Bluetooth

Bluetooth

Overview
Bluetooth is a proprietary
Proprietary protocol
In telecommunications, a proprietary protocol is a communications protocol owned by a single organization or individual.-Enforcement:Proprietors may enforce restrictions through patents and by keeping the protocol specification a trade secret...

 open
Open standard
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed . There is no single definition and interpretations vary with usage....

 wireless
Wireless
Wireless telecommunications is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not physically connected. Distances can be short, such as a few meters for television remote control, or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications...

 technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400-2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area network
Personal area network
A personal area network is a computer network used for communication among computer devices, including telephones and personal digital assistants, in proximity to an individual's body. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters...

s (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecoms vendor Ericsson
Ericsson
Ericsson , one of Sweden's largest companies, is a provider of telecommunication and data communication systems, and related services, covering a range of technologies, including especially mobile networks...

 in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232
RS-232
In telecommunications, RS-232 is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE and a DCE . It is commonly used in computer serial ports...

 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.

Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group
Bluetooth Special Interest Group
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is the body that oversees the development of Bluetooth standards and the licensing of the Bluetooth technologies and trademarks to manufacturers. The SIG is a privately held, not-for-profit trade association founded in September 1998. The SIG is headquartered...

, which has more than 15,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics.
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Encyclopedia
Bluetooth is a proprietary
Proprietary protocol
In telecommunications, a proprietary protocol is a communications protocol owned by a single organization or individual.-Enforcement:Proprietors may enforce restrictions through patents and by keeping the protocol specification a trade secret...

 open
Open standard
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed . There is no single definition and interpretations vary with usage....

 wireless
Wireless
Wireless telecommunications is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not physically connected. Distances can be short, such as a few meters for television remote control, or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications...

 technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400-2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area network
Personal area network
A personal area network is a computer network used for communication among computer devices, including telephones and personal digital assistants, in proximity to an individual's body. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters...

s (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecoms vendor Ericsson
Ericsson
Ericsson , one of Sweden's largest companies, is a provider of telecommunication and data communication systems, and related services, covering a range of technologies, including especially mobile networks...

 in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232
RS-232
In telecommunications, RS-232 is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE and a DCE . It is commonly used in computer serial ports...

 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.

Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group
Bluetooth Special Interest Group
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is the body that oversees the development of Bluetooth standards and the licensing of the Bluetooth technologies and trademarks to manufacturers. The SIG is a privately held, not-for-profit trade association founded in September 1998. The SIG is headquartered...

, which has more than 15,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. The SIG oversees the development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified to standards defined by the SIG. A network of patents is required to implement the technology and are only licensed to those qualifying devices; thus the protocol, whilst open, may be regarded as proprietary.

Name and logo


The word "Bluetooth" is an anglicised
Anglicisation
Anglicisation, or anglicization , is the process of converting verbal or written elements of any other language into a form that is more comprehensible to an English speaker, or, more generally, of altering something such that it becomes English in form or character.The term most often refers to...

 version of the Scandinavian Blåtand/Blåtann, the epithet
Epithet
An epithet or byname is a descriptive term accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature. It is also a descriptive title...

 of the tenth-century king Harald I of Denmark
Harald I of Denmark
Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson was the son of King Gorm the Old and of Thyra Dannebod. He died in 985 or 986 having ruled as King of Denmark from around 958 and King of Norway for a few years probably around 970...

 and parts of Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom. The implication is that Bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard.

The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune
Bind rune
A bind rune is a ligature of two or more runes. They are extremely rare in Viking Age inscriptions, but are common in pre-Viking Age and in post-Viking Age inscriptions....

 merging the Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet, a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, consisting of only 16 characters, in use from ca. 800 CE...

 runes
Runic alphabet
The runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialized purposes thereafter...

  (Hagall
Haglaz
*Haglaz or *Hagalaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the h-rune , meaning "hail" .In the Anglo-Saxon futhorc, it is continued as haegl and in the Younger Futhark as hagall The corresponding Gothic letter is h, named hagl.The Elder Futhark letter has two variants, single-barred and...

) (ᚼ) and  (Bjarkan
Berkanan
*Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the b rune , meaning "birch". In the Younger Futhark it is called Bjarken in the Icelandic rune poem and Bjarkan in the Norwegian rune poem. In the Anglo-Saxon rune poem it is called beorc...

) (ᛒ), Harald
Harald I of Denmark
Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson was the son of King Gorm the Old and of Thyra Dannebod. He died in 985 or 986 having ruled as King of Denmark from around 958 and King of Norway for a few years probably around 970...

's initials.

Implementation


Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver...

, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 bands (1 MHz each; centered from 2402 to 2480 MHz) in the range 2,400-2,483.5 MHz (allowing for guard bands). This range is in the globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM
ISM band
The industrial, scientific and medical radio bands are radio bands reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than communications....

) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency
Radio frequency
Radio frequency is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio signals...

 band.

Originally Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK) modulation was the only modulation scheme available; subsequently, since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, π/4-DQPSK and 8DPSK modulation may also be used between compatible devices. Devices functioning with GFSK are said to be operating in basic rate (BR) mode where an instantaneous data rate
Data rate units
In telecommunications, bit rate or data transfer rate is the average number of bits, characters, or blocks per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system. This is typically measured in multiples of the unit bit per second or byte per second.- Avoiding confusion :To be as...

 of 1 Mbit/s
Data rate units
In telecommunications, bit rate or data transfer rate is the average number of bits, characters, or blocks per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system. This is typically measured in multiples of the unit bit per second or byte per second.- Avoiding confusion :To be as...

 is possible. The term Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) is used to describe π/4-DPSK and 8DPSK schemes, each giving 2 and 3 Mbit/s respectively. The combination of these (BR and EDR) modes in Bluetooth radio technology is classified as a "BR/EDR radio".

Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master-slave structure. One master may communicate with up to 7 slaves in a piconet
Piconet
The original piconet was a networking type used on RM Nimbus computers.These days, a piconet' is an ad-hoc computer network linking a user group of devices using Bluetooth technology protocols to allow one master device to interconnect with up to seven active slave devices...

; all devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 µs intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 µs; two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 µs. In the simple case of single-slot packets the master transmits in even slots and receives in odd slots; the slave, conversely, receives in even slots and transmits in odd slots. Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long but in all cases the master transmit will begin in even slots and the slave transmit in odd slots.

Bluetooth provides a secure way to connect and exchange information between devices such as fax
Fax
Fax , sometimes called telecopying, is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material , normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device...

es, mobile phone
Mobile phone
A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

s, telephone
Telephone
The telephone , colloquially referred to as a phone, is a telecommunications device that transmits and receives sounds, usually the human voice. Telephones are a point-to-point communication system whose most basic function is to allow two people separated by large distances to talk to each other...

s, laptop
Laptop
A laptop, also called a notebook, is a personal computer for mobile use. A laptop integrates most of the typical components of a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device and speakers into a single unit...

s, personal computer
Personal computer
A personal computer is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator...

s, printers
Computer printer
In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable or, in most new printers, a...

, Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites...

 (GPS) receivers, digital camera
Digital camera
A digital camera is a camera that takes video or still photographs, or both, digitally by recording images via an electronic image sensor. It is the main device used in the field of digital photography...

s, and video game console
Video game console
A video game console is an interactive entertainment computer or customized computer system that produces a video display signal which can be used with a display device to display a video game...

s.

Communication and connection


A master Bluetooth device can communicate with a maximum of seven devices in a piconet
Piconet
The original piconet was a networking type used on RM Nimbus computers.These days, a piconet' is an ad-hoc computer network linking a user group of devices using Bluetooth technology protocols to allow one master device to interconnect with up to seven active slave devices...

 (an ad-hoc computer network using Bluetooth technology), though not all devices support this limit. The devices can switch roles, by agreement, and the slave can become the master (for example, a headset initiating a connection to a phone will necessarily begin as master, as initiator of the connection; but may subsequently prefer to be slave).

The Bluetooth Core Specification provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatternet
Scatternet
A scatternet is a type of ad-hoc computer network consisting of two or more piconets. Both of the terms 'scatternet' and 'piconet' are typically applied to Bluetooth wireless technology.-Description:...

, in which certain devices simultaneously play the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another.

