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Beauty and the Beast

Beauty and the Beast

Overview
Beauty and the Beast is a traditional fairy tale
Fairy tale
A fairy tale is a type of short story that typically features such folkloric characters, such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments. However, only a small number of the stories refer to fairies...

. The first published version of the fairy tale
Fairy tale
A fairy tale is a type of short story that typically features such folkloric characters, such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments. However, only a small number of the stories refer to fairies...

 was a rendition by Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve
Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve
Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve, French author , influenced by Madame d'Aulnoy, Charles Perrault, and various précieuse writers....

, published in La jeune américaine, et les contes marins in 1740. The best-known written version was an abridgement of her work published in 1756 by Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont
Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont
-Life:She was born in Rouen and died in 1780. She lost her mother when she was only eleven but wrote that she did not mourn her passing. The family was very poor and several of her siblings had to be sent away for adoption. She wrote that her mother had suffered terribly at not being able to...

, in Magasin des enfants, ou dialogues entre une sage gouvernante et plusieurs de ses élèves; an English translation appeared in 1757.

Variants of the tale are known across Europe.
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Quotations

[growls] There's a stranger in here.

So, you've come to stare at the BEAST, have you?!?

Oh, it's no use. She's so beautiful, and I'm...Well, look at me!

She'll never see me as anything...but a monster. It's hopeless.

[To Mrs. Potts, Lumiere, and Cogsworth] But she is being so difficult!

[singing] She glanced this way, I thought I saw. And when we touched, she didn't shudder at my paw. No, it can't be. I'll just ignore. But then she's never looked at me that way before.

[said while dying in Belle's arms] You- You came back.

[singing] Little town, it's a quiet village. Everyday like the one before. Little town, full of little people, waking up to say...

[singing] There must be more than this provincial life!

Encyclopedia
Beauty and the Beast is a traditional fairy tale
Fairy tale
A fairy tale is a type of short story that typically features such folkloric characters, such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments. However, only a small number of the stories refer to fairies...

. The first published version of the fairy tale
Fairy tale
A fairy tale is a type of short story that typically features such folkloric characters, such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments. However, only a small number of the stories refer to fairies...

 was a rendition by Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve
Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve
Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve, French author , influenced by Madame d'Aulnoy, Charles Perrault, and various précieuse writers....

, published in La jeune américaine, et les contes marins in 1740. The best-known written version was an abridgement of her work published in 1756 by Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont
Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont
-Life:She was born in Rouen and died in 1780. She lost her mother when she was only eleven but wrote that she did not mourn her passing. The family was very poor and several of her siblings had to be sent away for adoption. She wrote that her mother had suffered terribly at not being able to...

, in Magasin des enfants, ou dialogues entre une sage gouvernante et plusieurs de ses élèves; an English translation appeared in 1757.

Variants of the tale are known across Europe. In France, for example, Zémire et Azor
Zémire et Azor
Zémire et Azor is an opéra comique, described as a comédie-ballet mêlée de chants et de danses, in four acts by the Belgian composer André Grétry, The French text was by Jean François Marmontel based on La Belle et la bête by Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont, and Amour pour amour by P. C....

is an operatic version of the story of Beauty and the Beast written by Marmontel
Marmontel
Marmontel may refer to:* Jean-François Marmontel , a French literary figure* Antoine François Marmontel , a French pianist and musicographer...

 and composed by Grétry
Grétry
People of the surname Grétry include* André Grétry , composer of opéras comiques;* Jeanne-Marie Grandon Grétry , painter, wife of André;...

 in 1771. It had enormous success well into the 19th century. It is based on the second version of the tale.

Amour pour amour, by Nivelle de la Chaussée, is a 1742 play based on Villeneuve's version.

Summary


A wealthy merchant lived in a mansion with his three daughters, all of whom were very beautiful, but only the youngest, at fourteen, is named Belle (a French name equivalent to "Beauty") for being lovely and pure of heart; her sisters, in contrast, are wicked and selfish. The merchant eventually loses all of his wealth in a tempest
Tempest
Tempest or The Tempest may refer to:Tempest, a violent storm- Fiction :* The Tempest, a 1611 play by William Shakespeare** The Tempest , a 1667 adaptation of Shakespeare's play by John Dryden and William D'Avenant...

 at sea, and he and his daughters must therefore live in a small farmhouse and work for their living. After some years of this, the merchant hears that one of the trade ships he had sent off has arrived back in port, having escaped the destruction of its compatriots; therefore, he returns to the city to discover whether it contains anything of monetary value. Before leaving, he asks his daughters whether they desire that he bring them any gift upon his return. His two elder daughters ask for jewels and fine dresses, thinking that his wealth has returned; Belle is satisfied with the promise of a rose, as none grow in their part of the country. The merchant, to his dismay, finds that his ship's cargo has been seized to pay his debts, leaving him without money to buy his daughters their presents.

