Yerevan

Yerevan

Overview
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

 and one of the world's oldest continuously-inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River
Hrazdan River
The Hrazdan is a major river of Armenia. It starts at the northwest extremity of Lake Sevan and flows south through the Kotayk marz and Armenia's capital, Yerevan. It then joins the Aras River along the border with Turkey. A Hydro-electric plant is located on the Hrazdan river...

, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. It has been the capital since 1918, the thirteenth in the history of Armenia
History of Armenia
Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat. The original Armenian name for the country was Hayk, later Hayastan , translated as the land of Haik, and consisting of the name Haik and the suffix '-stan' ....

.

The history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni
Erebuni Fortress
Erebuni Fortress also known as Arin Berd is a fortified city from the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in what is present-day Yerevan, Armenia. It was one of several fortresses built along the northern Urartian border and was one of the most important political, economic and cultural centers of...

 in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain
Ararat plain
The Ararat plain is one of the largest of the Armenian Plateau, stretches west of the Sevan basin, at the foothills of the Gegham mountains. In the north the plain borders on Mount Aragats, and in the south, on Mount Ararat...

.
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Encyclopedia
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

 and one of the world's oldest continuously-inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River
Hrazdan River
The Hrazdan is a major river of Armenia. It starts at the northwest extremity of Lake Sevan and flows south through the Kotayk marz and Armenia's capital, Yerevan. It then joins the Aras River along the border with Turkey. A Hydro-electric plant is located on the Hrazdan river...

, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. It has been the capital since 1918, the thirteenth in the history of Armenia
History of Armenia
Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat. The original Armenian name for the country was Hayk, later Hayastan , translated as the land of Haik, and consisting of the name Haik and the suffix '-stan' ....

.

The history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni
Erebuni Fortress
Erebuni Fortress also known as Arin Berd is a fortified city from the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in what is present-day Yerevan, Armenia. It was one of several fortresses built along the northern Urartian border and was one of the most important political, economic and cultural centers of...

 in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain
Ararat plain
The Ararat plain is one of the largest of the Armenian Plateau, stretches west of the Sevan basin, at the foothills of the Gegham mountains. In the north the plain borders on Mount Aragats, and in the south, on Mount Ararat...

. After World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, Yerevan became the capital of the Democratic Republic of Armenia
Democratic Republic of Armenia
The Democratic Republic of Armenia was the first modern establishment of an Armenian state...

 as thousands of survivors
Armenian Genocide survivors
The Armenian Genocide survivors are the Western Armenians who were not killed in the Genocide of 1915. The total number of Armenians who survived the Genocide is 880,000. Most of the Genocide survivors became refugees and migrated to other countires...

 of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I...

 settled in the area. The city expanded rapidly during the 20th century as Armenia became one of the fifteen republics
Republics of the Soviet Union
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics of the Soviet Union were ethnically-based administrative units that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union...

 in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. In fifty years, Yerevan was transformed from a town of a few thousand residents within the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

, to Armenia's principal cultural, artistic, and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government.

With the growth of the economy of the country
Economy of Armenia
Armenia is the second most densely populated of the former Soviet republics. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, bordered on the north and east by Georgia and Azerbaijan and on the south and west by Iran and Turkey....

, Yerevan has been undergoing major transformation as many parts of the city have been the recipient of new construction since the early 2000s, and retail outlets such as restaurants, shops and street cafes, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied.

In 2010, the population of Yerevan was estimated to be 1,119,000 people 34% of all the population of Armenia.

Yerevan was named the 2012 World Book Capital
World Book Capital
World Book Capital is a title bestowed by UNESCO to a city in recognition of the quality of its programs to promote books and reading and the dedication of all players in the book industry....

 by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

.

Etymology and symbols



One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV (the Last), the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty
Orontid Dynasty
The Orontid Dynasty The Orontid Dynasty The Orontid Dynasty (also known by their native name, Yervanduni was a hereditary Armenian dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Ararat...

, and founder of the city of Yervandashat
Yervandashat
Yervandashat is a village in the Armavir Province of Armenia. The village has a ruined basilica dated to the 4th or 5th century and the Saint Shushanik church of the 10th to 17th century...

. However, it is likely that the city's name is derived from the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni
Erebuni
Erebuni may refer to:*Erebuni Fortress, the fortress of ancient kingdom of Urartu, now territory of Armenia*Yerevan, capital of Armenia*Erebuni, Armenia, a district of Yerevan*Erebuni Museum*Erebuni Airport...

