Yeti

Yeti

Overview
The Yeti or Abominable Snowman is an ape
Ape
Apes are Old World anthropoid mammals, more specifically a clade of tailless catarrhine primates, belonging to the biological superfamily Hominoidea. The apes are native to Africa and South-east Asia, although in relatively recent times humans have spread all over the world...

-like cryptid
Cryptid
In cryptozoology and sometimes in cryptobotany, a cryptid is a creature or plant whose existence has been suggested but is unrecognized by scientific consensus and often regarded as highly unlikely. Famous examples include the Yeti in the Himalayas and the Loch Ness Monster in...

 said to inhabit the Himalaya
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

n region of Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

, and Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

. The names Yeti and Meh-Teh are commonly used by the people indigenous to the region, and are part of their history and mythology. Stories of the Yeti first emerged as a facet of Western popular culture in the 19th century.

The scientific community generally regards the Yeti as a legend
Legend
A legend is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude...

, given the lack of conclusive evidence, yet it remains one of the most famous creatures of cryptozoology
Cryptozoology
Cryptozoology refers to the search for animals whose existence has not been proven...

.
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Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
The Yeti or Abominable Snowman is an ape
Ape
Apes are Old World anthropoid mammals, more specifically a clade of tailless catarrhine primates, belonging to the biological superfamily Hominoidea. The apes are native to Africa and South-east Asia, although in relatively recent times humans have spread all over the world...

-like cryptid
Cryptid
In cryptozoology and sometimes in cryptobotany, a cryptid is a creature or plant whose existence has been suggested but is unrecognized by scientific consensus and often regarded as highly unlikely. Famous examples include the Yeti in the Himalayas and the Loch Ness Monster in...

 said to inhabit the Himalaya
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

n region of Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

, and Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

. The names Yeti and Meh-Teh are commonly used by the people indigenous to the region, and are part of their history and mythology. Stories of the Yeti first emerged as a facet of Western popular culture in the 19th century.

The scientific community generally regards the Yeti as a legend
Legend
A legend is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude...

, given the lack of conclusive evidence, yet it remains one of the most famous creatures of cryptozoology
Cryptozoology
Cryptozoology refers to the search for animals whose existence has not been proven...

. The Yeti may be considered a sort of parallel to the Bigfoot
Bigfoot
Bigfoot, also known as sasquatch, is an ape-like cryptid that purportedly inhabits forests, mainly in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Bigfoot is usually described as a large, hairy, bipedal humanoid...

 of North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

.

Etymology and alternate names


The word Yeti is derived from ), a compound of the words "rocky", "rocky place" and "bear". Pranavananda states that the words "ti", "te" and "teh" are derived from the spoken word 'tre' (spelled "dred"), Tibetan for bear, with the 'r' so softly pronounced as to be almost inaudible, thus making it "te" or "teh".

Other terms used by Himalayan peoples do not translate exactly the same, but refer to legendary and indigenous wildlife:
  • Michê translates as "man-bear".
  • Dzu-teh – 'dzu' translates as "cattle" and the full meaning translates as "cattle bear", referring to the Himalayan brown bear
    Himalayan Brown Bear
    The Himalayan Brown Bear , also known as the Himalayan Red Bear, Isabelline Bear or Dzu-Teh, is a subspecies of the Brown Bear. The bear is thought to be the source of the legend of the Yeti....

    .
  • Migoi or Mi-go translates as "wild man".
  • Mirka – another name for "wild-man". Local legend holds that "anyone who sees one dies or is killed". The latter is taken from a written statement by Frank Smythe
    Frank Smythe
    Francis Sydney Smythe better known as Frank Smythe was a British mountaineer, author, photographer and botanist. He is best remembered for his mountaineering in the Alps and the Himalayas. He identified a region that he named the "Valley of Flowers", now a protected park...

    's sherpas
    Sherpa people
    The Sherpa are an ethnic group from the most mountainous region of Nepal, high in the Himalayas. Sherpas migrated from the Kham region in eastern Tibet to Nepal within the last 300–400 years.The initial mountainous migration from Tibet was a search for beyul...

     in 1937.
  • Kang Admi – "Snow Man".
  • JoBran – "Man-eater".

The "Abominable Snowman"


The appellation "Abominable Snowman" was coined in 1921, the same year Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Howard-Bury led the joint Alpine Club
Alpine Club
The first Alpine Club, founded in London in 1857, was once described as:Today, Alpine clubs stage climbing competitions, operate alpine huts and paths, and are active in protecting the Alpine environment...

 and Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society
The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences...

 "Everest Reconnaissance Expedition
Timeline of climbing Mount Everest
Mount Everest is the world's highest mountain, with a peak at 8,848 metres above sea level.- 1921: Reconnaissance expedition:The first British expedition – organized and financed by the newly formed Mount Everest Committee – came under the leadership of Colonel Ashton Rushton, with Kyle Carter as...

" which he chronicled in Mount Everest The Reconnaissance, 1921. In the book, Howard-Bury includes an account of crossing the "Lhakpa-la" at 21000 ft (6,400.8 m) where he found footprints that he believed "were probably caused by a large 'loping' grey wolf, which in the soft snow formed double tracks rather like a those of a bare-footed man". He adds that his Sherpa guides "at once volunteered that the tracks must be that of 'The Wild Man of the Snows', to which they gave the name 'metoh-kangmi'". "Metoh" translates as "man-bear" and "Kang-mi" translates as "snowman".

Confusion exists between Howard-Bury's recitation of the term "metoh-kangmi" and the term used in Bill Tilman
Bill Tilman
Major Harold William "Bill" Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar was an English mountaineer and explorer, renowned for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages.-Early years and Africa:...

's book Mount Everest, 1938 where Tilman had used the words "metch", which cannot exist in the Tibetan language
Tibetan language
The Tibetan languages are a cluster of mutually-unintelligible Tibeto-Burman languages spoken primarily by Tibetan peoples who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the northern Indian subcontinent in Baltistan, Ladakh,...

, and "kangmi" when relating the coining of the term "Abominable Snowman". Further evidence of "metch" being a misnomer is provided by Tibetan language authority Professor David Snellgrove
David Snellgrove
David Llewellyn Snellgrove is a British Tibetologist noted for his pioneering work on Buddhism in Tibet as well as his many travelogues.-Biography:...

 from the School of Oriental and African Studies
School of Oriental and African Studies
The School of Oriental and African Studies is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the University of London...

 at the University of London
University of London
-20th century:Shortly after 6 Burlington Gardens was vacated, the University went through a period of rapid expansion. Bedford College, Royal Holloway and the London School of Economics all joined in 1900, Regent's Park College, which had affiliated in 1841 became an official divinity school of the...

 (ca. 1956), who dismissed the word "metch" as impossible, because the consonants "t-c-h" cannot be conjoined in the Tibetan language." Documentation suggests that the term "metch-kangmi" is derived from one source (from the year 1921). It has been suggested that "metch" is simply a misspelling of "metoh".