During his return, he becomes lost in a forest. Seeking shelter, he enters a dazzling palace. He finds inside tables laden with food and drink, which have apparently been left for him by the palace's unseen owner. The merchant accepts this gift and spends the night. The next morning as the merchant is about to leave, he sees a rose garden and recalls that Belle had desired a rose. Upon picking the loveliest rose he finds, the merchant is confronted by a hideous 'Beast', which tells him that for taking his (the Beast's) most precious possession after accepting his hospitality, the merchant must die. The merchant begs to be set free, arguing that he had only picked the rose as a gift for his youngest daughter. The Beast agrees to let him give the rose to Belle, only if the merchant will return, or his daughter goes to the castle in his place.

The merchant is upset, but accepts this condition. The Beast sends him on his way, with jewels and fine clothes for his daughters, and stresses that Belle must come to the castle of her own accord. The merchant, upon arriving home, tries to hide the secret from Belle, but she pries it from him and willingly goes to the Beast's castle. The Beast receives her graciously and informs her that she is mistress of the castle, and he is her servant. He gives her lavish clothing and food and carries on lengthy conversations with her. Each night, the Beast asks Belle to marry him, only to be refused each time. After each refusal, Belle dreams of a handsome prince who pleads with her to answer why she keeps refusing him, and she replies that she cannot marry the Beast because she loves him only as a friend. Belle does not make the connection between the handsome prince and the Beast and becomes convinced that the Beast is holding the prince captive somewhere in the castle. She searches for him and discovers multiple enchanted rooms, but never the prince from her dreams.

For several months, Belle lives a life of luxury at the Beast's palace, being waited on hand and foot by invisible servants, having no end of riches to amuse her and an endless supply of exquisite finery to wear. Eventually she becomes homesick and begs the Beast to allow her to go to see her family. He allows it, if she will return exactly a week later. Belle agrees to this and sets off for home with an enchanted mirror and ring. The mirror allows her to see what is going on back at the Beast's castle, and the ring allows her to return to the castle in an instant when turned three times around her finger. Her older sisters are surprised to find her well fed and dressed in finery. They grow jealous of her happy life at the castle, and, hearing that she must return to the Beast on a certain day, beg her to stay another day, even putting onion in their eyes to make it appear as though they are weeping. It is their wish that the Beast will grow angry with Belle for breaking her promise and will eat her alive. Belle's heart is moved by her sisters' false show of love, and she agrees to stay.

Belle begins to feel guilty about breaking her promise to the Beast and uses the mirror to see him back at the castle. She is horrified to discover that the Beast is laying half-dead of heartbreak near the rose bushes her father had stolen from and she immediately uses the ring to return to the Beast.

Upon returning, Belle finds the Beast almost dead, and she weeps over him, saying that she loves him. When her tears strike him, the Beast is transformed into a handsome prince. The Prince informs Belle that long ago a fairy
Fairy
A fairy is a type of mythical being or legendary creature, a form of spirit, often described as metaphysical, supernatural or preternatural.Fairies resemble various beings of other mythologies, though even folklore that uses the term...

 turned him into a hideous beast after he refused to let her in from the rain, and that only by finding true love, despite his ugliness, could the curse be broken. He and Belle are married and they lived happily ever after together.

Villeneuve's version


Villeneuve's tale includes several elements that Beaumont's omits. Chiefly, the back-story of both Belle and the Beast is given. The Beast was a prince who lost his father at a young age, and whose mother had to wage war to defend his kingdom. The queen left him in care of an evil fairy, who tried to seduce him when he became an adult; when he refused, she transformed him into a beast. Belle's story reveals that she is not really a merchant's daughter but the offspring of a king and a good fairy. The wicked fairy had tried to murder Belle so she could marry her father the king, and Belle was put in the place of the merchant's dead daughter to protect her. She also gave the castle elaborate magic, which obscured the more vital pieces of it. Beaumont greatly pared down the cast of characters and simplified the tale to an almost archetypal simplicity.

Commentary


The urban opening is unusual in fairy tales, as is the social class of the characters, neither royal nor peasants. It may reflect the social changes occurring at the time of its first writing.

Adaptations


The tale has been notably adapted for screen, stage, prose, and television over the years.

Film versions

  • A French version entitled La Belle et la Bête
    Beauty and the Beast (1946 film)
    Beauty and the Beast is a 1946 French romantic fantasy film adaptation of the traditional fairy tale of the same name, written by Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont and published in 1757 as part of a fairy tale anthology . Directed by French poet and filmmaker Jean Cocteau, the film stars Josette...

    was made in 1946, directed by Jean Cocteau
    Jean Cocteau
    Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker. His circle of associates, friends and lovers included Kenneth Anger, Pablo Picasso, Jean Hugo, Jean Marais, Henri Bernstein, Marlene Dietrich, Coco Chanel, Erik Satie, María...