 (Էրեբունի), which was founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti I. As elements of the Urartian language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name eventually evolved into Yerevan (Erebuni = Erevani = Erevan = Yerevan). Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform
Cuneiform
Cuneiform can refer to:*Cuneiform script, an ancient writing system originating in Mesopotamia in the 4th millennium BC*Cuneiform , three bones in the human foot*Cuneiform Records, a music record label...

 tablets at Erebuni:
Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name, "Yerevan," to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah
Noah
Noah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the tenth and last of the antediluvian Patriarchs. The biblical story of Noah is contained in chapters 6–9 of the book of Genesis, where he saves his family and representatives of all animals from the flood by constructing an ark...

, in Armenian
Armenian language
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora...

. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark
Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark is a vessel appearing in the Book of Genesis and the Quran . These narratives describe the construction of the ark by Noah at God's command to save himself, his family, and the world's animals from the worldwide deluge of the Great Flood.In the narrative of the ark, God sees the...

 had landed on Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat is a snow-capped, dormant volcanic cone in Turkey. It has two peaks: Greater Ararat and Lesser Ararat .The Ararat massif is about in diameter...

 and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!" ("it appeared!").

In Armenian manuscripts, Yerevan was also mentioned as Erevan, Erewan, Ervan, Eruan, Arevan, Iravan (Irevan), Revan and Ayravan.

However, the predominant former names of the city are Erebuni and Erevan.

The principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, which is visible from any area in the capital. The seal
Seal (device)
A seal can be a figure impressed in wax, clay, or some other medium, or embossed on paper, with the purpose of authenticating a document ; but the term can also mean the device for making such impressions, being essentially a mould with the mirror image of the design carved in sunken- relief or...

 of the city is a crowned lion
Lion
The lion is one of the four big cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger...

 on a pedestal with the inscription "Yerevan." The lion's head is turned backwards while it holds a scepter using the right front leg, the attribute of power and royalty. The symbol of eternity is on the breast of the lion with a picture of Ararat in the upper part. The emblem is a rectangular shield
Shield
A shield is a type of personal armor, meant to intercept attacks, either by stopping projectiles such as arrows or redirecting a hit from a sword, mace or battle axe to the side of the shield-bearer....

 with a blue border.

On 27 September 2004, Yerevan adopted a hymn
Hymn
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification...

, "Erebuni-Yerevan", written by Paruyr Sevak
Paruyr Sevak
Paruyr Rafaeli Ghazaryan was an Armenian poet. He is considered one of the greatest Armenian poets of the twentieth century. -Biography:...

 and composed by Edgar Hovhanissian. It was selected in a competition for a new hymn and new flag that would best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia. The flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag
Flag of Armenia
The national flag of Armenia, the Armenian Tricolour , consists of three horizontal bands of equal width, red on the top, blue in the middle, and orange on the bottom. The Armenian Supreme Soviet adopted the current flag on 24 August 1990...

. The lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging.

Early history


The ancient kingdom of Van (Ararat or Urartu
Urartu
Urartu , corresponding to Ararat or Kingdom of Van was an Iron Age kingdom centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highland....

 or Biainili), was formed in the 9th century BC in the basin of Lake Van
Lake Van
Lake Van is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country in Van district. It is a saline and soda lake, receiving water from numerous small streams that descend from the surrounding mountains. Lake Van is one of the world's largest endorheic lakes . The original outlet from...

 of the Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
The Armenian Highland is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East...

, including the territory of modern-day Yerevan. King Arame was the founder of the state which was one of the most developed states of its age.

However, the territory of Yerevan-Erebuni was settled in the fourth millennium B.C.
4th millennium BC
The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. It marked the beginning of the Bronze Age and of writing.The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture spread widely across Eurasia...

, fortified settlements from the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

 include Shengavit
Shengavit Settlement
The Shengavit Settlement is an archaeological site in present day Yerevan, Armenia located on a hill south-east of Lake Yerevan. It was inhabited during four distinct settlement phases from the late 4th millennium BC to the early 2nd century BC. The town occupied an area of six hectares...

, Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd is a memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide; it is located on a hill overlooking Yerevan, Armenia. Every year on April 24, hundreds of thousands of Armenians gather here to remember the victims of the 1915 Armenian Genocide that took place in the Ottoman Empire...

, Teishebaini
Teishebaini
Teishebaini was the capital of the Urartian Transcaucasian provinces. It is presently located near the modern city of Yerevan in Armenia...

, Arin Berd
Erebuni Fortress
Erebuni Fortress also known as Arin Berd is a fortified city from the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in what is present-day Yerevan, Armenia. It was one of several fortresses built along the northern Urartian border and was one of the most important political, economic and cultural centers of...