The origin of the term "Abominable Snowman" is rather colourful. It began when Henry Newman, a longtime contributor to The Statesman
The Statesman
The Statesman is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily newspaper founded in 1875 and published simultaneously in Kolkata, New Delhi, Siliguri and Bhubaneswar. The Statesman is owned by The Statesman Ltd., its headquarters at Statesman House, Chowringhee Square, Calcutta and its national...

in Calcutta, using the pen name "Kim", interviewed the porters of the "Everest Reconnaissance expedition" upon their return to Darjeeling. Newman mistranslated the word "metoh" as "filthy", substituting the term "abominable", perhaps out of artistic license. As author Bill Tilman recounts, "[Newman] wrote long after in a letter to The Times: The whole story seemed such a joyous creation I sent it to one or two newspapers'".

Pre-19th century


According to H. Siiger, the Yeti was a part of the pre-Buddhist beliefs of several Himalayan people. He was told that the Lepcha people
Lepcha people
The Lepcha or Róng people , also called Róngkup , Mútuncí Róngkup Rumkup , and Rongpa , are the aboriginal people of Sikkim, who number between 30,000 and 50,000...

 worshipped a "Glacier Being" as a God of the Hunt. He also reported that followers of the Bön religion once believed the blood of the "mi rgod" or "wild man" had use in certain mystical ceremonies. The being was depicted as an apelike creature who carries a large stone as a weapon and makes a whistling sound.

Up to the 1960s, belief in the yeti was relatively common in Bhutan and in 1966 a Bhutanese stamp was made to honor the creature. However, in the twenty-first century belief in the being has declined.

19th century


In 1832, James Prinsep
James Prinsep
James Prinsep was an Anglo-Indian scholar and antiquary. He was the seventh son of John Prinsep, a wealthy East India merchant and Member of Parliament....

's Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal published trekker B. H. Hodgson
Brian Houghton Hodgson
Brian Houghton Hodgson was an early naturalist and ethnologist working in British India and Nepal where he was an English civil servant. He described many species, especially birds and mammals from the Himalayas, and several birds were named after him by others such as Edward Blyth...

's account of his experiences in northern Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

. His local guides spotted a tall, bipedal creature covered with long dark hair, which seemed to flee in fear. Hodgson concluded it was an orangutan
Orangutan
Orangutans are the only exclusively Asian genus of extant great ape. The largest living arboreal animals, they have proportionally longer arms than the other, more terrestrial, great apes. They are among the most intelligent primates and use a variety of sophisticated tools, also making sleeping...

.

An early record of reported footprint
Footprint
Footprints are the impressions or images left behind by a person walking. Hoofprints and pawprints are those left by animals with hooves or paws rather than feet, while "shoeprints" is the specific term for prints made by shoes...

s appeared in 1899 in Laurence Waddell's Among the Himalayas. Waddell reported his guide's description of a large apelike creature that left the prints, which Waddell thought were made by a bear
Bear
Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern...

. Waddell heard stories of bipedal, apelike creatures but wrote that "none, however, of the many Tibetans I have interrogated on this subject could ever give me an authentic case. On the most superficial investigation it always resolved into something that somebody heard tell of."

20th century


The frequency of reports increased during the early 20th century, when Westerners began making determined attempts to scale the many mountains in the area and occasionally reported seeing odd creatures or strange tracks.

In 1925, N. A. Tombazi
N. A. Tombazi
N.A. Tombazi was a Greek photographer and geologist who on a British Geological Expedition in 1925 apparently sighted a Yeti creature at 15,000 feet in the Himalayas of Tibet.Later, Tombazi would state:...

, a photographer and member of the Royal Geographical Society, writes that he saw a creature at about 15000 ft (4,572 m) near Zemu Glacier
Zemu Glacier
Zemu Glacier is the largest glacier in the Eastern Himalaya.It is about in length and found at the base of the Kangchenjunga in the Sikkim Himalaya, India. It may be one of the sources for the Teesta River.-Purported Yeti Sighting:...

. Tombazi later wrote that he observed the creature from about 200 yard, for about a minute. "Unquestionably, the figure in outline was exactly like a human being, walking upright and stopping occasionally to pull at some dwarf rhododendron
Rhododendron
Rhododendron is a genus of over 1 000 species of woody plants in the heath family, most with showy flowers...

 bushes
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

. It showed up dark against the snow, and as far as I could make out, wore no clothes." About two hours later, Tombazi and his companions descended the mountain and saw the creature's prints, described as "similar in shape to those of a man, but only six to seven inches long by four inches wide... The prints were undoubtedly those of a biped."

Western interest in the Yeti peaked dramatically in the 1950s. While attempting to scale Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest is the world's highest mountain, with a peak at above sea level. It is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas. The international boundary runs across the precise summit point...

 in 1951, Eric Shipton
Eric Shipton
Eric Earle Shipton CBE was a distinguished British Himalayan mountaineer.-Early years:Born in Ceylon in 1907 where his father, a tea planter, died before he was three years old. His mother buried her grief by taking Eric and his sister Marge and travelling constantly for the next five years...

 took photographs of a number of large prints in the snow, at about 6000 m (19,685 ft) above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

. These photos have been subject to intense scrutiny and debate. Some argue they are the best evidence of Yeti's existence, while others contend the prints are those of a mundane creature that have been distorted by the melting snow. It should also be noted that Eric Shipton was a notorious practical joker.

Peter Byrne reported finding a yeti footprint in 1948, in northern Sikkim
Sikkim
Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayan mountains...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 near the Zemu Glacier
Zemu Glacier
Zemu Glacier is the largest glacier in the Eastern Himalaya.It is about in length and found at the base of the Kangchenjunga in the Sikkim Himalaya, India. It may be one of the sources for the Teesta River.-Purported Yeti Sighting:...

, while on holiday from a Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 assignment in India.

In 1953, Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE , was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer and philanthropist. On 29 May 1953 at the age of 33, he and Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers known to have reached the summit of Mount Everest – see Timeline of climbing Mount Everest...

 and Tenzing Norgay
Tenzing Norgay
Padma Bhushan, Supradipta-Manyabara-Nepal-Tara Tenzing Norgay, GM born Namgyal Wangdi and often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer...

 reported seeing large footprints while scaling Mount Everest. Hillary would later discount Yeti reports as unreliable. In his first autobiography Tenzing said that he believed the Yeti was a large ape, and although he had never seen it himself his father had seen one twice, but in his second autobiography he said he had become much more skeptical about its existence.

During the Daily Mail
Daily Mail
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust. First published in 1896 by Lord Northcliffe, it is the United Kingdom's second biggest-selling daily newspaper after The Sun. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982...

Snowman Expedition of 1954, the mountaineering leader John Angelo Jackson
John Angelo Jackson
John Angelo Jackson was an English mountaineer, explorer and educationalist.-Early life:He was brought up and educated in Nelson, Lancashire. Before World War II, he was apprenticed in pharmacy. However, at the outbreak of war, he left to volunteer for the R.A.F. in which he served for six...

 made the first trek from Everest to Kanchenjunga in the course of which he photographed symbolic paintings of the Yeti at Tengboche
Tengboche
Tengboche is a village in Khumjung in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal, located at . In the village is an important Buddhist monastery, Tengboche Monastery, which is the largest gompa in the Khumbu region. The structure was built in 1923. In 1934, it was destroyed by an earthquake but...

 gompa
Gompa
Gompa and ling are Buddhist ecclesiastical fortifications of learning, lineage and sadhana , located in Tibet, India, Nepal, and Bhutan...