    , starring Jean Marais
    Jean Marais
    -Biography:A native of Cherbourg, France, Marais starred in several movies directed by Jean Cocteau, for a time his lover, most famously Beauty and the Beast and Orphée ....

     as the Beast and Josette Day
    Josette Day
    Josette Day was a French film actress.Born in Paris, she began her career as an actress in 1919 at the age of five...

     as the Beauty. This version adds a subplot involving Belle's suitor Avenant, who schemes along with Belle's brother and sisters to journey to Beast's castle to kill him and capture his riches. When Avenant enters the magic pavilion which is the source of Beast's power, he is struck by an arrow fired by a guardian statue of the Roman goddess Diana
    Diana (mythology)
    In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt and moon and birthing, being associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy...

    , which transforms the dying Avenant into Beast and reverses the original Beast's curse. In 1994, Philip Glass
    Philip Glass
    Philip Glass is an American composer. He is considered to be one of the most influential composers of the late 20th century and is widely acknowledged as a composer who has brought art music to the public .His music is often described as minimalist, along with...

     wrote an opera, "La Belle et la Bête", based on Cocteau's film. Glass's composition follows the film scene by scene, effectively providing a new original soundtrack for the movie.

  • A 1952 animated feature film The Scarlet Flower
    The Scarlet Flower (1952 film)
    The Scarlet Flower is a 1952 Soviet animated film directed Lev Atamanov. It was produced at the Soyuzmultfilm studio in Moscow and is based on the story of the same name by Sergei Aksakov...

    directed by Lev Atamanov and produced at the Soyuzmultfilm
    Soyuzmultfilm
    Soyuzmultfilm is a Russian animation studio based in Moscow. Over the years it has gained international attention and respect, garnering numerous awards both at home and abroad. Noted for a great variety of style, it is regarded as the most influential animation studio of the former Soviet Union...

    . It was restored at the Gorky Film Studio
    Gorky Film Studio
    Gorky Film Studio is a film studio in Moscow, Russian Federation. By the end of the Soviet Union, Gorky Film Studio had produced more than 1,000 films...

     in 1987 and is now widely available on several video and DVD editions in Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

     (an English-subtitled version has not been released).

  • A 1962 version directed by Edward L. Cahn, starring Joyce Taylor and Mark Damon
    Mark Damon
    Mark Damon is an American film actor and producer. He started his career in his native country, appearing in such films as Young and Dangerous and Roger Corman's House of Usher...

    , had the Beast as a prince who transformed into werewolf at night, with makeup by Universal
    Universal Studios
    Universal Pictures , a subsidiary of NBCUniversal, is one of the six major movie studios....

    's Jack Pierce.

  • In 1979, a heavily horror-influenced film entitled Panna a Netvor (The Virgin and the Monster) directed by Juraj Herz, was produced in Czechoslovakia
    Czechoslovakia
    Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

    . This film is notable for presenting the Monster as a bird-like creature, both attended to and tortured by gremlin servants. Julie, the virgin of the title, is forbidden from seeing her captor's face. Nonetheless, the two fall in love, and The Monster is bewildered to realize that, bit by bit, he is literally being transformed by that love.

  • In 1987, The Cannon Group and Golan-Globus
    Golan-Globus
    The Cannon Group Inc. was an American group of companies, including Cannon Films, which produced a distinctive line of low-to-medium budget films from 1967 to 1993...

     Productions released Beauty and the Beast
    Beauty and the Beast (1987 film)
    Beauty and the Beast is a 1987 American/Israeli musical film, part of the 1980 film series Cannon Movie Tales...

    , a musical live action version, directed by Eugene Marner, starring John Savage
    John Savage (actor)
    John Savage is an American film actor, producer, production manager, and composer.- Acting career :...

     as Beast, and Rebecca De Mornay
    Rebecca De Mornay
    Rebecca De Mornay is an American film and television actress. Her breakthrough film role came in 1983, when she played Lana in Risky Business opposite Tom Cruise...

     as Beauty, with original music by Lori McKelvey. It was released on VHS in 1988 by Cannon Video, and on DVD
    DVD
    A DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions....

     in 2005 by MGM Home Entertainment
    MGM Home Entertainment
    MGM Home Entertainment is the home video and DVD arm of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.-History:The home video division of MGM started in 1979 as MGM Home Video, releasing all the movies and TV shows by MGM. In 1980, MGM joined forces with CBS Video Enterprises, the home video division of the CBS television...

    . The plot of this adaptation is more comparable to the authoritative Beaumont version than others.

  • In 1991, Walt Disney Feature Animation produced a musical animated film entitled Beauty and the Beast
    Beauty and the Beast (1991 film)
    Beauty and the Beast is a 1991 American animated fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Pictures. The thirtieth film in the Walt Disney Animated Classics series and the third film of the Disney Renaissance period...