At any given time, data can be transferred between the master and one other device (except for the little-used broadcast mode). The master chooses which slave device to address; typically, it switches rapidly from one device to another in a round-robin
Round-robin scheduling
Round-robin is one of the simplest scheduling algorithms for processes in an operating system. As the term is generally used, time slices are assigned to each process in equal portions and in circular order, handling all processes without priority . Round-robin scheduling is simple, easy to...

 fashion. Since it is the master that chooses which slave to address, whereas a slave is (in theory) supposed to listen in each receive slot, being a master is a lighter burden than being a slave. Being a master of seven slaves is possible; being a slave of more than one master is difficult. The specification is vague as to required behaviour in scatternets.

Many USB Bluetooth adapters
Adapter (computing)
In computing, adapter is a hardware device or software component that converts transmitted data from one presentation form to another. The data presentation can be, for example, a message sent between objects in an application or a packet sent through a network.In modern personal computer, almost...

 or "dongles" are available, some of which also include an IrDA
IRDA
IRDA may refer to:* Infrared Data Association, in information and communications technology , a standard for communication between devices over short distances using infrared signals...

 adapter. Older (pre-2003) Bluetooth dongles, however, have limited capabilities, offering only the Bluetooth Enumerator and a less-powerful Bluetooth Radio incarnation. Such devices can link computers with Bluetooth with a distance of 100 meters, but they do not offer as many services as modern adapters do.

Uses


Bluetooth is a standard wire-replacement communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent, but effective ranges vary in practice; see table below) based on low-cost transceiver
Transceiver
A transceiver is a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver which are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing. When no circuitry is common between transmit and receive functions, the device is a transmitter-receiver. The term originated in the early 1920s...

 microchips
Integrated circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material...

 in each device.
Because the devices use a radio (broadcast) communications system, they do not have to be in visual line of sight of each other, however a quasi optical wireless path must be viable.
Class Maximum permitted power Range
(m)
(mW) (dBm
DBm
dBm is an abbreviation for the power ratio in decibels of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt . It is used in radio, microwave and fiber optic networks as a convenient measure of absolute power because of its capability to express both very large and very small values in a short form...

)
Class 1 100 20 ~100
Class 2 2.5 4 ~10
Class 3 1 0 ~5


The effective range varies due to propagation conditions, material coverage, production sample variations, antenna configurations and battery conditions. In most cases the effective range of class 2 devices is extended if they connect to a class 1 transceiver, compared to a pure class 2 network. This is accomplished by the higher sensitivity and transmission power of Class 1 devices.
Version Data rate Maximum application throughput
Version 1.2 1 Mbit/s 0.7 Mbit/s
Version 2.0 + EDR 3 Mbit/s 2.1 Mbit/s
Version 3.0 + HS Up to 24 Mbit/s See Version 3.0+HS.
Version 4.0 Up to 24 Mbit/s See Version 3.0+HS.


While the Bluetooth Core Specification does mandate minimums for range, the range of the technology is application specific and is not limited. Manufacturers may tune their implementations to the range needed to support individual use cases.

Bluetooth profiles



To use Bluetooth wireless technology, a device has to be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles, which are definitions of possible applications and specify general behaviors that Bluetooth enabled devices use to communicate with other Bluetooth devices. These profiles include settings to parameterize and to control the communication from start. Adherence to profiles saves the time for transmitting the parameters anew before the bi-directional link becomes effective. There are a wide range of Bluetooth profiles that describe many different types of applications or use cases for devices.

List of applications



  • Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone
    Mobile phone
    A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

     and a handsfree
    Handsfree
    Handsfree is an adjective describing equipment that can be used without the use of hands or, in a wider sense, equipment which needs only limited use of hands, or for which the controls are positioned so that the hands are able to occupy themselves with another task without needing to hunt far...

     headset
    Headset (telephone/computer)
    A headset is headphones combined with a microphone, or one headphone with a microphone. Headsets provide the equivalent functionality of a telephone handset with hands-free operation. Headsets typically have only one speaker like a telephone, but also come with speakers for both ears...

    . This was one of the earliest applications to become popular.
  • Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone
    Mobile phone
    A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

     and a Bluetooth compatible car stereo system
  • Wireless Bluetooth headset and Intercom
    Intercom
    An intercom , talkback or doorphone is a stand-alone voice communications system for use within a building or small collection of buildings, functioning independently of the public telephone network. Intercoms are generally mounted permanently in buildings and vehicles...

    .
  • Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required.
  • Wireless communication with PC input and output devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard
    Computer keyboard
    In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches...

     and printer
    Computer printer
    In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable or, in most new printers, a...

    .
  • Transfer of files, contact details, calendar appointments, and reminders between devices with OBEX
    OBEX
    OBEX is a communications protocol that facilitates the exchange of binary objects between devices. It is maintained by the Infrared Data Association but has also been adopted by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group and the SyncML wing of the Open Mobile Alliance...

    .
  • Replacement of previous wired RS-232
    RS-232
    In telecommunications, RS-232 is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE and a DCE . It is commonly used in computer serial ports...

     serial communications in test equipment, GPS receivers
    Global Positioning System
    The Global Positioning System is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites...

    , medical equipment, bar code scanners, and traffic control devices.
  • For controls where infrared
    Infrared
    Infrared light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at 0.74 micrometres , and extending conventionally to 300 µm...

     was often used.
  • For low bandwidth applications where higher USB bandwidth is not required and cable-free connection desired.
  • Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth-enabled advertising hoardings to other, discoverable, Bluetooth devices.
  • Wireless bridge between two Industrial Ethernet (e.g., PROFINET) networks.
  • Three seventh-generation game consoles, Nintendo
    Nintendo
    is a multinational corporation located in Kyoto, Japan. Founded on September 23, 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it produced handmade hanafuda cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as a cab company and a love hotel....

    's Wii
    Wii
    The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii primarily competes with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Nintendo states that its console targets a broader demographic than that of the two others...

     and Sony
    Sony
    , commonly referred to as Sony, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan and the world's fifth largest media conglomerate measured by revenues....

    's PlayStation 3
    PlayStation 3
    The is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment and the successor to the PlayStation 2 as part of the PlayStation series. The PlayStation 3 competes with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles...

     and PSP Go
    PSP Go
    The PSP Go is a version of the PlayStation Portable handheld game console manufactured by Sony. It was released on October 1, 2009 in American and European territories, and on November 1 in Japan. It was revealed prior to E3 2009 through Sony's Qore VOD service...

    , use Bluetooth for their respective wireless controllers.
  • Dial-up internet access on personal computers or PDAs using a data-capable mobile phone as a wireless modem.
  • Short range transmission of health sensor data from medical devices to mobile phone
    Mobile phone
    A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

    , set-top box
    Set-top box
    A set-top box or set-top unit is an information appliance device that generally contains a tuner and connects to a television set and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen or other display device.-History:Before the...

     or dedicated telehealth
    Telehealth
    Telehealth is the delivery of health-related services and information via telecommunications technologies. Telehealth could be as simple as two health professionals discussing a case over the telephone or as sophisticated as doing robotic surgery between facilities at different ends of the...

     devices.
  • Allowing a DECT phone to ring and answer calls on behalf of a nearby cell phone
  • Real-time location systems (RTLS), are used to track and identify the location of objects in real-time using “Nodes” or “tags” attached to, or embedded in the objects tracked, and “Readers” that receive and process the wireless signals from these tags to determine their locations
  • Personal security application on mobile phones for prevention of theft or loss of items. The protected item has a Bluetooth marker (e.g. a tag) that is in constant communication with the phone. If the connection is broken (the marker is out of range of the phone) then an alarm is raised. This can also be used as a man overboard alarm. A product using this technology has been available since 2009.

Bluetooth vs. Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11)


Bluetooth and Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi or Wifi, is a mechanism for wirelessly connecting electronic devices. A device enabled with Wi-Fi, such as a personal computer, video game console, smartphone, or digital audio player, can connect to the Internet via a wireless network access point. An access point has a range of about 20...

 (the brand name for products using IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee . The base version of the standard IEEE 802.11-2007 has had subsequent...

 standards) have some similar applications: setting up networks, printing, or transferring files.
Wi-Fi is intended as a replacement for cabling for general local area network
Local area network
A local area network is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building...

 access in work areas.
This category of applications is sometimes called wireless local area networks (WLAN).
Bluetooth was intended for portable equipment and its applications. The category of applications is outlined as the wireless personal area network
Personal area network
A personal area network is a computer network used for communication among computer devices, including telephones and personal digital assistants, in proximity to an individual's body. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters...