. Jackson tracked and photographed many footprints in the snow, most of which were identifiable. However, there were many large footprints which could not be identified. These flattened footprint-like indentations were attributed to erosion and subsequent widening of the original footprint by wind and particles.

On March 19, 1954, the Daily Mail printed an article which described expedition teams obtaining hair specimens from what was alleged to be a Yeti scalp
Scalp
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly.-Layers:It is usually described as having five layers, which can conveniently be remembered as a mnemonic:...

 found in Pangboche monastery. The hairs were black to dark brown in colour in dim light, and fox red in sunlight. The hair was analysed by Professor Frederic Wood Jones
Frederic Wood Jones
Frederic Wood Jones , usually referred to as Wood Jones, was a British observational naturalist, embryologist, anatomist and anthropologist, who spent considerable time in Australia....

, an expert in human and comparative anatomy. During the study, the hairs were bleached, cut into sections and analysed microscopically. The research consisted of taking microphotographs
Micrograph
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.Micrographs are widely used in all fields of microscopy.-Photomicrograph:...

 of the hairs and comparing them with hairs from known animals such as bears and orangutans. Jones concluded that the hairs were not actually from a scalp. He contended that while some animals do have a ridge of hair extending from the pate to the back, no animals have a ridge (as in the Pangboche "scalp") running from the base of the forehead across the pate and ending at the nape of the neck. Jones was unable to pinpoint exactly the animal from which the Pangboche hairs were taken. He was, however, convinced that the hairs were not of a bear or anthropoid ape
Anthropoid ape
Anthropoid apes or manlike apes, the name given to the family of the Simiidae, because, of all the ape-world, they most closely resemble man. This family includes four kinds, the gibbons of S. E. Asia, the orangutans of Borneo and Sumatra, the gorillas of W. Equatorial Africa, and the chimpanzees...

. He suggested that the hairs were from the shoulder of a coarse-haired hoofed animal.

Sławomir Rawicz claimed in his book The Long Walk, published in 1956, that as he and some others were crossing the Himalayas in the winter of 1940, their path was blocked for hours by two bipedal animals that were doing seemingly nothing but shuffling around in the snow. Rawicz's entire account has since come to be regarded as fictional.

Beginning in 1957, wealthy American oilman
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 Tom Slick
Tom Slick
Thomas Baker "Tom" Slick, Jr. was a San Antonio, Texas based inventor, businessman, adventurer, and heir to an oil business. Slick's father, Thomas Baker Slick, Sr., a.k.a. "The King of the Wildcatters", had made a fortune during the Texas oil boom of the 1920s.-Career:During the 1950s, Slick was...

 funded a few missions to investigate Yeti reports. In 1959, supposed Yeti feces
Feces
Feces, faeces, or fæces is a waste product from an animal's digestive tract expelled through the anus or cloaca during defecation.-Etymology:...

 were collected by one of Slick's expeditions; fecal analysis found a parasite
Parasitism
Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host. Traditionally parasite referred to organisms with lifestages that needed more than one host . These are now called macroparasites...

 which could not be classified. Cryptozoologist Bernard Heuvelmans
Bernard Heuvelmans
Bernard Heuvelmans was a Belgian-French scientist, explorer, researcher, and a writer probably best known as "the father of cryptozoology"...

 wrote, "Since each animal has its own parasites, this indicated that the host animal is equally an unknown animal." The United States government thought that finding the Yeti was likely enough to create three rules for American expeditions searching for it: Obtain a Nepalese permit, do not harm the Yeti except in self defense, and let the Nepalese government approve any news reporting on the animal's discovery.

In 1959, actor
Actor
An actor is a person who acts in a dramatic production and who works in film, television, theatre, or radio in that capacity...

 James Stewart
James Stewart (actor)
James Maitland Stewart was an American film and stage actor, known for his distinctive voice and his everyman persona. Over the course of his career, he starred in many films widely considered classics and was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning one in competition and receiving one Lifetime...

, while visiting India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, reportedly smuggled remains of a supposed Yeti, the so-called Pangboche Hand
Pangboche Hand
The Pangboche Hand is an artifact stolen from a Buddhist monastery in Pangboche, Nepal. Supporters contend that the hand is from a Yeti, a scientifically unrecognized animal purported to live in the Himalayan mountains...

, by concealing it in his luggage when he flew from India to London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

.

In 1960, Hillary mounted an expedition to collect and analyze physical evidence of the Yeti. He sent a supposed Yeti "scalp" from the Khumjung
Khumjung
Khumjung is a village and Village Development Committee in Solukhumbu District in the Sagarmatha Zone of north-eastern Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 1809 people living in 433 individual households....

 monastery
Monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

 to the West for testing, whose results indicated the scalp was manufactured from the skin of a serow
Himalayan Serow
The Himalayan Serow is a vulnerable goat-antelope, native to eastern and southeastern Bangladesh, the Himalayas , northeastern India, and probably western Burma. It has been considered a subspecies of C. sumatraensis....

, a goat-like Himalayan antelope. Anthropologist Myra Shackley
Myra Shackley
Myra Lesley Shackley was formerly Professor of Culture Resource Management and Head of the Centre for Tourism and Visitor Management at Nottingham Business School. She retired in summer 2011 after an academic career spanning more than 40 years, during which she became recognised as a leading...

 disagreed with this conclusion on the grounds that the "hairs from the scalp look distinctly monkey-like and that it contains parasitic mites of a species different from that recovered from the serow."

In 1970, British mountaineer Don Whillans
Don Whillans
Don Whillans was an English rock climber and mountaineer. Born and raised in a two-up two-down house in Salford, Lancashire, he climbed with both Joe Brown and Chris Bonington on many new routes, and was considered the technical equal of both. He was an apprentice plumber when he first started his...

 claimed to have witnessed a creature when scaling Annapurna
Annapurna
Annapurna is a section of the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes Annapurna I, thirteen additional peaks over and 16 more over ....

. According to Whillans, while scouting for a campsite, he heard some odd cries which his Sherpa guide attributed to a Yeti's call. That night, he saw a dark shape moving near his camp. The next day, he observed a few human-like footprints in the snow, and that evening, viewed with binoculars a bipedal, ape-like creature for 20 minutes as it apparently searched for food not far from his camp.

There is a famous Yeti hoax
Hoax
A hoax is a deliberately fabricated falsehood made to masquerade as truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, or rumors, urban legends, pseudosciences or April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes.-Definition:The British...

, known as the Snow Walker Film. The footage was created for Paramount's
Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film production and distribution company, located at 5555 Melrose Avenue in Hollywood. Founded in 1912 and currently owned by media conglomerate Viacom, it is America's oldest existing film studio; it is also the last major film studio still...

 UPN
UPN
United Paramount Network was a television network that was broadcast in over 200 markets in the United States from 1995 to 2006. UPN was originally owned by Viacom/Paramount and Chris-Craft Industries, the former of which, through the Paramount Television Group, produced most of the network's...

 show, Paranormal Borderland, ostensibly by the show's producers. The show ran from March 12 to August 6, 1996. Fox purchased and used the footage in their later program on The World's Greatest Hoaxes.