    , directed by Kirk Wise
    Kirk Wise
    Kirk Wise is an American film director, animator and screenwriter best known for his work at Disney. Wise has directed such Disney movies as Atlantis: The Lost Empire, The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Beauty and the Beast...

     & Gary Trousdale
    Gary Trousdale
    Gary A. Trousdale is an American film director known for directing movies such as Beauty and the Beast, The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Atlantis: The Lost Empire. He frequently directs films with Kirk Wise....

    , with a screenplay by Linda Woolverton
    Linda Woolverton
    Linda Woolverton is an American writer who wrote the screenplay for Disney's animated feature film Beauty and the Beast and co-wrote the screenplay for the The Lion King. Woolverton then went on to write the Broadway musical version of Beauty and the Beast and assisted in adapting The Lion King to...

    , and songs by Alan Menken
    Alan Menken
    Alan Menken is an American musical theatre and film composer and pianist.Menken is best known for his numerous scores for films produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios. His scores for The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and Pocahontas have each won him two Academy Awards...

     & Howard Ashman
    Howard Ashman
    Howard Elliott Ashman was an American playwright and lyricist. Ashman first studied at Boston University and Goddard College and then went on to achieve his master's degree from Indiana University in 1974...

    . Like the 1946 version, the Disney version also names Beauty "Belle" and gives her a handsome suitor (here named Gaston
    Characters in Disney's Beauty and the Beast
    This article lists information of fictional characters from Disney's Beauty and the Beast franchise, covering the 1991 film, its direct to video midquel, a short story collection, and the stage musical adaptation.-Gaston:...

    ) who eventually plots to kill the Beast. Other aspects of the story are changed or added as well: in the Disney version, Belle's father (here called Maurice) is an inventor, not a merchant, and Belle is his only daughter. Belle is befriended by the Beast's servants, who have been transformed into household objects. Beauty and the Beast won Academy Awards for Best Song and Best Original Score
    Academy Award for Best Original Score
    The Academy Award for Original Score is presented to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer.-Superlatives:...

    , in addition to becoming the first animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Picture
    Academy Award for Best Picture
    The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to artists working in the motion picture industry. The Best Picture category is the only category in which every member of the Academy is eligible not only...

    . It was also one of only two animated films included in AFI's 100 Years... 100 Passions
    AFI's 100 Years... 100 Passions
    Part of the AFI 100 Years… series, AFI's 100 Years…100 Passions is a list of the top 100 greatest love stories in American cinema. The list was unveiled by the American Film Institute on June 11, 2002, in a CBS television special hosted by American film and TV actress Candice Bergen.-The...

     list, which announced the 100 greatest love stories of all time, and is now considered one of the Walt Disney Company's classic animated films.

  • Children's film producer Diane Eskenazi
    Diane Eskenazi
    Diane Paloma Eskenazi is an American film producer and the founder of Golden Films production company in 1992. She is also the founder of different non-profit charity organizations such as Peace Builders, Inc., most of which were mainly, though not exclusively, dedicated to the welfare of children...

     produced Beauty and the Beast, directed by Masakazu Higuchi and Chinami Namba, for Golden Films
    Golden Films
    Golden Films is an American production studio founded in 1992 by Diane Eskenazi. The studio produces direct to video animated features. Many of its animated titles tell the same stories as popular Disney films.- Distribution :...

     in 1993. The film, which relied on moderate animation techniques but was mostly faithful to the original tale, featured classical compositions as opposed to an original soundtrack, featuring the works of many well-known popular composers.

  • A 2003 Viking
    Viking Age
    Viking Age is the term for the period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, spanning the late 8th to 11th centuries. Scandinavian Vikings explored Europe by its oceans and rivers through trade and warfare. The Vikings also reached Iceland, Greenland,...

     period film directed by David Lister
    David Lister (director)
    David Lister is a South African-born film and television director, now residing in Australia.David Lister grew up on a farm in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. He trained as a painter and sculptor in Pretoria before being employed as a scene painter, set designer and head of the props department...

     was alternately known as Beauty and the Beast and Blood of Beasts
    Beauty and the Beast (2003 film)
    Beauty and the Beast is a 2003 film which is based on the folktale "Beauty and the Beast" and is set during the time of the Vikings. It is rated PG-13 for battle scenes and some violence.-Plot:...

    .

  • A dark version of the fairy tale updated to modern times, director Robert Beaucage's 2008 film Spike
    Spike (2008 film)
    Spike is a 2008 horror-romance directed by Robert Beaucage, produced by String And A Can Productions, and starring Edward Gusts, Sarah Livingston Evans, Anna-Marie Wayne, Nancy P...

    was described (at its premiere at the Edinburgh International Film Festival
    Edinburgh International Film Festival
    The Edinburgh International Film Festival is an annual fortnight of cinema screenings and related events taking place each June. Established in 1947, it is the world's oldest continually running film festival...

     where it was chosen as part of the Best of the Fest) as "Angela Carter
    Angela Carter
    Angela Carter was an English novelist and journalist, known for her feminist, magical realism, and picaresque works...

     rewriting La Belle et la Bête as an episode of Buffy the Vampire Slayer".