, Karmir Berd
Karmir Berd
Karmir Blur is a fortified settlement from the end of the 2nd millennium BC. The site is located in Yerevan, Armenia on the right bank of the Hrazdan River, near the highway that runs from Yerevan to Yeghvard, behind the Institute of Physics building. Objects found during archaeological...

 and Berdadzor. Archaeological evidence, such as a cuneiform
Cuneiform
Cuneiform can refer to:*Cuneiform script, an ancient writing system originating in Mesopotamia in the 4th millennium BC*Cuneiform , three bones in the human foot*Cuneiform Records, a music record label...

 inscription, indicates that the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni (Էրեբունի) was founded in 782 BC (29 years earlier than Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

) by the orders of King Argishti I
Argishtis I of Urartu
Argishti I was the sixth known king of Urartu, reigning from 785 BC to 763 BC. He founded the citadel of Erebuni in 782 BC, which is the present capital of Armenia, Yerevan....

 at the site of current-day Yerevan, to serve as a fort and citadel guarding against attacks from the north Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

. Yerevan, as mentioned, is one of the most ancient cities in the world.

The cuneiform inscription found at Erebuni Fortress reads:
Between the sixth and fourth centuries BC, Yerevan was one of the main centers of the Armenian satrap
Satrap
Satrap was the name given to the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as the Sassanid Empire and the Hellenistic empires....

y of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire , sometimes known as First Persian Empire and/or Persian Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation...

. During the height of Urartian power, irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

 canals and an artificial reservoir were built on Yerevan's territory. In 585 BC, the fortress of Teishebaini (Karmir Blur), thirty miles to the north of Yerevan, was destroyed by an alliance of Medes
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

 and the Scythians.

Due to the absence of historical data, the timespan between the fourth century BC and the third century AD is known as the "Yerevan Dark Ages."

Armenia became a Christian nation in 301. The first church in Yerevan; the church of St. Peter and Paul, was built in the fifth century, and was demolished in 1931 to build a cinema hall. The Tsiranavor Church
Avan Church
Avan Church is located in the town of Avan now absorbed by Yerevan's city limits, and is the city's oldest surviving church. It was built in the late 6th century between the years 591, 595-602 by the pro-Byzantine Catholicos Hovhannes Bagavanetsi to be his headquarters. He was installed as...

 (595-602) of Avan district which was partly damaged in the 1679 earthquake
1679 Armenia earthquake
The 1679 Armenia earthquake was a tremor with a magnitude of 7.0, that took place in 1679 in the Yerevan region of Armenia .- Buildings destroyed :...

, is the city's oldest surviving church.

Arab, Persian and Ottoman rule



In 658 AD, Yerevan was conquered, during the height of Arab invasions. Since then, and as a result of the Arab trade activities, the site has been strategically important as a crossroads for the Arab caravan
Camel train
A camel train is a series of camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points. Although they rarely travelled faster than the walking speed of a man, camels' ability to handle harsh conditions made camel trains a vital part of...

 routes passing between Europe and India through lands controlled by the Arabs. It has been known as "Yerevan" since at least the seventh century AD. Between the ninth and eleventh centuries, Yerevan was a secure part of the Armenian Bagratuni Kingdom, before being overrun by Seljuks. The city was seized and pillaged by Tamerlane in 1387 and subsequently became an administrative center of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate , was a Mongol khanate established in Azerbaijan and Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire...

. Due to its strategic significance, Yerevan was constantly fought over, and passed back and forth, between the dominion of Persia and the Ottomans
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

.

At the height of the Turkish-Persian wars, Yerevan changed hands fourteen times between 1513 and 1737. In 1604, under the order of Shah Abbas I, tens of thousands of Armenians including citizens from Yerevan were deported to Persia. As a consequence, population became 80 percent Muslim (Persians, Turco, Kurds) and 20 percent Armenian. Muslims were either sedentary, semi-sedentary, or nomadic. Armenians lived in Erevan or the villages. The Armenians dominated the various professions and trade in the area and were of great economic significance to the Persian administration. The Ottomans, Safavids, and Ilkhanids, all maintained a mint
Mint (coin)
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins for currency.The history of mints correlates closely with the history of coins. One difference is that the history of the mint is usually closely tied to the political situation of an era...

 in Yerevan. During the 1670s, the Frenchman
French people
The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

 Jean Chardin
Jean Chardin
Jean Chardin , born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, and also known as Sir John Chardin, was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East.-Life and work:Chardin was born in...

 visited Yerevan and gave a description of the city in his Travels of Cavalier Chardin in Transcaucasia in 1672-1673. On 7 June 1679, a devastating earthquake razed the city to the ground.
During the Safavid Dynasty
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

 rule, Yerevan and adjacent territories were part of the Čoḵūr Saʿd administrative territory. This lasted until 1828, when the region was incorporated into Russian Empire.