21st century


In 2004, Henry Gee
Henry Gee
Dr Henry Gee is a British paleontologist, and evolutionary biologist. He is a senior editor of Nature, the scientific journal....

, editor of the journal Nature
Nature (journal)
Nature, first published on 4 November 1869, is ranked the world's most cited interdisciplinary scientific journal by the Science Edition of the 2010 Journal Citation Reports...

, mentioned the Yeti as an example of a legend deserving further study, writing, "The discovery that Homo floresiensis
Homo floresiensis
Homo floresiensis is a possible species, now extinct, in the genus Homo. The remains were discovered in 2003 on the island of Flores in Indonesia. Partial skeletons of nine individuals have been recovered, including one complete cranium...

survived until so very recently, in geological terms, makes it more likely that stories of other mythical, human-like creatures such as Yetis are founded on grains of truth ... Now, cryptozoology, the study of such fabulous creatures, can come in from the cold."

In early December 2007, American television presenter
Presenter
A presenter, or host , is a person or organization responsible for running an event. A museum or university, for example, may be the presenter or host of an exhibit. Likewise, a master of ceremonies is a person that hosts or presents a show...

 Joshua Gates
Joshua Gates
Joshua Gates is an American adventurer, explorer, photographer, and television personality. He is currently the host of Destination Truth on Syfy, , a weekly one-hour show filmed in remote locations around the world that explores some of the world's mysteries and unexplained phenomena...

 and his team (Destination Truth
Destination Truth
Destination Truth is a weekly American paranormal reality television series that premiered on June 6, 2007 on Syfy. Produced by Mandt Bros. Productions and Ping Pong Productions, the program follows paranormal researcher Josh Gates around the world to investigate claims of the supernatural, mainly...

) reported finding a series of footprints in the Everest region of Nepal resembling descriptions of Yeti. Each of the footprints measured 33 cm (13 in) in length with five toes that measured a total of 25 cm (9.8 in) across. Casts were made of the prints for further research. The footprints were examined by Jeffrey Meldrum
Jeffrey Meldrum
D. Jeffrey Meldrum is an Associate Professor of Anatomy and Anthropology and Adjunct Associate Professor of the Department of Anthropology at Idaho State University...

 of Idaho State University, who believed them to be too morphologically
Morphology (biology)
In biology, morphology is a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features....

 accurate to be fake or man made, before changing his mind after making further investigations.

On July 25, 2008, the BBC reported that hairs collected in the remote Garo Hills
Garo Hills
The Garo Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. They are inhabited mainly by tribal dwellers. Shillong, the capital of Meghalaya, is located in this range. It is one of the wettest places in the world. The range is part of the Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion.Garo Hills...

 area of North-East India
North-East India
Northeast India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States, Sikkim, and parts of North Bengal...

 by Dipu Marak had been analyzed at Oxford Brookes University
Oxford Brookes University
Oxford Brookes University is a new university in Oxford, England. It was named to honour the school's founding principal, John Brookes. It has been ranked as the best new university by the Sunday Times University Guide 10 years in a row...

 in the UK by primatologist Anna Nekaris and microscopy
Microscopy
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view samples and objects that cannot be seen with the unaided eye...

 expert Jon Wells. These initial tests were inconclusive, and ape conservation expert Ian Redmond
Ian Redmond
Ian Redmond OBE is a tropical field biologist and conservationist. His career spans more than 30 years in which he is renowned for his work with gorillas and elephants. He is best known for his work with mountain gorrilas, Redmond has been involved in more than 50 documentaries on the subject for,...

 told the BBC that there was similarity between the cuticle pattern of these hairs and specimens collected by Edmund Hilary during Himalayan expeditions in the 1950s and donated to the Oxford University Museum of Natural History
Oxford University Museum of Natural History
The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxford's natural history specimens, located on Parks Road in Oxford, England. It also contains a lecture theatre which is used by the...

, and announced planned DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 analysis. This analysis has since revealed that the hair came from the Himalayan Goral.

On October 20, 2008 a team of seven Japanese adventurers photographed footprints which could allegedly have been made by a Yeti. The team's leader, Yoshiteru Takahashi claims to have observed a Yeti on a 2003 expedition and is determined to capture the creature on film.

A group of Chinese scientists and explorers in 2010 proposed to renew searches in Shennongjia province, which was the site of expeditions in the 1970s and 1980s. At a 2011 conference in Russia, participating scientists and enthusiasts declared having "95% evidence" of the Yeti's existence. However, this claim was disputed later; American anthropologist and anatomist Jeffrey Meldrum
Jeffrey Meldrum
D. Jeffrey Meldrum is an Associate Professor of Anatomy and Anthropology and Adjunct Associate Professor of the Department of Anthropology at Idaho State University...

, who was present during the Russian expedition, claimed the "evidence" found was simply an attempt by local officials to drum up publicity.

Possible explanations


Misidentification of Himalayan wildlife has been proposed as an explanation for some Yeti sightings, including the Chu-Teh, a Langur
Colobinae
Colobinae is a subfamily of the Old World monkey family that includes 59 species in 10 genera, including the skunk-like black-and-white colobus, the large-nosed proboscis monkey, and the gray langurs. Some classifications split the colobine monkeys into two tribes, while others split them into...

 monkey living at lower altitudes, the Tibetan blue bear, the Himalayan brown bear
Himalayan Brown Bear
The Himalayan Brown Bear , also known as the Himalayan Red Bear, Isabelline Bear or Dzu-Teh, is a subspecies of the Brown Bear. The bear is thought to be the source of the legend of the Yeti....

 or Dzu-Teh, also known as the Himalayan red bear. Some have also suggested the Yeti could actually be a human hermit
Hermit
A hermit is a person who lives, to some degree, in seclusion from society.In Christianity, the term was originally applied to a Christian who lives the eremitic life out of a religious conviction, namely the Desert Theology of the Old Testament .In the...

.

One well publicized expedition to Bhutan
Bhutan
Bhutan , officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked state in South Asia, located at the eastern end of the Himalayas and bordered to the south, east and west by the Republic of India and to the north by the People's Republic of China...

 reported that a hair sample had been obtained that, after DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 analysis by Professor Bryan Sykes
Bryan Sykes
Bryan Sykes is a former Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford and a current Fellow of Wolfson College.Sykes published the first report on retrieving DNA from ancient bone...

, could not be matched to any known animal. Analysis completed after the media release, however, clearly showed that the samples were from the Brown bear
Brown Bear
The brown bear is a large bear distributed across much of northern Eurasia and North America. It can weigh from and its largest subspecies, the Kodiak Bear, rivals the polar bear as the largest member of the bear family and as the largest land-based predator.There are several recognized...

 (Ursus arctos) and the Asiatic black bear
Asiatic Black Bear
The Asian black bear , also known as the moon bear or white-chested bear is a medium-sized species of bear, largely adapted for arboreal life, which occurs through much of southern Asia, Korea, northeastern China, the Russian far east and Honshū and Shikoku islands of Japan...

 (Ursus thibetanus).