  • Another modern take on Beauty and the Beast is Beastly
    Beastly (film)
    Beastly is a 2011 romantic fantasy film loosely based on Alex Flinn's 2007 novel of the same name. It is a retelling of the fairytale Beauty and the Beast set in modern-day New York City. The film is written and directed by Daniel Barnz and stars Vanessa Hudgens and Alex Pettyfer.The plot focuses...

    , starring Alex Pettyfer
    Alex Pettyfer
    Alexander Richard "Alex" Pettyfer is an English actor and model. He appeared in school plays and on television before being cast as Alex Rider, the main character in the 2006 film version of Stormbreaker. Pettyfer was nominated for a Young Artist Award and an Empire Award for his role. He has been...

     as the beast (named Kyle) and Vanessa Hudgens as the love interest (named Lindy). Directed by Daniel Barnz
    Daniel Barnz
    Daniel Barnz is an American screenwriter and director.-Life and career:Barnz made his debut in directing in the 2001 movie, The Cutting Room.He also directed the 2009 movie, Phoebe in Wonderland, which received very positive reviews from critics...

     and based on the novel
    Beastly
    Beastly is a 2007 novel by Alex Flinn. It is a retelling of the fairytale Beauty and the Beast set in modern-day New York City from the view of the beast. Flinn researched many versions of the Beauty and the Beast story to write her book...

     by Alex Flinn
    Alex Flinn
    Alex Flinn is an American author of novels for young adults. To date, she has written eight books that have been published.-Personal life:Flinn was born in Glen Cove, New York and grew up...

    , it was released on March 18, 2011. The story places the basics of the original fairy tale in the context of a contemporary American high school. The film also features Neil Patrick Harris
    Neil Patrick Harris
    Neil Patrick Harris is an American actor, singer, director, and magician.Prominent roles of his career include the title role in Doogie Howser, M.D., Colonel Carl Jenkins in Starship Troopers, the womanizing Barney Stinson in How I Met Your Mother, a fictionalized version of himself in the Harold...

     as Kyle's blind tutor, Mary-Kate Olsen
    Mary-Kate Olsen
    Mary-Kate Olsen is an American actress, producer, author and fashion designer. She made her career debut in 1987 alongside her twin sister Ashley Olsen in the television series Full House...

     as a goth
    Goth subculture
    The goth subculture is a contemporary subculture found in many countries. It began in England during the early 1980s in the gothic rock scene, an offshoot of the post-punk genre. The goth subculture has survived much longer than others of the same era, and has continued to diversify...

     girl responsible for cursing Kyle and causing his subsequent transformation.

Stage versions

  • The Disney film was adapted for the stage
    Beauty and the Beast (musical)
    Beauty and the Beast is a musical with music by Alan Menken, lyrics by Howard Ashman and Tim Rice and a book by Linda Woolverton, based on the 1991 Disney film of the same name. Seven new songs were written for the stage musical...

     by Linda Woolverton and Alan Menken
    Alan Menken
    Alan Menken is an American musical theatre and film composer and pianist.Menken is best known for his numerous scores for films produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios. His scores for The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and Pocahontas have each won him two Academy Awards...

    , who had worked on the film. Howard Ashman
    Howard Ashman
    Howard Elliott Ashman was an American playwright and lyricist. Ashman first studied at Boston University and Goddard College and then went on to achieve his master's degree from Indiana University in 1974...

    , the original lyricist, had died, and additional lyric
    Lyrics
    Lyrics are a set of words that make up a song. The writer of lyrics is a lyricist or lyrist. The meaning of lyrics can either be explicit or implicit. Some lyrics are abstract, almost unintelligible, and, in such cases, their explication emphasizes form, articulation, meter, and symmetry of...

    s were written by Tim Rice
    Tim Rice
    Sir Timothy Miles Bindon "Tim" Rice is an British lyricist and author.An Academy Award, Golden Globe Award, Tony Award and Grammy Award-winning lyricist, Rice is best known for his collaborations with Andrew Lloyd Webber, with whom he wrote Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, Jesus...

    . Seven new songs, "No Matter What", "Me", "Home", "How Long Must This Go On?", "Maison des Lunes", "Human Again", and "If I Can't Love Her" were added to those appearing in the original film score in the stage version. "Human Again" was written for the film by Menken and Ashman, but cut during the storyboarding phase because of continuity problems. Modified by Menken and Rice to work in the stage production, "Human Again" was later added to the film itself in a new scene produced for its 2002 IMAX
    IMAX
    IMAX is a motion picture film format and a set of proprietary cinema projection standards created by the Canadian company IMAX Corporation. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film systems...

     reissue. Later, another song, "A Change In Me
    A Change in Me (Beauty and the Beast)
    "A Change in Me" is a solo song from the Broadway musical Beauty and the Beast, sung by the protagonist, Belle. It was written by Tim Rice and Alan Menken. The song was not included in the original Broadway production...