 (WPAN). Bluetooth is a replacement for cabling in a variety of personally carried applications in any setting and can also support fixed location applications such as smart energy functionality in the home (thermostats, etc.).

Wi-Fi is a wireless version of a common wired Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks commercially introduced in 1980. Standardized in IEEE 802.3, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies....

 network, and requires configuration to set up shared resources, transmit files, and to set up audio links (for example, headsets and hands-free devices). Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth, but with higher power, resulting in higher bit rates and better range from the base station. The nearest equivalents in Bluetooth are the DUN profile, which allows devices to act as modem interfaces, and the PAN profile, which allows for ad-hoc networking.

Devices



Bluetooth exists in many products, such as the iPod Touch
IPod Touch
The iPod Touch is a portable media player, personal digital assistant, handheld game console, and Wi-Fi mobile device designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPod Touch adds the multi-touch graphical user interface to the iPod line...

, Lego Mindstorms NXT
Lego Mindstorms NXT
Lego Mindstorms NXT is a programmable robotics kit released by Lego in late July 2006.It replaced the first-generation Lego Mindstorms kit, which was called the Robotics Invention System. The base kit ships in two versions: the Retail Version and the Education Base Set . It comes with the NXT-G...

, PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
The is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment and the successor to the PlayStation 2 as part of the PlayStation series. The PlayStation 3 competes with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles...

, PSP Go
PSP Go
The PSP Go is a version of the PlayStation Portable handheld game console manufactured by Sony. It was released on October 1, 2009 in American and European territories, and on November 1 in Japan. It was revealed prior to E3 2009 through Sony's Qore VOD service...

, telephones, the Nintendo Wii
Wii
The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii primarily competes with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Nintendo states that its console targets a broader demographic than that of the two others...

, and some high definition headsets, modem
Modem
A modem is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data...

s, and watches. The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i.e., with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files).

Bluetooth protocols simplify the discovery and setup of services between devices. Bluetooth devices can advertise all of the services they provide. This makes using services easier because more of the security, network address and permission configuration can be automated than with many other network types.

Computer requirements




A personal computer
Personal computer
A personal computer is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator...

 that does not have embedded Bluetooth can be used with a Bluetooth adapter that will enable the PC to communicate with other Bluetooth devices (such as mobile phone
Mobile phone
A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

s, mice
Mouse (computing)
In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an object held under one of the user's hands, with one or more buttons...

 and keyboards
Computer keyboard
In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches...

). While some desktop computer
Desktop computer
A desktop computer is a personal computer in a form intended for regular use at a single location, as opposed to a mobile laptop or portable computer. Early desktop computers are designed to lay flat on the desk, while modern towers stand upright...

s and most recent laptop
Laptop
A laptop, also called a notebook, is a personal computer for mobile use. A laptop integrates most of the typical components of a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device and speakers into a single unit...

s come with a built-in Bluetooth radio, others will require an external one in the form of a dongle
Dongle
A software protection dongle is a small piece of hardware that plugs into an electrical connector on a computer and serves as an electronic "key" for a piece of software; the program will only run when the dongle is plugged in...

.

Unlike its predecessor, IrDA
Infrared Data Association
The Infrared Data Association defines physical specifications communications protocol standards for the short-range exchange of data over infrared light, for uses such as personal area networks ....

, which requires a separate adapter for each device, Bluetooth allows multiple devices to communicate with a computer over a single adapter.

Operating system support


Apple has supported Bluetooth since Mac OS X v10.2 which was released in 2002.

For Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

 platforms, Windows XP Service Pack 2 and SP3
releases have native support for Bluetooth 1.1, 2.0 and 2.0+EDR.
Previous versions required users to install their Bluetooth adapter's own drivers, which were not directly supported by Microsoft.
Microsoft's own Bluetooth dongles (packaged with their Bluetooth computer devices) have no external drivers and thus require at least Windows XP Service Pack 2. Windows Vista RTM/SP1 with the Feature Pack for Wireless or Windows Vista SP2 support Bluetooth 2.1+EDR. Windows 7 supports Bluetooth 2.1+EDR and Extended Inquiry Response (EIR).

The Windows XP and Windows Vista/Windows 7 Bluetooth stacks support the following Bluetooth profiles natively: PAN, SPP, DUN, HID, HCRP. The Windows XP stack can be replaced by a third party stack which may support more profiles or newer versions of Bluetooth. The Windows Vista/Windows 7 Bluetooth stack supports vendor-supplied additional profiles without requiring the Microsoft stack to be replaced.

Linux
Linux
Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution. The defining component of any Linux system is the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released October 5, 1991 by Linus Torvalds...

 has two popular Bluetooth stack
Bluetooth stack
A Bluetooth stack refers to an implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack.Bluetooth stacks can be roughly divided into two:# General-purpose implementations that are written with emphasis on feature-richness and flexibility, usually for desktop computers...

s, BlueZ and Affix. The BlueZ stack is included with most Linux kernels and was originally developed by Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Qualcomm is an American global telecommunication corporation that designs, manufactures and markets digital wireless telecommunications products and services based on its code division multiple access technology and other technologies. Headquartered in San Diego, CA, USA...

. The Affix stack was developed by Nokia
Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

.
FreeBSD
FreeBSD
FreeBSD is a free Unix-like operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via BSD UNIX. Although for legal reasons FreeBSD cannot be called “UNIX”, as the direct descendant of BSD UNIX , FreeBSD’s internals and system APIs are UNIX-compliant...

 features Bluetooth support since its 5.0 release.
NetBSD
NetBSD
NetBSD is a freely available open source version of the Berkeley Software Distribution Unix operating system. It was the second open source BSD descendant to be formally released, after 386BSD, and continues to be actively developed. The NetBSD project is primarily focused on high quality design,...

 features Bluetooth support since its 4.0 release. Its Bluetooth stack has been ported to OpenBSD
OpenBSD
OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution , a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It was forked from NetBSD by project leader Theo de Raadt in late 1995...

 as well.

Mobile phone requirements


A Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone
Mobile phone
A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

 is able to pair with many devices. To ensure the broadest support of feature functionality together with legacy device support, the Open Mobile Terminal Platform
Open mobile terminal platform
The Open Mobile Terminal Platform was a forum created by mobile network operators to discuss standards with manufacturers of cell phones and other mobile devices. During its lifetime, the OMTP included manufacturers such as Huawei, LG Electronics, Motorola, Nokia, Samsung and Sony...

 (OMTP) forum has published a recommendations paper, entitled "Bluetooth Local Connectivity".

Specifications and features


The Bluetooth specification was developed as a cable replacement in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen
Jaap Haartsen
Jaap Haartsen is a Dutch electrical engineer, researcher, inventor and entrepreneur....

 and Sven Mattisson, who were working for Ericsson
Ericsson
Ericsson , one of Sweden's largest companies, is a provider of telecommunication and data communication systems, and related services, covering a range of technologies, including especially mobile networks...

 in Lund
Lund
-Main sights:During the 12th and 13th centuries, when the town was the seat of the archbishop, many churches and monasteries were built. At its peak, Lund had 27 churches, but most of them were demolished as result of the Reformation in 1536. Several medieval buildings remain, including Lund...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

.
The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver...

 technology.

The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group
Bluetooth Special Interest Group
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is the body that oversees the development of Bluetooth standards and the licensing of the Bluetooth technologies and trademarks to manufacturers. The SIG is a privately held, not-for-profit trade association founded in September 1998. The SIG is headquartered...

 (SIG
Special Interest Group
A Special Interest Group is a community with an interest in advancing a specific area of knowledge, learning or technology where members cooperate to effect or to produce solutions within their particular field, and may communicate, meet, and organize conferences...

). The SIG was formally announced on May 20, 1998. Today it has a membership of over 14,000 companies worldwide. It was established by Ericsson
Ericsson
Ericsson , one of Sweden's largest companies, is a provider of telecommunication and data communication systems, and related services, covering a range of technologies, including especially mobile networks...

, IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

, Intel, Toshiba
Toshiba
is a multinational electronics and electrical equipment corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is a diversified manufacturer and marketer of electrical products, spanning information & communications equipment and systems, Internet-based solutions and services, electronic components and...

 and Nokia
Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

, and later joined by many other companies.

All versions of the Bluetooth standards are designed for downward compatibility. That lets the latest standard cover all older versions.