In 1986, South Tyrol
South Tyrol
South Tyrol , also known by its Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy. It is one of the two autonomous provinces that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province has an area of and a total population of more than 500,000 inhabitants...

ean mountaineer Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner is an Italian mountaineer and explorer from Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol "whose astonishing feats on Everest and on peaks throughout the world have earned him the status of the greatest climber in history." He is renowned for making the first solo ascent of Mount Everest without...

 claimed to have a face-to-face encounter with a Yeti. He has since written a book, My Quest for the Yeti, and claims to have actually killed one. According to Messner, the Yeti is actually the endangered Himalayan brown bear, Ursus arctos isabellinus, that can walk upright or on all fours.

In 2003, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese researcher and mountaineer Dr. Makoto Nebuka published the results of his twelve year linguistic
Linguistics
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context....

 study postulating that the word "Yeti" is actually a corruption of the word "meti", a regional dialect term for "bear". Nebuka claims that the ethnic Tibetans fear and worship the bear as a supernatural being. Nebuka's claims were subject to almost immediate criticism, and he was accused of linguistic carelessness. Dr. Raj Kumar Pandey, who has researched both Yetis and mountain languages, said "it is not enough to blame tales of the mysterious beast of the Himalayas on words that rhyme but mean different things."

Some speculate that these reported creatures could be present-day specimens of the extinct
Extinction
In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms , normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point...

 giant ape Gigantopithecus
Gigantopithecus
Gigantopithecus is an extinct genus of ape that existed from roughly one million years to as recently as three hundred thousand years ago, in what is now China, India, and Vietnam, placing Gigantopithecus in the same time frame and geographical location as several hominin species...

. However, while the Yeti is generally described as bipedal, most scientists believe Gigantopithecus to have been quadruped
Quadruped
Quadrupedalism is a form of land animal locomotion using four limbs or legs. An animal or machine that usually moves in a quadrupedal manner is known as a quadruped, meaning "four feet"...

al, and so massive that, unless it evolved specifically as a bipedal ape (like Oreopithecus and the hominids), walking upright would have been even more difficult for the now extinct primate than it is for its extant quadrupedal relative, the orangutan.

In popular culture


The Yeti has become a cultural icon, appearing in movies, literature, music, and video games.

Film


Significant film appearances include The Snow Creature
The Snow Creature
The Snow Creature is a 1954 black-and-white sci-fi monster movie produced and directed by W. Lee Wilder, and written by Myles Wilder. It stars Paul Langton and Leslie Denison as members of a scientific expedition to the Himalayas who encounter and capture a Yeti...

(1954), The Abominable Snowman
The Abominable Snowman (film)
The Abominable Snowman is a 1957 British horror film, directed by Val Guest and starring Forrest Tucker and Peter Cushing...

(1957), Snowbeast
Snowbeast
Snowbeast is a made-for-television horror film that was first broadcast in 1977 in the The United States of America.The movie details the attacks of a ravenous white sasquatch on a Colorado ski resort. The teleplay was written by Joseph Stefano, who wrote the script for Alfred Hitchcock's classic...

(1977), Monsters, Inc.
Monsters, Inc.
Monsters, Inc. is a 2001 American computer-animated film and the fourth feature-length film produced by Pixar Animation Studios. It was directed by Pete Docter, co-directed by Lee Unkrich and David Silverman, and written by Jill Culton, Peter Docter, Ralph Eggleston, Dan Gerson, Jeff Pidgeon, Rhett...

(2001), and The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor
The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor
The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor is a 2008 American action adventure film and sequel to The Mummy and The Mummy Returns . The film stars Brendan Fraser, Maria Bello, John Hannah, Luke Ford, and Jet Li, and was released on August 1, 2008 in the United States...

(2008), Yeti: Curse of the Snow Demon
Yeti: Curse of the Snow Demon
Yeti: Curse of the Snow Demon is a 2008, made-for-television horror film broadcast on the Sci Fi Channel on June 9, 2008. Starring Carly Pope, Peter DeLuise, Ona Grauer, and Crystal Lowe, the film centers around a group of people whom, after crashing their plane into the Himalayan Mountains,...

, (2008) Yetiko Khojima (Yeti; in search of Yeti, 2010). Rage of the Yeti
Rage of the Yeti
Rage of the Yeti is a 2011 film by Syfy....

(2011)

Television


The Yeti plays significant roles in some television shows, including the annual American Christmas broadcast special Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (TV special)
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a Christmas television special produced in stop motion animation by Rankin/Bass. It first aired Sunday, December 6, 1964, on the NBC television network in the USA, and was sponsored by General Electric under the umbrella title of The General Electric Fantasy Hour...

; in various Looney Tunes
Looney Tunes
Looney Tunes is a Warner Bros. animated cartoon series. It preceded the Merrie Melodies series and was Warner Bros.'s first animated theatrical series. Since its first official release, 1930's Sinkin' in the Bathtub, the series has become a worldwide media franchise, spawning several television...

 cartoons; in a Spider-Man
Spider-Man
Spider-Man is a fictional Marvel Comics superhero. The character was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Steve Ditko. He first appeared in Amazing Fantasy #15...

story from The Electric Company
The Electric Company
The Electric Company is an educational American children's television series that was produced by the Children's Television Workshop for PBS in the United States. PBS broadcast 780 episodes over the course of its six seasons from October 25, 1971 to April 15, 1977...

; in "That's Snow Ghost!" in episode 17 (season one) of "Scooby Doo"; in DuckTales
DuckTales
DuckTales is an American animated television series produced by Walt Disney Television Animation. Based on Carl Barks' Uncle Scrooge comic book series, it premiered on September 18, 1987 and ended on November 28, 1990 with a total of four seasons and 100 episodes...

Episode 45; as the abominable snow monster Lost Crown of Genghis Khan; in Jonny Quest
Jonny Quest (TV series)
Jonny Quest – often casually referred to as The Adventures of Jonny Quest – is an American science fiction/adventure animated television series about a boy who accompanies his father on extraordinary adventures...

Episode 25; as the robotic Yeti
Yeti (Doctor Who)
The Yeti of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, although resembling the cryptozoological creatures also called the Yeti, are in actuality alien robots. Their external appearance, that of a huge hairy biped, disguises a small spherical mechanism that provides its motive power...

 in The Abominable Snowmen
The Abominable Snowmen
The Abominable Snowmen is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which originally aired in six weekly parts from September 30 to November 4, 1967. The story is notable for the introduction of recurring foes, the Yeti....

, a six-part serial from 1967 in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The programme depicts the adventures of a time-travelling humanoid alien known as the Doctor who explores the universe in a sentient time machine called the TARDIS that flies through time and space, whose exterior...

(they returned in The Web of Fear
The Web of Fear
The Web of Fear is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in six weekly parts from 3 February to 9 March 1968. This serial — which marks the return of the Yeti, the Great Intelligence, and Professor Travers — is the sequel to The Abominable...

, The Five Doctors
The Five Doctors
The Five Doctors is a special feature-length episode of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, produced in celebration of the programme's twentieth anniversary. It had its world premiere in the United States, on the Chicago PBS station WTTW and various other PBS member stations...