    ", was added for Belle. There is a great deal of emphasis on pyrotechnics, costuming and special effects to produce the imagery of the enchanted castle that was produced by Disney Theatrical. Some characters are given names and bigger roles, like the feather duster (Babette) and the Wardrobe (Madame de la Grande Bouche). This version of Beauty and the Beast is often examined in gender studies because of the underlying female and male roles it presents to young audiences. Disney's stage musical version of Beauty and the Beast closed on July 29, 2007 after 5,464 regular performances (and 46 previews). The 17th (and final) Belle was played by Anneliese van der Pol
    Anneliese van der Pol
    Anneliese Louise van der Pol is a Dutch-American actress and singer. After an early career in musical theatre, she was cast as Chelsea Daniels in the Disney Channel Original Series That's So Raven, a role that gained her renown among young audiences. Van der Pol also has a career as a singer and...

     and Donny Osmond
    Donny Osmond
    Donald Clark "Donny" Osmond is an American singer, musician, actor, dancer, radio personality, and former teen idol. Osmond has also been a talk and game show host, record producer and author. In the mid 1960s, he and four of his elder brothers gained fame as the Osmond Brothers on the long...

     returned to play Gaston in the final performance. With Disney set to release its Broadway version of The Little Mermaid on November 3, 2007, it was believed that having two Disney heroines on Broadway at the same time would divide audiences between the two shows. The Little Mermaid ran through August 30, 2009 in the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre – the same theatre that ran "Beauty and the Beast" from 1999–2007.

Prose Versions

  • Beastly
    Beastly
    Beastly is a 2007 novel by Alex Flinn. It is a retelling of the fairytale Beauty and the Beast set in modern-day New York City from the view of the beast. Flinn researched many versions of the Beauty and the Beast story to write her book...

    by Alex Flinn
    Alex Flinn
    Alex Flinn is an American author of novels for young adults. To date, she has written eight books that have been published.-Personal life:Flinn was born in Glen Cove, New York and grew up...

     sets the story in modern day Manhattan
  • Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast
    Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast
    Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty & the Beast was first published in 1978 by children's book author Robin McKinley. It was her first book, retelling the classic French fairy tale La Belle et La Bete. The book was the 1998 Phoenix Award honor book. It was the 1966-1988 Best of the Best...

    and Rose Daughter
    Rose Daughter
    Rose Daughter is a second retelling of the tale of Beauty and the Beast by Robin McKinley, published in 1997.Like McKinley's original Beauty, the heroine has a strong, independent personality that sets her apart from the average fairy-tale female. In the original fairytale, Beauty's sisters were...

    both by author Robin McKinley
    Robin McKinley
    Robin McKinley is a distinguished author of fantasy and children's books who has written sixteen books to date. Her latest book Pegasus was published in 2010...

  • Belle: A Retelling of Beauty and the Beast by Cameron Dokey
    Cameron Dokey
    Cameron Dokey is an American author. She lives in Seattle, Washington with her three cats and her husband. She has a collection of over 50 old sci-fi and horror films.Cameron was born in the Central Valley of California...

    , and Spirited by Nancy Holder
    Nancy Holder
    Nancy Holder is an American writer and the author of several novels, including numerous tie-in books based on the TV series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. She's also written fiction related to several other science fiction and fantasy shows, including Angel and Smallville.Holder is a four-time winner...

    , both part of the Once Upon A Time
  • Beauty and the Werewolf by Mercedes Lackey
    Mercedes Lackey
    Mercedes "Misty" Lackey is a best-selling American author of fantasy novels. Many of her novels and trilogies are interlinked and set in the world of Velgarth, mostly in and around the country of Valdemar...

    , part of the Five Hundred Kingdoms series
  • Crazy Beautiful by Lauren Baratz-Logsted, in which the "beast" character is a young teenage boy who lost his hands in an explosion
  • Cupid by Julius Lester
    Julius Lester
    Julius Lester is an American author of books for children and adults, and taught for 32 years at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. He is also a photographer, as well as a musician who recorded two albums of folk music and original songs.-Early life and family:Born on January 27, 1939, in...

    , based on the Greek tale Cupid and Psyche
    Cupid and Psyche
    Cupid and Psyche , is a legend that first appeared as a digressionary story told by an old woman in Lucius Apuleius' novel, The Golden Ass, written in the 2nd century CE. Apuleius likely used an earlier tale as the basis for his story, modifying it to suit the thematic needs of his novel.It has...

     thought to be one of the original versions of the story
  • East
    East (novel)
    East is a 2003 novel by the author Edith Pattou. It is an adaptation of an old Norwegian folk tale entitled "East of the Sun and West of the Moon" and is an ALA Top Ten Best Book for Young Adults...

    by Edith Pattou
    Edith Pattou
    Edith Pattou is the author of several fantasy novels, including East, an ALA Top Ten Best Book for Young Adults. She is a graduate of the Francis W. Parker School, Scripps College , Claremont Graduate School and UCLA . She is married to Charles Emery, a professor of psychology at The Ohio State...

