, Pauillac, St.-Julien, and Margaux and a Right Bank...

  • Canelé
    Canelé
    A canelé is a small French pastry with a soft and tender custard center and a dark, thick caramelized crust. The dessert, which is in the shape of small, striated cylinder approximately two inches in height, is a specialty of the Bordeaux region of France but can often be found in Parisian...

    , a local pastry
    Pastry
    Pastry is the name given to various kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder and/or eggs. Small cakes, tarts and other sweet baked products are called "pastries."...

  • Dogue de Bordeaux
    Dogue de Bordeaux
    The Dogue de Bordeaux, Bordeaux Mastiff or French Mastiff or Bordeauxdog is a breed of dog that is strong, powerful, and imposing. The Dogue de Bordeaux is one of the most ancient French breeds. They are a typical brachycephalic molossoid type. Bordeaux are very powerful dogs, with a very muscular...

    , a breed
    Dog breed
    Dog breeds are groups of closely related and visibly similar domestic dogs, which are all of the subspecies Canis lupus familiaris, having characteristic traits that are selected and maintained by humans, bred from a known foundation stock....

     of dog originally bred for dog fighting
    Dog fighting
    Dog fighting is a form of blood sport in which game dogs are made to fight, sometimes to the death. It is illegal in most developed countries. Dog fighting is used for entertainment and may also generate revenue from stud fees, admission fees and gambling....

  • French wine
    French wine
    French wine is produced in several regions throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles. France has the world's second-largest total vineyard area, behind Spain, and is in the position of being the world's largest wine producer...

  • List of mayors of Bordeaux
  • Operation Frankton
    Operation Frankton
    Operation Frankton was a commando raid on shipping in the German occupied French port of Bordeaux in the Bay of Biscay during the Second World War. The raid was carried out by a small unit of Royal Marines known as the Royal Marines Boom Patrol Detachment , part of Combined Operations.The plan was...

    , a British Combined Operations raid on shipping in Bordeaux harbour
    Bordeaux Harbour
    Bordeaux Harbour is a fishing port and bay in the parish of Vale in the north east of Guernsey.Used to be used as a fishing harbour but is now more commonly used just as a beach, one of the few beaches in Guernsey that allow you to walk your dogs on all year round.The annual Guernsey winkle-picking...

    , in December 1942, during World War II
  • Communes of the Gironde department

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