, and Downtime
Downtime (Doctor Who)
Downtime is a direct-to-video spin-off of the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It was released direct-to-video and produced by the independent production company Reeltime Pictures...

); in Power Rangers: Operation Overdrive
Power Rangers: Operation Overdrive
Power Rangers Operation Overdrive is an American television program, the fifteenth installment in the Power Rangers franchise based on the Super Sentai series GoGo Sentai Boukenger, which is also the thirtieth entry and anniversary of that franchise. It premiered on February 26, 2007...

; in The Secret Saturdays
The Secret Saturdays
The Secret Saturdays is an American animated television series created by Canadian cartoonist Jay Stephens for Cartoon Network. It debuted on October 3, 2008, in the United States...

: in Ben 10: Ultimate Alien; and in the 1977 American TV movie Snowbeast
Snowbeast
Snowbeast is a made-for-television horror film that was first broadcast in 1977 in the The United States of America.The movie details the attacks of a ravenous white sasquatch on a Colorado ski resort. The teleplay was written by Joseph Stefano, who wrote the script for Alfred Hitchcock's classic...

.

Literature


In literature the Yeti has appeared in Tintin in Tibet
Tintin in Tibet
Tintin in Tibet is the twentieth title in the comic book series The Adventures of Tintin, written and drawn by Belgian cartoonist Hergé. Originally serialised from September 1958 in the French language magazine named after his creation, Le Journal de Tintin, it was then first published in book...

, by Hergé
Hergé
Georges Prosper Remi , better known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian comics writer and artist. His best known and most substantial work is the 23 completed comic books in The Adventures of Tintin series, which he wrote and illustrated from 1929 until his death in 1983, although he was also...

, in The Abominable Snowman of Pasadena, the 38th book in R. L. Stine
R. L. Stine
Robert Lawrence Stine , known as R. L. Stine, and Jovial Bob Stine, is an American writer. Stine, who is called the "Stephen King of children's literature," is the author of hundreds of horror fiction novels, including the books in the Fear Street, Goosebumps, Rotten School, Mostly Ghostly, and The...

's Goosebumps
Goosebumps
Goosebumps is a series of children's horror fiction novels written by American author R. L. Stine and first published by Scholastic Publishing. It is a collection of stories that feature semi-homogenous plot structures, with fictional children being involved in scary situations...

 franchise, and in a gamebook
Gamebook
A gamebook is a work of fiction that allows the reader to participate in the story by making effective choices. The narrative branches along various paths through the use of numbered paragraphs or pages...

 in the Choose Your Own Adventure
Choose Your Own Adventure
Choose Your Own Adventure is a series of children's gamebooks where each story is written from a second-person point of view, with the reader assuming the role of the protagonist and making choices that determine the main character's actions and the plot's outcome. The series was based on a...

 series. The Abominable Snowman
Abominable Snowman (comics)
Abominable Snowman is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics Universe. His first appearance was in Tales to Astonish #13.-Fictional character biography:...

 is a character in the Marvel Comics
Marvel Comics
Marvel Worldwide, Inc., commonly referred to as Marvel Comics and formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, is an American company that publishes comic books and related media...

 Universe and the Snowman
Snowman (comics)
The Snowman is a fictional supervillain in Batman comics. The Snowman first appeared in Batman #337 , and was created by Gerry Conway and Roy Thomas.-Fictional character biography:...

 is a character in the DC Comics
DC Comics
DC Comics, Inc. is one of the largest and most successful companies operating in the market for American comic books and related media. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment a company of Warner Bros. Entertainment, which itself is owned by Time Warner...

 Universe. The Yeti was featured in the Indian comic Super Commando Dhruva
Super Commando Dhruva
Super Commando Dhruva is a fictional superhero in comic books published by Raj Comics. The character first appeared in "Pratishodh Ki Jwala" and was created by writer and artist Anupam Sinha...

. The name Mi-go is also used in the "Cthulhu Mythos" of H.P. Lovecraft and others, e.g., Lovecraft's story "The Whisperer in Darkness." It is also used in the adult fantasy book "Monster," by A. Lee Martinez
A. Lee Martinez
A. Lee Martinez is an American fantasy and science fiction author. He has been a member of the DFW Writers' Workshop since 1995. He currently resides in Dallas, Texas.-Biography:...

 where it is found eating ice cream out of a grocery store freezer. A quest for the Yeti is described in Philip Kerr
Philip Kerr
Philip Kerr is a British author of both adult fiction and non-fiction, most notably the Bernie Gunther series of thrillers, and of children's books, particularly the Children of the Lamp series....

's "Esau".

Music


American heavy metal
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the Midlands of the United Kingdom and the United States...

 band High on Fire
High on Fire
High on Fire is a stoner metal band from Oakland, California, that was formed in 1998. Matt Pike, the band's frontman and founder, previously played guitar for the influential stoner doom band Sleep.-History:...

 included their song "The Yeti" on their second album Surrounded by Thieves
Surrounded by Thieves
Surrounded by Thieves is the second album by Californian stoner metal band High on Fire. It was their first album for Relapse Records and was produced by Billy Anderson and the band itself. It is generally considered one of the finest metal albums of 2002. "Hung, Drawn and Quartered" was utilized...

. Rock band Clutch
Clutch (band)
Clutch is an American rock band from Germantown, Maryland, formed in 1990. The band's first release was an EP entitled Pitchfork, which debuted in October 1990. Their first studio album, Transnational Speedway League, was released three years later in 1993. To date, Clutch has released nine studio...

 have a track entitled "The Yeti" on their third album The Elephant Riders
The Elephant Riders
Each copy of the album contains one of the following hidden songs, which is on the same track as "The Dragonfly".*"David Rose"*"Gifted & Talented"*"05"The Japanese version of the album, however, contains all three bonus tracks....

. A psychedelic trance
Psychedelic trance
Psychedelic trance, psytrance or just psy is a form of electronic music characterized by hypnotic arrangements of synthetic rhythms and complex layered melodies created by high tempo riffs. It appeared in the mainstream in 1995 as with reporting of the trend of Goa trance. The genre offers variety...

 collaboration called "The mystery of the Yeti
The Mystery Of The Yeti
The Mystery of the Yeti is a psychedelic ambient music project consisting of the members of The Infinity Project, Total Eclipse and musicians Hallucinogen and Doof. The Mystery of the Yeti was influential to later evolution of Goa trance music....

", featuring many prominent names of the genre, was released on two albums between the years 1996...1999. "What's the New Mary Jane" was a song written by John Lennon (but credited to Lennon/McCartney) and performed by The Beatles. It was recorded in 1968 for the album The Beatles (aka "The White Album"), but was not used. It contained the lyric, "She liked to be married to yeti, he cooking such groovy spaghetti." A newly mixed version of the recording was officially released on the 1996 compilation Anthology 3. On October 11, 2011, English singer-songwriter, Kate Bush
Kate Bush
Kate Bush is an English singer-songwriter, musician and record producer. Her eclectic musical style and idiosyncratic vocal style have made her one of the United Kingdom's most successful solo female performers of the past 30 years.In 1978, at the age of 19, Bush topped the UK Singles Chart...