    , based on the story East of the Sun and West of the Moon
    East of the Sun and West of the Moon
    East of the Sun and West of the Moon is a Norwegian folk tale.East of the Sun and West of the Moon was collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe...

     a Norse variation on Beauty and the Beast
  • The Fire Rose
    The Fire Rose
    The Fire Rose is a fantasy novel written by Mercedes Lackey and part of her Elemental Masters series. It is set during turn-of-the-century Chicago and San Francisco and is based on Beauty and the Beast.-Plot summary:...

    by Mercedes Lackey
    Mercedes Lackey
    Mercedes "Misty" Lackey is a best-selling American author of fantasy novels. Many of her novels and trilogies are interlinked and set in the world of Velgarth, mostly in and around the country of Valdemar...

    , part of the Elementals series
  • Australian fantasy author Juliet Marillier
    Juliet Marillier
    Juliet Marillier is a New Zealand-born writer of fantasy, especially historical fantasy. She currently lives in Western Australia. While Marillier writes mostly for adults, her recent books have included Cybele's Secret, a sequel to her novel for young adults Wildwood Dancing. Cybele's Secret won...

    's novel, Heart's Blood, is an historical retelling of Beauty and the Beast set during the Norman invasion.
  • Ice by Sarah Beth Durst
  • The Rose: A Novel Based on Beauty and the Beast by Jennifer Baker
  • Sun and Moon, Ice and Snow by Jessica Day George, based on East of the Sun and West of the Moon
    East of the Sun and West of the Moon
    East of the Sun and West of the Moon is a Norwegian folk tale.East of the Sun and West of the Moon was collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe...

  • A Wolf at the Door: and Other Retold Fairy Tales by Ellen Datlow
    Ellen Datlow
    Ellen Datlow is an American science fiction, fantasy, and horror editor and anthologist.-Biography:Datlow was the fiction editor of Omni magazine and Omni Online from 1981 through 1998, and edited the ten associated Omni anthologies...

     and Terri Windling
    Terri Windling
    Terri Windling is an American editor, artist, essayist, and the author of books for both children and adults. Windling has won nine World Fantasy Awards, the Mythopoeic Award, the Bram Stoker Award, and her collection The Armless Maiden appeared on the short-list for the James Tiptree, Jr. Award...

     (the title story is based on Beauty and the Beast)
  • Beast by Donna Jo Napoli
    Donna Jo Napoli
    Donna Jo Napoli is an author of children's and young adult books, as well as a prominent linguist who has worked in syntax, phonetics, phonology, morphology, historical and comparative linguistics, Romance studies, structure of Japanese, structure of American Sign Language, poetics, writing for...

     A retelling set in Persia and told in the beast's point of view.
  • Roses & Thorns : Beauty and the Beast Retold by Chris Anne Wolfe, a retelling of the classic story where both protagonists are female.
  • The Rose and the Beast: Fairy Tales Retold by Francesca Lia Block
    Francesca Lia Block
    Francesca Lia Block is the author of adult and young adult fiction, short stories, screenplays and poetry, most famously the Weetzie Bat series. Block wrote her first book, Weetzie Bat, while a student at UC Berkeley; it was published in 1989 by Harper Collins. She is known for her use of imagery,...

     contains the short story "Beast", where Beauty enjoys being wild and laments when the beast is turned back into a boy.
  • "Tiger's Curse" by Colleen Houck is a story about an Indian prince turned into a tiger and the only way he can be freed is by the one he loves.
  • "Angelfish" by Laurence Yep is an interpretation without the love story. Looks more in depth about the change in people.
  • "Tiger's Bride" by Angela Carter is a short story with a different twist.
  • "The Courtship of Mr Lyon" is another short story by Angela Carter which appears to be based on Beauty and the Beast.
  • Beauty and the Beast ... The Story Retold. Laura E. Richards
    Laura E. Richards
    Laura Elizabeth Howe Richards was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to a high-profile family. During her life, she wrote over 90 books, including children's, biographies, poetry, and others. A well-known children's poem for which she is noted is the literary nonsense verse Eletelephony.Her father...

    . London: Blickie & Son, 1886. Also, Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1886.

Television

  • George C. Scott
    George C. Scott
    George Campbell Scott was an American stage and film actor, director and producer. He was best known for his stage work, as well as his portrayal of General George S. Patton in the film Patton, and as General Buck Turgidson in Stanley Kubrick's Dr...

     turned in a made-for-TV rendition in 1976, which aired as part of the "Hallmark Hall of Fame
    Hallmark Hall of Fame
    Hallmark Hall of Fame is an anthology program on American television, sponsored by Hallmark Cards, a Kansas City based greeting card company. The second longest-running television program in the history of television, it has a historically long run, beginning in 1951 and continuing into 2011...

