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1970 Syrian Corrective Revolution

1970 Syrian Corrective Revolution

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The 1970 Syrian Corrective Revolution, better known as the Syrian Corrective Movement, was a military-pragmatist faction's takeover
Coup d'état
A coup d'état state, literally: strike/blow of state)—also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extrajudicial deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either...

 within the Ba'ath party regime of Syria on November 13, 1970, bringing Hafez al-Assad
Hafez al-Assad
Hafez ibn 'Ali ibn Sulayman al-Assad or more commonly Hafez al-Assad was the President of Syria for three decades. Assad's rule consolidated the power of the central government after decades of coups and counter-coups, such as Operation Wappen in 1957 conducted by the Eisenhower administration and...

 to power.

Background



Politics was Assad's life-long interest. As a schoolboy, he joined the pan-Arab socialist Ba'ath party, and rose to be a student leader. He joined the air force and became a conspirator, plotting with a small group of officers to overthrow the government, a task accomplished in 1963.

In 1966, another military coup resulted in internal power change within the Ba'ath party. Regardless of the 1966 dismissal of the "old guard", personal ambition and sectarian factionalism as well as ideology differences led to continuous infighting. Many of the Baath Military Committee members left or were ousted, leaving two main factions - one of Salah Jadid
Salah Jadid
Salah Jadid was a Syrian general and political figure in the Baath Party, and the country's de facto leader from 1966 until 1970.- Rise to power :...

 and another by Hafez al-Assad
Hafez al-Assad
Hafez ibn 'Ali ibn Sulayman al-Assad or more commonly Hafez al-Assad was the President of Syria for three decades. Assad's rule consolidated the power of the central government after decades of coups and counter-coups, such as Operation Wappen in 1957 conducted by the Eisenhower administration and...

.

As a young and inexperienced defense minister in the 1967 war, Hafez al-Assad presided over the loss of the Golan Heights. In 1970, he sent tanks into Jordan to help the Palestinians against King Hussein, but had to beat a humiliating retreat when Israel threatened to intervene.

1970 Revolution


The 1970 Revolution was directed against a dominant ultra left-wing faction of the party and, to some extent, provoked by what Assad and his supporters saw as adventurous and irresponsible foreign policies (notably the Syrian intervention in the Black September
Black September
The expression Black September may refer to:* Black September in Jordan, the conflict between Palestinian guerrilla organizations and King Hussein of Jordan that began in September 1970 and ended in July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon....

 conflict in Jordan, after which the Black September Palestinian faction was named). As a result of the coup, de facto leader Salah Jadid
Salah Jadid
Salah Jadid was a Syrian general and political figure in the Baath Party, and the country's de facto leader from 1966 until 1970.- Rise to power :...

 was ousted and the party was purged. This revolution turned Syria's social and political structures upside down. The Alawite
Alawite
The Alawis, also known as Alawites, Nusayris and Ansaris are a prominent mystical and syncretic religious group centred in Syria who are a branch of Shia Islam.-Etymology:...

s, Assad's tribe, although no more than 12% of the population, came to occupy plum positions in every sector of life in Syria.

See also

  • Ba'athism
    Ba'athism
    Ba'athism is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of an Arab nation through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary state. The ideology is officially based on the theories of Zaki al-Arsuzi , Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar...

  • February 1963 Iraqi coup d'état
    February 1963 Iraqi coup d'état
    The February 1963 Iraqi coup d'état was a February 8, 1963 armed military coup by the Ba'ath Party's Iraqi wing which overthrew the regime of the Prime Minister of Iraq, Brigadier General Abd al-Karim Qasim. General Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr became the new Prime Minister and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif...

  • 1999 Latakia protests
    1999 Latakia protests
    1999 Latakia protests were violent protests and armed clashes, which erupted in Latakia, Syria following 1998 People's Assembly's Elections. The violent events were an explosion of a long-running feud between Hafez al-Assad and his younger brother Rifaat...

  • 2011 Syrian protests
  • List of modern conflicts in the Middle East