Bluetooth v1.0 and v1.0B


Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had many problems, and manufacturers had difficulty making their products interoperable. Versions 1.0 and 1.0B also included mandatory Bluetooth hardware device address (BD_ADDR) transmission in the Connecting process (rendering anonymity impossible at the protocol level), which was a major setback for certain services planned for use in Bluetooth environments.

Bluetooth v1.1

  • Ratified as IEEE Standard 802.15.1-2002
  • Many errors found in the 1.0B specifications were fixed.
  • Added support for non-encrypted channels.
  • Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI
    RSSI
    In telecommunications, received signal strength indicator is a measurement of the power present in a received radio signal.RSSI is a generic radio receiver technology metric, which is usually invisible to the user of the device containing the receiver, but is directly known to users of wireless...

    ).

Bluetooth v1.2


This version is backward compatible with 1.1 and the major enhancements include the following:
  • Faster Connection and Discovery
  • Adaptive frequency-hopping spread spectrum
    Frequency-hopping spread spectrum
    Frequency-hopping spread spectrum is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver...

     (AFH), which improves resistance to radio frequency interference by avoiding the use of crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence.
  • Higher transmission speeds in practice, up to 721 kbit/s, than in v1.1.
  • Extended Synchronous Connections (eSCO), which improve voice quality of audio links by allowing retransmissions of corrupted packets, and may optionally increase audio latency to provide better support for concurrent data transfer.
  • Host Controller Interface (HCI) support for three-wire UART
    Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter
    A universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter, abbreviated UART , is a type of "asynchronous receiver/transmitter", a piece of computer hardware that translates data between parallel and serial forms. UARTs are commonly used in conjunction with communication standards such as EIA RS-232, RS-422 or...

    .
  • Ratified as IEEE Standard 802.15.1-2005
  • Introduced Flow Control and Retransmission Modes for L2CAP.

Bluetooth v2.0 + EDR


This version of the Bluetooth Core Specification was released in 2004 and is backward compatible with the previous version 1.2. The main difference is the introduction of an Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for faster data transfer. The nominal rate of EDR is about 3 Mbit/s, although the practical data transfer rate is 2.1 Mbit/s. EDR uses a combination of GFSK and Phase Shift Keying modulation (PSK) with two variants, π/4-DQPSK and 8DPSK. EDR can provide a lower power consumption through a reduced duty cycle
Duty cycle
In engineering, the duty cycle of a machine or system is the time that it spends in an active state as a fraction of the total time under consideration....

.

The specification is published as "Bluetooth v2.0 + EDR" which implies that EDR is an optional feature. Aside from EDR, there are other minor improvements to the 2.0 specification, and products may claim compliance to "Bluetooth v2.0" without supporting the higher data rate. At least one commercial device states "Bluetooth v2.0 without EDR" on its data sheet.

Bluetooth v2.1 + EDR


Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 + EDR is fully backward compatible with 1.2, and was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on July 26, 2007.

The headline feature of 2.1 is secure simple pairing (SSP): this improves the pairing experience for Bluetooth devices, while increasing the use and strength of security. See the section on Pairing below for more details.

2.1 allows various other improvements, including "Extended inquiry response" (EIR), which provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection; and sniff subrating, which reduces the power consumption in low-power mode.

Bluetooth v3.0 + HS


Version 3.0 + HS of the Bluetooth Core Specification was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on April 21, 2009. Bluetooth 3.0+HS supports theoretical data transfer speeds of up to 24 Mbit/s, though not over the Bluetooth link itself. Instead, the Bluetooth link is used for negotiation and establishment, and the high data rate traffic is carried over a colocated 802.11
IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee . The base version of the standard IEEE 802.11-2007 has had subsequent...

 link. Its main new feature is AMP (Alternate MAC/PHY), the addition of 802.11
IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee . The base version of the standard IEEE 802.11-2007 has had subsequent...

 as a high speed transport. Two technologies had been anticipated for AMP: 802.11
IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee . The base version of the standard IEEE 802.11-2007 has had subsequent...

 and UWB
Ultra-wideband
Ultra-wideband is a radio technology that can be used at very low energy levels for short-range high-bandwidth communications by using a large portion of the radio spectrum. UWB has traditional applications in non-cooperative radar imaging...

, but UWB is missing from the specification.

The High-Speed part of the specification is not mandatory, and hence only devices sporting the "+HS" will actually support the Bluetooth over 802.11 high-speed data transfer. A Bluetooth 3.0 device without the "+HS" suffix will not support High Speed, and needs to only support a feature introduced in Bluetooth 3.0+HS (or in CSA1).

Alternate MAC/PHY: Enables the use of alternative MAC
Media Access Control
The media access control data communication protocol sub-layer, also known as the medium access control, is a sublayer of the data link layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model , and in the four-layer TCP/IP model...

 and PHY
PHY
PHY is an abbreviation for the physical layer of the OSI model.An instantiation of PHY connects a link layer device to a physical medium such as an optical fiber or copper cable. A PHY device typically includes a Physical Coding Sublayer and a Physical Medium Dependent layer. The PCS encodes and...

s for transporting Bluetooth profile data. The Bluetooth radio is still used for device discovery, initial connection and profile configuration, however when large quantities of data need to be sent, the high speed alternate MAC PHY 802.11 (typically associated with Wi-Fi) will be used to transport the data. This means that the proven low power connection models of Bluetooth are used when the system is idle, and the faster radio is used when large quantities of data need to be sent.
Unicast connectionless data: Permits service data to be sent without establishing an explicit L2CAP channel. It is intended for use by applications that require low latency between user action and reconnection/transmission of data. This is only appropriate for small amounts of data.
Enhanced Power Control: Updates the power control feature to remove the open loop power control, and also to clarify ambiguities in power control introduced by the new modulation schemes added for EDR. Enhanced power control removes the ambiguities by specifying the behaviour that is expected. The feature also adds closed loop power control, meaning RSSI filtering can start as the response is received. Additionally, a "go straight to maximum power" request has been introduced. This is expected to deal with the headset link loss issue typically observed when a user puts their phone into a pocket on the opposite side to the headset.

The high speed (AMP) feature of Bluetooth v3.0 is based on 802.11
Wireless LAN
A wireless local area network links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method , and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network...

, but the AMP mechanism was designed to be usable with other radios as well. It was originally intended for UWB
Ultra-wideband
Ultra-wideband is a radio technology that can be used at very low energy levels for short-range high-bandwidth communications by using a large portion of the radio spectrum. UWB has traditional applications in non-cooperative radar imaging...

, but the WiMedia Alliance, the body responsible for the flavor of UWB intended for Bluetooth, announced in March 2009 that it was disbanding.

On March 16, 2009, the WiMedia Alliance
WiMedia Alliance
The WiMedia Alliance is a non-profit open industry association that promotes and enables the rapid adoption, regulation, standardization and multi-vendor interoperability of ultra-wideband worldwide....

 announced it was entering into technology transfer agreements for the WiMedia Ultra-wideband
Ultra-wideband
Ultra-wideband is a radio technology that can be used at very low energy levels for short-range high-bandwidth communications by using a large portion of the radio spectrum. UWB has traditional applications in non-cooperative radar imaging...

 (UWB) specifications. WiMedia has transferred all current and future specifications, including work on future high speed and power optimized implementations, to the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), Wireless USB
Wireless USB
Wireless USB is a short-range, high-bandwidth wireless radio communication protocol created by the . Wireless USB is sometimes abbreviated as "WUSB", although the USB Implementers Forum discourages this practice and instead prefers to call the technology "Certified Wireless USB" to distinguish it...

 Promoter Group and the USB Implementers Forum
USB Implementers Forum
The USB Implementers Forum is a non-profit organisation to promote and support the Universal Serial Bus. Its main activities are the promotion and marketing of USB, Wireless USB, USB On-The-Go, and the maintenance of the specifications, as well as a compliance program.It was formed in 1995 by the...

. After the successful completion of the technology transfer, marketing and related administrative items, the WiMedia Alliance will cease operations.

In October 2009 the Bluetooth Special Interest Group suspended development of UWB as part of the alternative MAC/PHY, Bluetooth v3.0 + HS solution. A small, but significant, number of former WiMedia
WiMedia Alliance
The WiMedia Alliance is a non-profit open industry association that promotes and enables the rapid adoption, regulation, standardization and multi-vendor interoperability of ultra-wideband worldwide....

 members had not and would not sign up to the necessary agreements for the IP
Intellectual property
Intellectual property is a term referring to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law...

 transfer. The Bluetooth SIG is now in the process of evaluating other options for its longer term roadmap.