    ". Scott was nominated for an Emmy for his performance.
  • In 1984, Shelley Duvall
    Shelley Duvall
    Shelley Alexis Duvall is an American film and television actress best known for her roles in The Shining, Popeye, Thieves Like Us and 3 Women....

    's Faerie Tale Theatre
    Faerie Tale Theatre
    Faerie Tale Theatre is a live-action children's television anthology series retelling popular fairy tales. Shelley Duvall serves as narrator, host and executive producer of the program, and occasionally stars in episodes...

    aired "Beauty and the Beast" starring Klaus Kinski
    Klaus Kinski
    Klaus Kinski, born Klaus Günter Karl Nakszynski , was a German actor. He appeared in more than 130 films, and is perhaps best-remembered as a leading role actor in Werner Herzog films: Aguirre, the Wrath of God , Nosferatu the Vampyre , Woyzeck , Fitzcarraldo and Cobra Verde .-Early...

     and Susan Sarandon
    Susan Sarandon
    Susan Sarandon is an American actress. She has worked in films and television since 1969, and won an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in the 1995 film Dead Man Walking. She had also been nominated for the award for four films before that and has received other recognition for her...

    . The script, sets, makeup and costumes were based on the 1946 film.
  • Beauty and the Beast
    Beauty and the Beast (TV series)
    Beauty and the Beast is an American drama series which first aired on CBS in 1987. Creator Ron Koslow's updated version of the fairy tale has a double focus: the relationship between Vincent , a mythic, noble man-beast, and his Catherine , a savvy assistant District attorney in New York; and a...

    , which owed as much to detective shows and fantasy fiction as to the fairy tale, originally broadcast from 1987 to 1989. This was centered around the relationship between Catherine, an attorney who lived in New York City, played by Linda Hamilton
    Linda Hamilton
    Linda Carroll Hamilton is an American actress best known for her portrayal of Sarah Connor in The Terminator and its sequel Terminator 2: Judgment Day and Catherine Chandler in the television series Beauty and the Beast, for which she was nominated for two Golden Globes and an Emmy...

    , and Vincent, a gentle but lion-faced "beast", played by Ron Perlman
    Ron Perlman
    Ronald N. "Ron" Perlman is an American television, film and voice over actor. He is known for having played Vincent in the TV series Beauty and the Beast , a Deathstroke figure known as Slade in the animated series Teen Titans, Clarence "Clay" Morrow in Sons of Anarchy, the comic book character...

    , who dwells in the tunnels beneath the city. Wendy Pini created two issues of a comic-book adaptation of the TV series. The series was cancelled when ratings fell after Hamilton decided to leave the show at the end of the second season.
  • HBO's Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child
    Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child
    Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child is an American animated television series that premiered March 26, 1995, on HBO. Narrated by Robert Guillaume, the series aired 39 episodes from 1995 to 2000, and is currently airing on the HBO Family digital cable television channel in the United...

    did a version of the story set in Equatorial Africa.

See also


  • Stockholm syndrome
    Stockholm syndrome
    In psychology, Stockholm Syndrome is an apparently paradoxical psychological phenomenon wherein hostages express empathy and have positive feelings towards their captors, sometimes to the point of defending them...

  • Damsel in distress
    Damsel in distress
    The subject of the damsel in distress, or persecuted maiden, is a classic theme in world literature, art, and film. She is usually a beautiful young woman placed in a dire predicament by a villain or monster and who requires a hero to achieve her rescue. She has become a stock character of fiction,...

  • Loathly lady
    Loathly lady
    The loathly lady is a common literary device used in medieval literature, most famously in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Wife of Bath's Tale. The motif was prominent in Celtic mythology and to a lesser extent Germanic mythology, where the lady often represented the sovereignty of the...

  • Noble savage
    Noble savage
    The term noble savage , expresses the concept an idealized indigene, outsider , and refers to the literary stock character of the same...

  • The Feather of Finist the Falcon
    The Feather of Finist the Falcon
    The Feather of Finist the Falcon or Finist the Falcon is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki.It is Aarne–Thompson type 432, the prince as bird...

  • Lokis (novella)
    Lokis (novella)
    Lokis is a 1869 Prosper Mérimée horror fantasy novella. It was one of the last stories by Mérimée, started in July 1868 and published in the Revue des deux Mondes in September 1869.-Plot:It is set in rural Lithuania...

  • King Kong
    King Kong
    King Kong is a fictional character, a giant movie monster resembling a gorilla, that has appeared in several movies since 1933. These include the groundbreaking 1933 movie, the film remakes of 1976 and 2005, as well as various sequels of the first two films...


External links