, released, as a single from her album, "50 Words for Snow
50 Words for Snow
50 Words for Snow is the tenth studio album by English singer-songwriter Kate Bush. It is the second album to be released on her own label, Fish People...

," the critically acclaimed and evocative, seven minute song, "Wild Man," described by New Music Express music critic, Priya Elan, as having lyrics "full of geographical intrigue and century old myth."

Theme parks


Walt Disney World's attraction Expedition Everest
Expedition Everest
Expedition Everest - Legend of the Forbidden Mountain is a roller coaster attraction at Disney's Animal Kingdom theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, near Orlando...

 is themed around the folklore of the Yeti and features a 25-foot-tall audio-animatronic
Audio-Animatronics
Audio-Animatronics is the registered trademark for a form of robotics created by Walt Disney Imagineering for shows and attractions at Disney theme parks, and subsequently expanded on and used by other companies. The robots move and make noise, generally in speech or song...

 Yeti which appears during the ride. At Disneyland a similar ride named the Matterhorn Bobsleds
Matterhorn Bobsleds
The Matterhorn Bobsleds or the Matterhorn is an attraction composed of two intertwining steel roller coasters, which opened in 1959 at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. It is modeled after the Matterhorn, a mountain in the Swiss Alps...

 features three audio-animatronic Abominable Snowmen.

Video games


The video game Urban Yeti!
Urban Yeti!
Urban Yeti! is an action video game developed by Cave Barn Studios and published by Telegames for the Game Boy Advance. It was released in North America on August 16, 2002.-Gameplay:...

features a yeti as the main character who undergoes a quest to find a mate in a human city. In the game The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess
The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess
is an action-adventure game developed by Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development, and published by Nintendo for the GameCube and Wii video game consoles. It is the thirteenth installment in The Legend of Zelda series...

, "Yeta" who became the boss known as "Blizzeta" and her lover "Yeto" in Snowpeak Ruins were "Yeti"
Universe of The Legend of Zelda
The fictional universe depicted in The Legend of Zelda series of video games consists of a variety of lands, the most commonly appearing of these being , and was created by Japanese video game developer Shigeru Miyamoto.-Hyrule:...

.

In Chris Pirih's classic game "SkiFree
SkiFree
SkiFree is a computer game created by Chris Pirih, who was working as a programmer at Microsoft at the time.The object of the game is simple: to ski down an endless slope and avoid the obstacles.-History:...

" the player continues skiing down a slope until he or she encounters a yeti who chases and attempts to eat the skier. From that point on, the player can ski until the yeti catches and eats them.

In the 2nd installment of Tomb Raider, the Yeti is introduced as an enemy in the Tibet levels.

See also


General
  • Ethereal creature
  • List of cryptids
  • List of legendary creatures
  • Mogollon Monster
    Mogollon Monster
    The Mogollon Monster is a legendary creature that has been discussed in accounts from central and eastern Arizona along the Mogollon Rim. It is most often described as a Bigfoot or ape-like creature, but descriptions vary...

  • Paranormal
    Paranormal
    Paranormal is a general term that designates experiences that lie outside "the range of normal experience or scientific explanation" or that indicates phenomena understood to be outside of science's current ability to explain or measure...

  • The Legend of Boggy Creek (docudrama)
    The Legend of Boggy Creek
    The Legend of Boggy Creek is a 1972 horror docudrama about the "Fouke Monster", a Bigfoot-type creature that has been seen in and around Fouke, Arkansas since the 1950s. The film mixes staged interviews with some local residents who claim to have encountered the creature, along with fictitious...

  • Tsul 'Kalu
    Tsul 'Kalu
    Tsul 'Kalu , is a legendary figure in Cherokee mythology who plays the role of "the great lord of the game", and as such is frequently invoked in hunting rites and rituals...

  • Wild Man of the Navidad
    Wild Man of the Navidad
    The Wild Man of the Navidad is believed to be one of the first sightings of Bigfoot in Texas.- History :...


Similar alleged creatures
  • Almas
    Almas (cryptozoology)
    The Almas, Mongolian for "wild man" , is a purported hominid cryptozoological species reputed to inhabit the Caucasus and Pamir Mountains of central Asia, and the Altai Mountains of southern Mongolia. The creature is not currently recognized or cataloged by science...

     – Mongolia
  • Amomongo
    Amomongo
    The Amomongo is a creature of Philippine mythology described as hairy, man-sized and ape-like with long nails. The term may have its roots in the Hiligaynon word amó, which means "ape" or "monkey". Residents of La Castellana in Negros Occidental refer to the creature as a "wild monkey" that lives...

     – Philippines
  • Ban-manush
    Ban-manush
    Ban-manush is the mythical bi-pedal cryptid Nyalmo which has been spotted in Bangladesh measuring at tall. Its name means "ape man" in Indo-Aryan and is one of many variations of the mythical abominable snowman in South Asia....

     – Bangladesh
  • Barmanou
    Barmanou
    The barmanou is said to be a bipedal primate living in the mountainous region of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Sightings have been reported by shepherds living in the mountains. The zoologist Jordi Magraner, a Spaniard living in France, researched the barmanu extensively.The term Barmanu is used in...

     – Afghanistan and Pakistan
  • Batutut
    Batutut
    The Batutut or Ujit, sometimes also known as "forest people", is a proposed hominid cryptid, reputedly similar to the bigfoot, thought to inhabit the Vu Quang nature reserve and other wilderness areas of Vietnam, Laos and northern Borneo. The Vu Quang has been the source of a number of newly...

     – Vietnam
  • Bigfoot
    Bigfoot
    Bigfoot, also known as sasquatch, is an ape-like cryptid that purportedly inhabits forests, mainly in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Bigfoot is usually described as a large, hairy, bipedal humanoid...

     – North America
  • Daeva
    Daeva
    Daeva in Avestan language meaning "a being of shining light", is a term for a particular sort of supernatural entity with disagreeable characteristics. Equivalents in Iranian languages include Pashto dêw , Baluchi dêw , Persian dīv , Kurdish dêw...

     or Div  – Tajikistan, Iran
  • Chuchunya – Siberia
  • Fear liath
    Fear liath
    Am Fear Liath Mòr is the name of a presence or creature which is said to haunt the summit and passes of Ben Macdui, the highest peak of the Cairngorms and the second highest peak in Britain. It has been described as an extremely tall figure covered with short hair, or as an unseen presence that...

     – Scotland
  • Fouke Monster
    Fouke Monster
    The Fouke Monster, also known as the Southern Sasquatch, is a legendary cryptid reported near the town of Fouke in Miller County, Arkansas during the early 1970s, where it was accused of attacking a local family. Initial sightings of the creature were concentrated in the Jonesville/Boggy Creek...

     – United States
  • Genderuwa
    Genderuwa
    Genderuwa is a Javanese mythology described as hairy human-like apes, big and stout with reddish black color, his body covered with thick hair that grows in the whole body. It is believed by the local, Genderuwa is kind of the jinn or spirits that manifest this creature. Genderuwa most widely known...

     – Indonesia
  • Grassman
    Grassman
    Grassman, also known as the Ohio Grassman and Kenmore Grassman, is an alleged bipedal, ape-like creature reportedly seen in the state of Ohio, primarily around Kenmore, near the Akron, Ohio area and throughout Eastern Ohio into Western Pa. and central and southern Ohio into WV...