Bluetooth v4.0


The Bluetooth SIG completed the Bluetooth Core Specification version 4.0, which includes Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth high speed and Bluetooth low energy
Bluetooth low energy
Bluetooth low energy is a feature of Bluetooth 4.0 wireless radio technology, aimed at new, principally low-power and low-latency, applications for wireless devices within a short range...

 protocols. Bluetooth high speed is based on Wi-Fi, and Classic Bluetooth consists of legacy Bluetooth protocols. This version has been adopted as of June 30, 2010.

Bluetooth low energy
Bluetooth low energy
Bluetooth low energy is a feature of Bluetooth 4.0 wireless radio technology, aimed at new, principally low-power and low-latency, applications for wireless devices within a short range...

 is a subset to Bluetooth V4.0 with an entirely new protocol stack for rapid build-up of simple links. As an alternative to the Bluetooth standard protocols that were introduced in Bluetooth v1.0 to V4.0 it is aimed at very low power applications running off a coin cell. Chip designs allow for two types of implementation, dual-mode, single-mode and enhanced past versions.
  • In a single mode implementation the low energy protocol stack is implemented solely. CSR
    CSR plc
    CSR , or Cambridge Silicon Radio, is a company based in Cambridge, England. CSR is a fabless semiconductor company whose main product lines include connectivity, audio and location chips. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index...

    , Nordic Semiconductor
    Nordic Semiconductor
    Nordic Semiconductor is a fabless semiconductor company, developing and manufacturing integrated circuits. The company specializes in wireless communication, mixed signal as well as complex digital and analogue integrated circuit design. High speed wireless communication in the 2.4 GHz ISM band,...

     and Texas Instruments
    Texas Instruments
    Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

     have released single mode Bluetooth low energy solutions.
  • In a dual-mode implementation, Bluetooth low energy functionality is integrated into an existing Classic Bluetooth controller. Currently (2011-03) the following semiconductor companies have announced the availability of chips meeting the standard: Atheros
    Atheros
    Qualcomm Atheros is a developer of semiconductors for network communications, particularly wireless chipsets. Founded under the name Atheros in 1998 by experts in signal processing from Stanford University, the University of California, Berkeley and the private industry, it became a public company...

    , CSR
    CSR plc
    CSR , or Cambridge Silicon Radio, is a company based in Cambridge, England. CSR is a fabless semiconductor company whose main product lines include connectivity, audio and location chips. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index...

    , Broadcom
    Broadcom
    Broadcom Corporation is a fabless semiconductor company in the wireless and broadband communication business. The company is headquartered in Irvine, California, USA. Broadcom was founded by a professor-student pair Henry Samueli and Henry T. Nicholas III from the University of California, Los...

     and Texas Instruments
    Texas Instruments
    Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

    . The compliant architecture shares all of Classic Bluetooth’s existing radio and functionality resulting in a negligible cost increase compared to Classic Bluetooth.


On June 12, 2007, Nokia and Bluetooth SIG had announced that Wibree will be a part of the Bluetooth specification, as an ultra-low power Bluetooth technology.

On December 17, 2009, the Bluetooth SIG adopted Bluetooth low energy technology as the hallmark feature of the version 4.0. The provisional names Wibree and Bluetooth ULP (Ultra Low Power) were abandoned and the BLE name was used for a while. In late 2011, new logos “Bluetooth Smart Ready” for hosts and “Bluetooth Smart” for sensors were introduced as the general-public face of BLE .

Cost-reduced single-mode chips, which enable highly integrated and compact devices, feature a lightweight Link Layer providing ultra-low power idle mode operation, simple device discovery, and reliable point-to-multipoint data transfer with advanced power-save and secure encrypted connections at the lowest possible cost.

Bluetooth protocol stack


"Bluetooth is defined as a layer protocol architecture consisting of core protocols, cable replacement protocols, telephony control protocols, and adopted protocols." Mandatory protocols for all Bluetooth stacks are: LMP, L2CAP and SDP. Additionally, these protocols are almost universally supported: HCI and RFCOMM.

LMP


The Link Management Protocol (LMP) is used for control of the radio link between two devices. Implemented on the controller.

L2CAP


The Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Used to multiplex multiple logical connections between two devices using different higher level protocols.
Provides segmentation and reassembly of on-air packets.

In Basic mode, L2CAP provides packets with a payload configurable up to 64kB, with 672 bytes as the default MTU
Maximum transmission unit
In computer networking, the maximum transmission unit of a communications protocol of a layer is the size of the largest protocol data unit that the layer can pass onwards. MTU parameters usually appear in association with a communications interface...

, and 48 bytes as the minimum mandatory supported MTU.

In Retransmission and Flow Control modes, L2CAP can be configured for reliable or isochronous data per channel by performing retransmissions and CRC checks.

Bluetooth Core Specification Addendum 1 adds two additional L2CAP modes to the core specification. These modes effectively deprecate original Retransmission and Flow Control modes:
  • Enhanced Retransmission Mode (ERTM): This mode is an improved version of the original retransmission mode. This mode provides a reliable L2CAP channel.
  • Streaming Mode (SM): This is a very simple mode, with no retransmission or flow control. This mode provides an unreliable L2CAP channel.


Reliability in any of these modes is optionally and/or additionally guaranteed by the lower layer Bluetooth BDR/EDR air interface by configuring the number of retransmissions and flush timeout (time after which the radio will flush packets). In-order sequencing is guaranteed by the lower layer.

Only L2CAP channels configured in ERTM or SM may be operated over AMP logical links.

SDP


The Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) allows a device to discover services supported by other devices, and their associated parameters. For example, when connecting a mobile phone to a Bluetooth headset, SDP will be used for determining which Bluetooth profile
Bluetooth profile
A Bluetooth profile is a wireless interface specification for Bluetooth-based communication between devices.In order to use Bluetooth technology, a device must be compatible with the subset of Bluetooth profiles necessary to use the desired services. A Bluetooth profile resides on top of the...

s are supported by the headset (Headset Profile, Hands Free Profile, Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP) etc.) and the protocol multiplexer settings needed to connect to each of them. Each service is identified by a Universally Unique Identifier
Universally Unique Identifier
A universally unique identifier is an identifier standard used in software construction, standardized by the Open Software Foundation as part of the Distributed Computing Environment ....

 (UUID), with official services (Bluetooth profiles) assigned a short form UUID (16 bits rather than the full 128)/vichitra

RFCOMM


Radio Frequency Communications (RFCOMM) is a cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual serial data stream. RFCOMM provides for binary data transport and emulates EIA-232 (formerly RS-232) control signals over the Bluetooth baseband layer, i.e. it is a serial port emulation.

RFCOMM provides a simple reliable data stream to the user, similar to TCP. It is used directly by many telephony related profiles as a carrier for AT commands, as well as being a transport layer for OBEX over Bluetooth.

Many Bluetooth applications use RFCOMM because of its widespread support and publicly available API on most operating systems. Additionally, applications that used a serial port to communicate can be quickly ported to use RFCOMM.

BNEP


The Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol (BNEP) is used for transferring another protocol stack's data via an L2CAP channel.
Its main purpose is the transmission of IP packets in the Personal Area Networking Profile.
BNEP performs a similar function to SNAP
Subnetwork Access Protocol
The Subnetwork Access Protocol is a mechanism for multiplexing, on networks using IEEE 802.2 LLC, more protocols than can be distinguished by the 8-bit 802.2 Service Access Point fields. SNAP supports identifying protocols by Ethernet type field values; it also supports vendor-private protocol...

 in Wireless LAN.

AVCTP


The Audio/Video Control Transport Protocol (AVCTP) is used by the remote control profile to transfer AV/C commands over an L2CAP channel. The music control buttons on a stereo headset use this protocol to control the music player.

AVDTP


The Audio/Video Distribution Transport Protocol (AVDTP) is used by the advanced audio distribution profile to stream music to stereo headsets over an L2CAP channel.
Intended to be used by video distribution profile in the bluetooth transmission.

TCS


The Telephony Control Protocol – Binary (TCS BIN) is the bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of voice and data calls between Bluetooth devices. Additionally, "TCS BIN defines mobility management procedures for handling groups of Bluetooth TCS devices."

