Advancement Via Individual Determination
) is an American college-readiness system designed to increase the number of students who enroll in four-year colleges, focusing on students in the academic middle. The formula is to raise expectations of students. Originating at the high school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....
level, the program now serves grades 4-12 (roughly, ages 9–18).
AVID, which stands for Advancement Via Individual Determination, is a program designed to give the necessary support to students, particularly those in the academic middle, so that they can attend college and achieve their fullest potential. It also serves to level the playing field for minority and low-income students, as well as students who may be the first in their families to potentially attend college. The AVID program serves to support its students by teaching and reinforcing study and organizational skills (cornell note-taking, 3-ring binder with labeled dividers, etc.), encouraging students to take more rigorous and challenging classes, providing skills necessary to succeed in college (public speaking, team building skills, interaction with professors, etc.), and ultimately preparing them for success at a four-year university/college. AVID students have skilled tutors, often college students studying to be teachers or studying one of the major subject areas, to help them with their studies. Students are taken on field trips to local colleges and universities throughout the program to familairize them with some options. The projects planned are rich in content, cooperative learning, and applications that simulate "the real world" after high school. Community service is advocated throughout the program; students are expected to be active members of their community. This program helps these students to excel and consider all of their options. Students are given the resources to help them apply for scholarships and grants and to colleges and universities of their interest. AVID is not a "remedial education" program; instead it is a program designed to provide whatever support may be lacking for at-risk students who possess academic potential, but who may not be working to the best of their abilities.
AVID was first developed in 1980 by Mary Catherine Swanson, an English teacher at Clairemont High School, a recently desegregated district in San Diego, California. She began the program in order to ensure that underrepresented students were able to succeed in high school and would be properly prepared for the rigors of college. The program operated on one simple philosophy:
"Hold students accountable to the highest standards, provide academic and social support, and they will rise to the challenge." Founder Mary Catherine Swanson
Over the years the program has grown tremendously, and current AVID figures show that the program has branched out from the original one-school model, to serving almost 4,500 schools in 45 states, the District of Columbia, and 16 countries/territories. In addition, the AVID program serves more than 400,000 students in grades 4-12. Studies have also shown that the AVID program is working to increase the number of students prepared for college; Watt, Huerta, and Lozano (2007) found that AVID students had higher aspirations, college knowledge, and academic preparation when compared to their peers. In addition, Watt, Powell, Mendiola, and Cossio (2006) found that over the course of four years, AVID districts in Texas made significant gains in the areas of graduation rates, advanced course enrollments, and Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate testing.
The AVID program creates a network of support that has several different components. Each AVID district has a site team which oversees the progress of the program; this team is generally made up of faculty members, administrators, and parents. An AVID elective class is also offered for each grade level. The elective class offers an environment where students are continually challenged to improve their academic skills including reading, writing, problem-solving and organization. Within the AVID elective class, students also participate in bi-weekly tutoring sessions which are facilitated by AVID-trained tutors, usually local college students or college graduates, who also serve as role models to the AVID students. These "tutorial" sessions focus mainly on using questions, and not answers to guide students to their answer, giving opportunities for higher level thinking. In addition, all teachers within an AVID district are encouraged to utilize AVID strategies within the classroom to help nurture an environment of high standards and academic rigor in all content areas.
There are eleven essentials which guide the overall philosophy of the AVID program. These include: selecting students who would benefit from the support given in the AVID program, voluntary participation from students and teachers, commitment by the district to full implementation, a challenging and rigorous curriculum, writing and reading, collaboration, and inquiry
An inquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem. A theory of inquiry is an account of the various types of inquiry and a treatment of the ways that each type of inquiry achieves its aim.-Deduction:...
incorporated into the AVID classroom activities, student access to AVID-trained tutors, monitoring of student progress, adequate resources to support the program, and an active site team to oversee the development and implementation of the program. When properly utilized, these eleven essentials form the foundation of a strong and successful AVID program.
The AVID elementary program is a school-wide approach that is open to all elementary students within the AVID district. As students transition into middle school and high school, a core group of students are chosen to participate in the AVID elective class. In order to participate in the AVID program, potential candidates must go through an application process which may include an examination of their grades, standardized test scores and teacher recommendations, as well as a written essay and an interview. Generally members from the district’s site team will look over the applications, conduct interviews, and make decisions about which students are accepted into the program. In addition to looking at academic indicators, like grades and test scores, site teams may also take into consideration other factors, such as if the student is economically disadvantaged, or if they are the first in their family to potentially attend college.
Once accepted into the program, AVID students are met with high expectations; they are expected to take rigorous courses, maintain outstanding grade point averages, and to set college acceptance as a goal for themselves. The AVID elective class is meant to help the AVID students attain theses goals; the class is a challenging, yet supportive environment where students can acquire strategies to help them fulfill their academic potential. Writing, inquiry, collaboration, and reading (WICR) form the basis of the AVID curriculum. This gives students the skills they need to succeed in college-preparatory classes, like Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate. These techniques turn students from passive learners into active classroom contributors and critical thinkers, an approach that is necessary for college admission and success. Students also receive assistance with skills like time management, organization with the use of binders, note-taking using the Cornell notes
The Cornell note-taking system is a widely-used note taking system devised in the 1950s by Walter Pauk, an education professor at Cornell University. Pauk advocated its use in his best-selling How to Study in College.-Overview of method:...
method, and metacognition
Metacognition is defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing." It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving...
; as part of the program students are also exposed to various college and career choices through guest speakers, college visits and other various field trips.
Over the past thirty years, AVID has helped many students realize their dreams of a post-secondary education; in 2008, 87% of all AVID students applied to a four-year college and 78% of all AVID students were accepted to four-year colleges. In addition, Guthrie and Guthrie (2000) found that the majority of AVID students studied were attending four-year colleges and were on track to graduate in four or five years; more than half of them were maintaining A and B averages in college. Nelson (2007) lists several skills necessary for success in post-secondary education, including organization and study habits, effective questioning and active learning, class participation, and the ability to synthesize information. All of these “success-prep” (Nelson, 2007, p. 74) skills are supported by the AVID program in an effort to close the achievement gap
Achievement gap refers to the observed disparity on a number of educational measures between the performance of groups of students, especially groups defined by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The achievement gap can be observed on a variety of measures, including standardized...
and better prepare students for our global society
Global society - all-human society, which exists on our planet from the beginnings of humanity in the form of many local societies and communities, national states etc., in another words - in the form of different groups of people....