Russian rule



During the second Russian-Persian war
Russo-Persian War, 1826-1828
The Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire.After the Treaty of Gulistan concluded the previous Russo-Persian War in 1813, peace reigned in the Caucasus for thirteen years...

, Yerevan was captured by Russian troops under general Ivan Paskevich
Ivan Paskevich
Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich was a Ukrainian-born military leader. For his victories, he was made Count of Erivan in 1828 and Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland in 1831...

 on 1 October 1827. It was formally ceded by the Persians in 1828, following the Treaty of Turkmenchay
Treaty of Turkmenchay
The Treaty of Turkmenchay was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Qajar Empire recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, the Nakhchivan khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras River as the common boundary between the empires, after its...

. Tsarist Russia
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 sponsored Armenian resettlement from Persia and Turkey. Due to the resettlement, Armenians' share in city population increased from 28% to 53.8%. The resettlement was intended to create Russian power bridgehead in the Middle East. In 1829, Armenian repatriates from Persia were resettled in the city and a new quarter was built.

Yerevan has served as the seat of the newly-formed Armenian Oblast
Armenian Oblast
The Armenian Oblast or Armenian Province ) was an oblast of the Russian Empire that existed from 1828 to 1840. It roughly corresponded to most of present-day central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of present-day Turkey, and present-day Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan exclave...

 between 1828-1840. By the time of Nicholas I
Nicholas I of Russia
Nicholas I , was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its historical zenith spanning over 20 million square kilometers...

's visit in 1837, Yerevan had become an uyezd
Uyezd
Uyezd or uezd was an administrative subdivision of Rus', Muscovy, Russian Empire, and the early Russian SFSR which was in use from the 13th century. Uyezds for most of the history in Russia were a secondary-level of administrative division...

. In 1840, the Armenian Oblast was dissolved and its territory incorporated into a larger new province; the Georgia-Imeretia Governorate. In 1850 the territory of the former oblast was tuned into reorganized into the Erivan Governorate
Erivan Governorate
Erivan Governorate was one of the guberniyas of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Erivan . Its area was 27,830 sq. kilometres. It roughly corresponded to what is now most of central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan exclave...

. Yerevan was the centre of the newly established governorate until 1917, when Erivan governorate was dissolved.

Yerevan began to grow economically and politically, with old buildings torn down and new buildings in European style erected instead. The first general plan of the city was made in 1854, during which, St. Hripsime and St. Gayane women's colleges were opened and the English Park was founded. In 1874, Zacharia Gevorkian opened Yerevan's first printing house and in 1879 the first theatre, sited near the church of St. Peter and Paul, was established.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Yerevan city's population was over 29,000, of which 49% were Azerbaijani Tatars (today referred to as Azerbaijanis), 48% Armenians and 2% Russians. In 1902, a railway line linked Yerevan with Alexandropol, Tiflis and Julfa
Julfa, Azerbaijan (town)
Julfa , formerly Jugha and also rendered as Djulfa, Dzhul’fa, Jolfa, Dzhulfa, Džulfa, Jolfā, Jolfā-ye Nakhjavān , is the administrative capital of the Julfa Rayon administrative region of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan.Julfa is separated by the Araks River from its namesake, the...

. In the same year, Yerevan's first public library was opened. In 1905, the grandnephew of Napoleon I
Napoleon I
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

; prince Louis Joseph Jérôme Napoléon (1864–1932) was appointed as governor of Erivan province.

In 1913, for the first time in the city, a telephone line with eighty subscribers became operational.

Brief independence (1917–1920)



At the start of the 20th century, Yerevan was a small town with a population of 30,000. In 1917, the Russian Empire ended with the October Revolution
October Revolution
The October Revolution , also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution , Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a political revolution and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917...

. In the aftermath, Armenian, Georgian and Muslim leaders of Transcaucasia
South Caucasus
The South Caucasus is a geopolitical region located on the border of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia also referred to as Transcaucasia, or The Trans-Caucasus...

 united to form the Transcaucasian Federation
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic , was a short-lived state composed of the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia in the South Caucasus.-...

 and proclaimed Transcaucasia's secession
Secession
Secession is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or especially a political entity. Threats of secession also can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals.-Secession theory:...