TCS-BIN is only used by the cordless telephony profile, which failed to attract implementers. As such it is only of historical interest.

Adopted protocols


Adopted protocols are defined by other standards-making organizations and incorporated into Bluetooth’s protocol stack, allowing Bluetooth to create protocols only when necessary. The adopted protocols include:
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): Internet standard protocol for transporting IP datagrams over a point-to-point link.
TCP/IP/UDP: Foundation Protocols for TCP/IP protocol suite
Object Exchange Protocol (OBEX): Session-layer protocol for the exchange of objects, providing a model for object and operation representation
Wireless Application Environment/Wireless Application Protocol (WAE/WAP): WAE specifies an application framework for wireless devices and WAP is an open standard to provide mobile users access to telephony and information services.

Baseband error correction


Depending on packet type, individual packets may be protected by error correction, either 1/3 rate forward error correction
Forward error correction
In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction or channel coding is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels....

 (FEC) or 2/3 rate. In addition, packets with CRC will be retransmitted until acknowledged by automatic repeat request (ARQ).

Setting up connections


Any Bluetooth device in discoverable mode will transmit the following information on demand:
  • Device name
  • Device class
  • List of services
  • Technical information (for example: device features, manufacturer, Bluetooth specification used, clock offset)


Any device may perform an inquiry to find other devices to connect to, and any device can be configured to respond to such inquiries. However, if the device trying to connect knows the address of the device, it always responds to direct connection requests and transmits the information shown in the list above if requested. Use of a device's services may require pairing or acceptance by its owner, but the connection itself can be initiated by any device and held until it goes out of range. Some devices can be connected to only one device at a time, and connecting to them prevents them from connecting to other devices and appearing in inquiries until they disconnect from the other device.

Every device has a unique 48-bit address. However, these addresses are generally not shown in inquiries. Instead, friendly Bluetooth names are used, which can be set by the user. This name appears when another user scans for devices and in lists of paired devices.

Most phones have the Bluetooth name set to the manufacturer and model of the phone by default. Most phones and laptops show only the Bluetooth names and special programs are required to get additional information about remote devices. This can be confusing as, for example, there could be several phones in range named T610
Sony Ericsson T610
The Sony Ericsson T610, released in 2003, is a mobile phone manufactured by Sony Ericsson. It was one of the first widely available mobile phones to include a built-in digital camera, Bluetooth, color screen, joystick navigation, and was a very high selling model.The T610 is available in three...

 (see Bluejacking
Bluejacking
Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, sending a vCard which typically contains a message in the name field to another bluetooth enabled device via the OBEX protocol.Bluetooth has a very...

).

Motivation


Many of the services offered over Bluetooth can expose private data or allow the connecting party to control the Bluetooth device. For security reasons it is necessary to be able to recognize specific devices and thus enable control over which devices are allowed to connect to a given Bluetooth device. At the same time, it is useful for Bluetooth devices to be able to establish a connection without user intervention (for example, as soon as they are in range).

To resolve this conflict, Bluetooth uses a process called bonding, and a bond is created through a process called pairing. The pairing process is triggered either by a specific request from a user to create a bond (for example, the user explicitly requests to "Add a Bluetooth device"), or it is triggered automatically when connecting to a service where (for the first time) the identity of a device is required for security purposes. These two cases are referred to as dedicated bonding and general bonding respectively.

Pairing often involves some level of user interaction, this user interaction is the basis for confirming the identity of the devices. Once pairing successfully completes, a bond will have been formed between the two devices, enabling those two devices to connect to each other in the future without requiring the pairing process in order to confirm the identity of the devices. When desired, the bonding relationship can later be removed by the user.

Implementation


During the pairing process, the two devices involved establish a relationship by creating a shared secret
Shared secret
In cryptography, a shared secret is a piece of data, known only to the parties involved, in a secure communication. The shared secret can be a password, a passphrase, a big number or an array of randomly chosen bytes....

 known as a link key. If a link key is stored by both devices they are said to be paired or bonded. A device that wants to communicate only with a bonded device can cryptographically
Cryptography
Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties...

 authenticate
Authentication
Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity...

 the identity of the other device, and so be sure that it is the same device it previously paired with. Once a link key has been generated, an authenticated ACL link between the devices may be encrypted
Encryption
In cryptography, encryption is the process of transforming information using an algorithm to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. The result of the process is encrypted information...

 so that the data that they exchange over the airwaves is protected against eavesdropping
Eavesdropping
Eavesdropping is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent, as defined by Black's Law Dictionary...

.

Link keys can be deleted at any time by either device. If done by either device this will implicitly remove the bonding between the devices; so it is possible for one of the devices to have a link key stored but not be aware that it is no longer bonded to the device associated with the given link key.

Bluetooth services generally require either encryption or authentication, and as such require pairing before they allow a remote device to use the given service. Some services, such as the Object Push Profile, elect not to explicitly require authentication or encryption so that pairing does not interfere with the user experience associated with the service use-cases.

Pairing mechanisms


Pairing mechanisms have changed significantly with the introduction of Secure Simple Pairing in Bluetooth v2.1. The following summarizes the pairing mechanisms:
  • Legacy pairing: This is the only method available in Bluetooth v2.0 and before. Each device must enter a PIN code
    Personal identification number
    A personal identification number is a secret numeric password shared between a user and a system that can be used to authenticate the user to the system. Typically, the user is required to provide a non-confidential user identifier or token and a confidential PIN to gain access to the system...

    ; pairing is only successful if both devices enter the same PIN code. Any 16-byte UTF-8 string may be used as a PIN code, however not all devices may be capable of entering all possible PIN codes.
    • Limited input devices: The obvious example of this class of device is a Bluetooth Hands-free headset, which generally have few inputs. These devices usually have a fixed PIN, for example "0000" or "1234", that are hard-coded into the device.
    • Numeric input devices: Mobile phones are classic examples of these devices. They allow a user to enter a numeric value up to 16 digits in length.
    • Alpha-numeric input devices: PCs and smartphones are examples of these devices. They allow a user to enter full UTF-8 text as a PIN code. If pairing with a less capable device the user needs to be aware of the input limitations on the other device, there is no mechanism available for a capable device to determine how it should limit the available input a user may use.
  • Secure Simple Pairing (SSP): This is required by Bluetooth v2.1. A Bluetooth v2.1 device may only use legacy pairing to interoperate with a v2.0 or earlier device. Secure Simple Pairing uses a form of public key cryptography, and has the following modes of operation:
    • Just works: As implied by the name, this method just works. No user interaction is required; however, a device may prompt the user to confirm the pairing process. This method is typically used by headsets with very limited IO capabilities, and is more secure than the fixed PIN mechanism which is typically used for legacy pairing by this set of limited devices. This method provides no man in the middle
      Man-in-the-middle attack
      In cryptography, the man-in-the-middle attack , bucket-brigade attack, or sometimes Janus attack, is a form of active eavesdropping in which the attacker makes independent connections with the victims and relays messages between them, making them believe that they are talking directly to each other...

       (MITM) protection.
    • Numeric comparison: If both devices have a display and at least one can accept a binary Yes/No user input, they may use Numeric Comparison. This method displays a 6-digit numeric code on each device. The user should compare the numbers to ensure they are identical. If the comparison succeeds, the user(s) should confirm pairing on the device(s) that can accept an input. This method provides MITM protection, assuming the user confirms on both devices and actually performs the comparison properly.
    • Passkey Entry: This method may be used between a device with a display and a device with numeric keypad entry (such as a keyboard), or two devices with numeric keypad entry. In the first case, the display is used to show a 6-digit numeric code to the user, who then enters the code on the keypad. In the second case, the user of each device enters the same 6-digit number. Both cases provide MITM protection.
    • Out of band (OOB): This method uses an external means of communication, such as Near Field Communication
      Near Field Communication
      Near field communication, or NFC, allows for simplified transactions, data exchange, and wireless connections between two devices in proximity to each other, usually by no more than a few centimeters. It is expected to become a widely used system for making payments by smartphone in the United States...

       (NFC) to exchange some information used in the pairing process. Pairing is completed using the Bluetooth radio, but requires information from the OOB mechanism. This provides only the level of MITM protection that is present in the OOB mechanism.


SSP is considered simple for the following reasons:
  • In most cases, it does not require a user to generate a passkey.
  • For use-cases not requiring MITM protection, user interaction has been eliminated.
  • For numeric comparison, MITM protection can be achieved with a simple equality comparison by the user.
  • Using OOB with NFC will enable pairing when devices simply get close, rather than requiring a lengthy discovery process.