     – United States
  • Hibagon
    Hibagon
    The or is the Japanese equivalent of the Bigfoot or Yeti.-Description:The hibagon is described as a black creature with white hands and large white feet, standing about five feet tall. Sightings have been reported in forested, mountainous areas of the country...

     – Japan
  • Mande Barung
    Mande Barung
    The Mande Barung, or Mande Burung is an alleged ape-like creature said to inhabit the Meghalaya subtropical forests in the remote Garo Hills of the north east of India and in Bangladesh....

     – India
  • Mapinguari
    Mapinguari
    The mapinguari or mapinguary , also known as the Isnashi , is a legendary cryptid said to resemble a ground sloth-like creature with red fur living in the Amazon rainforests of Brazil and Bolivia...

     – South America
  • Momo the Monster
    Momo the Monster
    Momo is the name of a local legend, similar to the Bigfoot, which is reported to live in Missouri. The name Momo is short for 'Missouri Monster' and it is reported to have a large, pumpkin-shaped head, with a furry body, and hair covering the eyes. First reported in July 1971, near Louisiana,...

     – United States
  • Nuk-luk
    Nuk-luk
    The Nuk-luk is a cryptozoological hominid reported in the Nahanni National Park Reserve near Nahanni Butte, Northwest Territories, Canada, between April and June of 1964, by John Baptist, several men, and a boy named Jerry. Several Dene from Fort Liard who were trapping at a river reportedly came...

     – Canada
  • Orang Mawas
    Orang Mawas
    Orang Mawas or Mawas is a hominid cryptid reported to inhabit the jungle of Johor in Malaysia. It is described as being about 10 ft tall, bipedal and covered in black fur, and has been reported feeding on fish and raiding orchards...

     – Malaysia
  • Orang Pendek
    Orang Pendek
    Orang Pendek is the most common name given to a cryptid, or cryptozoological animal, that reportedly inhabits remote, mountainous forests on the island of Sumatra....

     – Indonesia
  • Skunk ape
    Skunk Ape
    The Skunk Ape is a hominid cryptid said to inhabit the Southern United States, from places such as North Carolina and Arkansas, although reports from Florida are most common. It is named for its appearance and for the unpleasant odor that is said to accompany it. According to the United States...

     – United States
  • Yeren
    Yeren
    The Yeren , variously referred to as the Yiren, Yeh Ren, Chinese Wildman, , or Man-Monkey, , is a legendary creature said to be an as yet undiscovered hominid residing in the remote mountainous forested regions of western Hubei....

     – China
  • Yowie
    Yowie
    The Yowie is a creature from Australian folklore.Yowie may also refer to:*Cadbury Yowie, a confectionery from the Cadbury-Schweppes company*Yowie Bay, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney, Australia...

     – Australia


General references

  • John Napier
    John Napier (primatologist)
    John Russell Napier, MRCS, LRCP, D.Sc. was a British primatologist, paleoathropologist, and physician, who is notable for his work with Homo habilis and OH 7, as well as on human and primate hands/feet...

     (MRCS, IRCS, DSC) Bigfoot: The Yeti and Sasquatch in Myth and Reality 1972 ISBN 0-525-06658-6.
  • Sir Francis Younghusband
    Francis Younghusband
    Lieutenant Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, KCSI, KCIE was a British Army officer, explorer, and spiritual writer...

     The Epic of Mount Everest, 1926, Edward Arnold & Co. The expedition that inadvertently coined the term "Abominable Snowman"
  • Charles Howard-Bury, Mount Everest The Reconnaissance, 1921, Edward Arnold, ISBN 1-135-39935-2.
  • Bill Tilman
    Bill Tilman
    Major Harold William "Bill" Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar was an English mountaineer and explorer, renowned for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages.-Early years and Africa:...

     (H. W. Tilman), Mount Everest 1938, Appendix B, pp. 127–137, Pilgrim Publishing. ISBN 81-7769-175-9.
  • John Angelo Jackson
    John Angelo Jackson
    John Angelo Jackson was an English mountaineer, explorer and educationalist.-Early life:He was brought up and educated in Nelson, Lancashire. Before World War II, he was apprenticed in pharmacy. However, at the outbreak of war, he left to volunteer for the R.A.F. in which he served for six...

    , More than Mountains, Chapter 10 (pp 92) & 11, Prelude to the Snowman Expedition & The Snowman Expedition, George Harrap & Co, 1954
  • Ralph Izzard
    Ralph Izzard
    Ralph William Burdick Izzard, OBE, was an English journalist, author, adventurer, and British Naval Intelligence officer ....

    , The Abominable Snowman Adventure, this is the detailed account by the Daily Mail
    Daily Mail
    The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust. First published in 1896 by Lord Northcliffe, it is the United Kingdom's second biggest-selling daily newspaper after The Sun. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982...

     correspondent on the 1954 expedition to find the "Snowman", Hodder and Staoughton, 1955.
  • Charles Stonor, The Sherpa and the Snowman, recounts the 1955 Daily Mail
    Daily Mail
    The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust. First published in 1896 by Lord Northcliffe, it is the United Kingdom's second biggest-selling daily newspaper after The Sun. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982...

     "Abominable Snowman Expedition" by the scientific officer of the expedition, this is a very detailed analysis of not just the "Snowman" but the flora and fauna of the Himalaya and its people. Hollis and Carter, 1955.
  • John Angelo Jackson, Adventure Travels in the Himalaya Chapter 17, Everest and the Elusive Snowman, 1954 updated material, Indus Publishing Company, 2005, ISBN 81-7387-175-2.
  • Bernard Heuvelmans
    Bernard Heuvelmans
    Bernard Heuvelmans was a Belgian-French scientist, explorer, researcher, and a writer probably best known as "the father of cryptozoology"...

    , On the Track of Unknown Animals, Hill and Wang, 1958
  • Reinhold Messner
    Reinhold Messner
    Reinhold Messner is an Italian mountaineer and explorer from Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol "whose astonishing feats on Everest and on peaks throughout the world have earned him the status of the greatest climber in history." He is renowned for making the first solo ascent of Mount Everest without...

    , My Quest for the Yeti: Confronting the Himalayas' Deepest Mystery, New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000, ISBN 0-312-20394-2
  • Gardner Soule, Trail of the Abominable Snowman, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1966, ISBN 0-399-6064
  • Daniel Taylor-Ide, Something Hidden Behind the Ranges: A Himalayan Quest, San Francisco (Calif.) : Mercury house, 1999
  • Ann E. Bodie, The Exploding Cow Story: Concerning the History of the Yeti Throughout the Ages, New York: St.Martin's Press,1986
  • http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4269The Abominable Snowman: How likely is it that the Yeti of the Himalayas is a real creature? Skeptoid: Critical Analysis of Pop Phenomena
    Skeptoid
    Skeptoid is a weekly podcast created and hosted by American skeptic and author Brian Dunning. The show follows an audio essay format, and is dedicated to the critical examination of pseudoscience and the paranormal....

    , August 2, 2011]