Security Concerns


Prior to Bluetooth v2.1, encryption is not required and can be turned off at any time. Moreover, the encryption key is only good for approximately 23.5 hours; using a single encryption key longer than this time allows simple XOR attacks
Stream cipher attack
Stream ciphers, where plaintext bits are combined with a cipher bit stream by an exclusive-or operation , can be very secure if used properly. However they are vulnerable to attack if certain precautions are not followed:*keys must never be used twice...

 to retrieve the encryption key.
  • Turning off encryption is required for several normal operations, so it is problematic to detect if encryption is disabled for a valid reason or for a security attack.
  • Bluetooth v2.1 addresses this in the following ways:
    • Encryption is required for all non-SDP (Service Discovery Protocol) connections
    • A new Encryption Pause and Resume feature is used for all normal operations requiring encryption to be disabled. This enables easy identification of normal operation from security attacks.
    • The encryption key is required to be refreshed before it expires.

Link keys may be stored on the device file system, not on the Bluetooth chip itself. Many Bluetooth chip manufacturers allow link keys to be stored on the device; however, if the device is removable this means that the link key will move with the device.

Air interface


The protocol operates in the license-free ISM band
ISM band
The industrial, scientific and medical radio bands are radio bands reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than communications....

 at 2.402-2.480 GHz
GHZ
GHZ or GHz may refer to:# Gigahertz .# Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state — a quantum entanglement of three particles.# Galactic Habitable Zone — the region of a galaxy that is favorable to the formation of life....

.
To avoid interfering with other protocols that use the 2.45 GHz band, the Bluetooth protocol divides the band into 87 channels (each 1 MHz wide) and changes channels up to 1600 times per second. Implementations with versions 1.1 and 1.2 reach speeds of 723.1 kbit/s. Version 2.0 implementations feature Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) and reach 2.1 Mbit/s. Technically, version 2.0 devices have a higher power consumption, but the three times faster rate reduces the transmission times, effectively reducing power consumption to half that of 1.x devices (assuming equal traffic load).

Overview


Bluetooth implements confidentiality
Confidentiality
Confidentiality is an ethical principle associated with several professions . In ethics, and in law and alternative forms of legal resolution such as mediation, some types of communication between a person and one of these professionals are "privileged" and may not be discussed or divulged to...

, authentication
Authentication
Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity...

 and key
Key (cryptography)
In cryptography, a key is a piece of information that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm or cipher. Without a key, the algorithm would produce no useful result. In encryption, a key specifies the particular transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, or vice versa...

 derivation with custom algorithms based on the SAFER+
SAFER
In cryptography, SAFER is the name of a family of block ciphers designed primarily by James Massey on behalf of Cylink Corporation. The early SAFER K and SAFER SK designs share the same encryption function, but differ in the number of rounds and the key schedule...

 block cipher
Block cipher
In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation. A block cipher encryption algorithm might take a 128-bit block of plaintext as input, and output a corresponding 128-bit block of ciphertext...

.
Bluetooth key generation is generally based on a Bluetooth PIN, which must be entered into both devices. This procedure might be modified if one of the devices has a fixed PIN (e.g., for headsets or similar devices with a restricted user interface).
During pairing, an initialization key or master key is generated, using the E22 algorithm.
The E0
E0 (cipher)
E0 is a stream cipher used in the Bluetooth protocol. It generates a sequence of pseudorandom numbers and combines it with the data using the XOR operator. The key length may vary, but is generally 128 bits.-Description:...

 stream cipher is used for encrypting packets, granting confidentiality and is based on a shared cryptographic secret, namely a previously generated link key or master key.
Those keys, used for subsequent encryption of data sent via the air interface, rely on the Bluetooth PIN, which has been entered into one or both devices.

An overview of Bluetooth vulnerabilities exploits was published in 2007 by Andreas Becker.

In September 2008, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published a Guide to Bluetooth Security that will serve as reference to organizations on the security capabilities of Bluetooth and steps for securing Bluetooth technologies effectively. While Bluetooth has its benefits, it is susceptible to denial of service attacks, eavesdropping, man-in-the-middle attacks, message modification, and resource misappropriation. Users/organizations must evaluate their acceptable level of risk and incorporate security into the lifecycle of Bluetooth devices. To help mitigate risks, included in the NIST document are security checklists with guidelines and recommendations for creating and maintaining secure Bluetooth piconets, headsets, and smart card readers.

Bluetooth v2.1 - finalized in 2007 with consumer devices first appearing in 2009 - makes significant changes to Bluetooth's security, including pairing. See the #Pairing mechanisms section for more about these changes.

Bluejacking



Bluejacking is the sending of either a picture or a message from one user to an unsuspecting user through Bluetooth wireless technology. Common applications include short messages (e.g., "You’ve just been bluejacked!").
Bluejacking does not involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device. Bluejacking can also involve taking control of a mobile wirelessly and phoning a premium rate line, owned by the bluejacker.

2001 - 2004


In 2001, Jakobsson and Wetzel from Bell Laboratories discovered flaws in the Bluetooth pairing protocol and also pointed to vulnerabilities in the encryption scheme. In 2003, Ben and Adam Laurie from A.L. Digital Ltd. discovered that serious flaws in some poor implementations of Bluetooth security may lead to disclosure of personal data. In a subsequent experiment, Martin Herfurt from the trifinite.group was able to do a field-trial at the CeBIT
CeBIT
CeBIT is the world's largest and most international computer expo. CeBIT is held each year on the world's largest fairground in Hanover, Germany, and is a barometer of the state of the art in information technology...

 fairgrounds, showing the importance of the problem to the world. A new attack called BlueBug
Bluebugging
Bluebugging is a form of bluetooth attack often caused by a lack of awareness. It was developed after the onset of bluejacking and bluesnarfing. Similar to bluesnarfing, Bluebugging accesses and uses all phone features but is limited by the transmitting power of class 2 Bluetooth radios, normally...

 was used for this experiment. In 2004 the first purported virus
Computer virus
A computer virus is a computer program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability...

 using Bluetooth to spread itself among mobile phones appeared on the Symbian OS.
The virus was first described by Kaspersky Lab
Kaspersky Lab
Kaspersky Lab is a Russian computer security company, co-founded by Natalia Kaspersky and Eugene Kaspersky in 1997, offering anti-virus, anti-spyware, anti-spam, and anti-intrusion products...

 and requires users to confirm the installation of unknown software before it can propagate. The virus was written as a proof-of-concept by a group of virus writers known as "29A" and sent to anti-virus groups. Thus, it should be regarded as a potential (but not real) security threat to Bluetooth technology or Symbian OS since the virus has never spread outside of this system. In August 2004, a world-record-setting experiment (see also Bluetooth sniping) showed that the range of Class 2 Bluetooth radios could be extended to 1.78 km (1.1 mi) with directional antennas and signal amplifiers.
This poses a potential security threat because it enables attackers to access vulnerable Bluetooth devices from a distance beyond expectation. The attacker must also be able to receive information from the victim to set up a connection. No attack can be made against a Bluetooth device unless the attacker knows its Bluetooth address and which channels to transmit on.

2005


In January 2005, a mobile malware
Malware
Malware, short for malicious software, consists of programming that is designed to disrupt or deny operation, gather information that leads to loss of privacy or exploitation, or gain unauthorized access to system resources, or that otherwise exhibits abusive behavior...

 worm known as Lasco.A began targeting mobile phones using Symbian OS (Series 60 platform) using Bluetooth enabled devices to replicate itself and spread to other devices. The worm is self-installing and begins once the mobile user approves the transfer of the file (velasco.sis) from another device. Once installed, the worm begins looking for other Bluetooth enabled devices to infect. Additionally, the worm infects other .SIS files on the device, allowing replication to another device through use of removable media (Secure Digital
Secure Digital
Secure Digital is a non-volatile memory card format developed by the SD Card Association for use in portable devices. The SD technology is used by more than 400 brands across dozens of product categories and more than 8,000 models, and is considered the de-facto industry standard.Secure Digital...

, Compact Flash, etc.). The worm can render
Render
Render or rendering may refer to:In Computing:* Artistic rendering, creating, shading and texturing of an image* Architectural rendering, creating two-dimensional images or animations showing the attributes of a proposed architectural design...

 the mobile device unstable.

In April 2005, Cambridge University
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in both the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world , and the seventh-oldest globally...

 security researchers published results of their actual implementation of passive attacks against the PIN-based
PIN
PIN may be an abbreviation for:* Personal identification number, a password used to access an automated teller machine or other secured system** Blackberry PIN, an eight character hexadecimal identification number assigned to a BlackBerry device...

 pairing between commercial Bluetooth devices, confirming the attacks to be practicably fast and the Bluetooth symmetric key establishment method to be vulnerable. To rectify this vulnerability, they carried out an implementation which showed that stronger, asymmetric key establishment is feasible for certain classes of devices, such as mobile phones.

In June 2005, Yaniv Shaked and Avishai Wool published a paper describing both passive and active methods for obtaining the PIN for a Bluetooth link. The passive attack allows a suitably equipped attacker to eavesdrop on communications and spoof, if the attacker was present at the time of initial pairing. The active method makes use of a specially constructed message that must be inserted at a specific point in the protocol, to make the master and slave repeat the pairing process. After that, the first method can be used to crack the PIN. This attack's major weakness is that it requires the user of the devices under attack to re-enter the PIN during the attack when the device prompts them to. Also, this active attack probably requires custom hardware, since most commercially available Bluetooth devices are not capable of the timing necessary.

In August 2005, police in Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west...

, England, issued warnings about thieves using Bluetooth enabled phones to track other devices left in cars. Police are advising users to ensure that any mobile networking connections are de-activated if laptops and other devices are left in this way.

2006


In April 2006, researchers from Secure Network
Secure Network
Secure Network is a small research and consulting company focusing on Information Security based near Milano, Italy. Besides having notability in Italy, it received international exposure with a research project on Bluetooth security codenamed , which has been also selected for the Black Hat...

 and F-Secure
F-Secure
F-Secure Corporation is an anti-virus and computer security software company based in Helsinki, Finland. The company has 18 country offices and a presence in more than 100 countries, with Security Lab operations in Helsinki, Finland and in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...

 published a report that warns of the large number of devices left in a visible state, and issued statistics on the spread of various Bluetooth services and the ease of spread of an eventual Bluetooth worm.

2007


In October 2007, at the Luxemburgish Hack.lu Security Conference, Kevin Finistere and Thierry Zoller demonstrated and released a remote root shell via Bluetooth on Mac OS X v10.3.9 and v10.4. They also demonstrated the first Bluetooth PIN and Linkkeys cracker, which is based on the research of Wool and Shaked.

Health concerns


Bluetooth uses the microwave
Microwave
Microwaves, a subset of radio waves, have wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. This broad definition includes both UHF and EHF , and various sources use different boundaries...

 radio frequency
Radio frequency
Radio frequency is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio signals...

 spectrum in the 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz range.
Maximum power output from a Bluetooth radio is 100 mW, 2.5 mW, and 1 mW for Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 devices respectively, which puts Class 1 at roughly the same level as mobile phones, and the other two classes much lower.
Accordingly, Class 2 and Class 3 Bluetooth devices are considered less of a potential hazard than mobile phones, and Class 1 may be comparable to that of mobile phones : the maximum for a Class 1 is 100 mW for Bluetooth but 250 mW for UMTS W-CDMA
W-CDMA
W-CDMA , UMTS-FDD, UTRA-FDD, or IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread is an air interface standard found in 3G mobile telecommunications networks. It is the basis of Japan's NTT DoCoMo's FOMA service and the most-commonly used member of the UMTS family and sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS...

, 1 W for GSM1800/1900 and 2 W for GSM850/900 for instance.

Bluetooth Innovation World Cup marketing initiative


The Bluetooth Innovation World Cup is an international competition encouraging the development of new innovations and ideas for applications leveraging the Bluetooth low energy wireless technology in sports, fitness and health care products.The Bluetooth Innovation World Cup is a marketing initiative of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG).

The aim of the competition is to stimulate new markets. Creating new fields of applications and establishing Bluetooth low energy technology as the wireless data transfer standard for low energy applications is ordinary business in the competition of wireless
Wireless
Wireless telecommunications is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not physically connected. Distances can be short, such as a few meters for television remote control, or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications...

 standards. The initiative will go on for three years, having started June 1, 2009.

Bluetooth Innovation World Cup 2009

The first international Bluetooth Innovation World Cup 2009 drew more than 250 international entries illustrating the abundance of opportunities for product development with the new Bluetooth low energy wireless technology.

The Bluetooth Innovation World Cup 2009 was Nokia
Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

, Freescale Semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. is a producer and designer of embedded hardware, with 17 billion semiconductor chips in use around the world. The company focuses on the automotive, consumer, industrial and networking markets with its product portfolio including microprocessors, microcontrollers,...

, Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

, Nordic Semiconductor
Nordic Semiconductor
Nordic Semiconductor is a fabless semiconductor company, developing and manufacturing integrated circuits. The company specializes in wireless communication, mixed signal as well as complex digital and analogue integrated circuit design. High speed wireless communication in the 2.4 GHz ISM band,...

, STMicroelectronics
STMicroelectronics
STMicroelectronics is an Italian-French electronics and semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.While STMicroelectronics corporate headquarters and the headquarters for EMEA region are based in Geneva, the holding company, STMicroelectronics N.V. is registered in Amsterdam,...

 and Brunel.

Bluetooth Innovator of the Year 2009

On February 8, 2010, the Bluetooth SIG has awarded Edward Sazonov, Physical Activity Innovations LLC, the title of Bluetooth Innovator of the Year for 2009. Sazonov received this recognition at the official award ceremony held in-line with the Wearable Technologies Show at ispo 2010, the world’s largest trade show for sporting goods. The award includes a cash prize of €5,000 and a Bluetooth Qualification Program voucher (QDID) valued at up to US$ 10,000.
Sazonov’s winning idea, The Fit Companion, is a small, unobtrusive sensor that when clipped-on to a user’s clothing or integrated in to a shoe, provides feedback about their physical activity. The data, transmitted via Bluetooth low energy technology, can help individuals to lose weight and achieve optimal physical activity. Intended for use in both training and daily activities like walking or performing chores, this simple, measuring device may offer a solution for reducing obesity.

Bluetooth Innovation
Innovation
Innovation is the creation of better or more effective products, processes, technologies, or ideas that are accepted by markets, governments, and society...

 World Cup 2010

The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) announced the start of the second Bluetooth Innovation World Cup (IWC) on 1 June 2010. The 2010 Bluetooth Innovation World Cup has a focus on applications for the sports & fitness, health care and home information and control markets. The competition will close for registrations on September 15, 2010.

See also


  • Bluesniping
    Bluesniping
    Bluesniping has emerged as a specific form of Bluesnarfing, or for simply identifying Bluetooth-enabled devices, at longer ranges than normally possible...

  • BlueSoleil
    Bluesoleil
    BlueSoleil is a Bluetooth software/driver for Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Linux, WinCE and Windows Mobile. It supports Bluetooth chipsets from CSR, Broadcom, Marvell etc...

     - Proprietary driver
  • Continua Health Alliance
  • DASH7
    DASH7
    DASH7 is an open source wireless sensor networking standard for wireless sensor networking, which operates in the 433 MHz unlicensed ISM band. DASH7 provides multi-year battery life, range of up to 2 km, low latency for connecting with moving things, a very small open source protocol...

  • Java APIs for Bluetooth
    Java APIs for Bluetooth
    The Java APIs for Bluetooth is a Java ME specification for APIs that allow Java midlets to use Bluetooth on supporting devices. The specification was developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 82...

  • Near Field Communication
    Near Field Communication
    Near field communication, or NFC, allows for simplified transactions, data exchange, and wireless connections between two devices in proximity to each other, usually by no more than a few centimeters. It is expected to become a widely used system for making payments by smartphone in the United States...

  • Tethering
  • ZigBee
    ZigBee
    ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks. Applications include wireless light switches, electrical meters with in-home-displays, and other consumer and industrial...

     - low power lightweight wireless protocol in the ISM band
    ISM band
    The industrial, scientific and medical radio bands are radio bands reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than communications....

    .
  • RuBee
    RuBee
    RuBee is a two way, active wireless protocol designed for harsh environment, high security asset visibility applications. RuBee utilizes Long Wave magnetic signals to send and receive short data packets in a local regional network...

    - secure wireless protocol alternative
  • Bluetooth wireless headsets