.

The Federation, however, was short-lived and on 28 May 1918, the Dashnak leader Aram Manukian declared the independence of Armenia. Subsequently, Yerevan became the capital and the centre of the newly-independent Democratic Republic of Armenia
Democratic Republic of Armenia
The Democratic Republic of Armenia was the first modern establishment of an Armenian state...

, although the members of the Armenian National Council
Armenian National Council
Armenian National Council is a term that refers to*Armenian National Council of Karabagh was also referred as People's Government of Karabagh before the rename in September 1918*Armenian National Council of Baku*Armenian National Council of Tiflis...

 were yet to stay in Tiflis until their arrival in Yerevan to form the government in the summer of the same year.

On 26 May 1919, the government passed a law to open the Yerevan State University
Yerevan State University
Yerevan State University is a university in Yerevan, Armenia. Founded on May 16 1919, it is the largest university in the country with 110 departments. Of its 3,150 employees, 1,190 comprise the teaching staff which includes 25 academicians, 130 professors, 700 docents , and 360 assistant lecturers...

, which was situated on the main street of Yerevan, the Astafyan (now Abovyan) street.

However, after a short period of independence, on 29 November 1920, the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists , derived from bol'shinstvo, "majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903....

 11th Red Army entered Yerevan during the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a...

, on 29 November 1920, and Armenia was incorporated into the Soviet Union on 2 December 1920. Although nationalist forces managed to retake the city in February 1921, and successfully released all the political leaders, the city's nationalist elite were once again defeated by Soviet forces on 2 April 1921.

Soviet Yerevan


Yerevan became the capital of the newly formed Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Armenian SSR
The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet...

, one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. Yerevan was the first city in the Soviet Union, for which a general plan was developed. The "General Plan of Yerevan" was developed by the academician Alexander Tamanyan which was approved in 1924. The plan was designed for a population of 150,000.

During the Soviet era the city was transformed into a modern industrial metropolis of over a million people, to become a significant scientific and cultural centre.

Tamanian incorporated national traditions with contemporary urban construction. His design presented a radial-circular arrangement that overlaid the existing city. As a result, many historic buildings were demolished, including churches, mosques, the Persian fortress, baths, bazaars and caravanserai
Caravanserai
A caravanserai, or khan, also known as caravansary, caravansera, or caravansara in English was a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey...

s. Many of the surrounding districts around Yerevan were named after former Armenian communities that were decimated by the Ottoman Turks
Ottoman Turks
The Ottoman Turks were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes. Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks is scarce, but they take their Turkish name, Osmanlı , from the house of Osman I The Ottoman...

 during the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I...

. The districts of Arabkir, Malatya-Sebastia and Nork Marash, for example, were named after the towns Arabkir, Malatya
Malatya
Malatya ) is a city in southeastern Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.-Overview:The city site has been occupied for thousands of years. The Assyrians called the city Meliddu. Following Roman expansion into the east, the city was renamed in Latin as Melitene...

, Sebastia
Sivas, Turkey
Sivas is a city in east-central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province. According to the 2007 Turkish census, its population was 300,795.The city, which lies at an elevation of in the broad valley of the Kızılırmak river, is a moderately-sized trade center and industrial city, although the economy...

, and Marash
Kahramanmaras
-Industry:Kahramanmaraş's industry is mainly based on textile and ice cream. Kahramanmaraş is one of the biggest textile industry cities of Turkey. Companies like Kipaş, İskur, Arsan and Bozkurt are one of the richest companies in the city...

, respectively. Following the end of the World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, German
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

 POWs were used to help in the construction of new buildings and structures, such as the Kievyan Bridge.

In 1965, during the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, Yerevan was the center of a demonstration, the first such demonstration in the Soviet Union, to demand recognition of the Genocide by the Soviet authorities. In 1968, the city's 2,750th anniversary was commemorated.


Yerevan played a key role in the Armenian national democratic movement that emerged during the Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991...

 era of the 1980s. The reforms of Glasnost
Glasnost
Glasnost was the policy of maximal publicity, openness, and transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union, together with freedom of information, introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the second half of the 1980s...

 and Perestroika
Perestroika
Perestroika was a political movement within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during 1980s, widely associated with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev...

 opened questions on issues such as the status of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains...

, the environment, Russification
Russification
Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attributes by non-Russian communities...

, corruption, democracy, and eventually independence. At the beginning of 1988, nearly one million Yerevantsis engaged in demonstrations concerning these subjects, centered on Theater Square.

Post-USSR independence



Following the dismantling of the USSR or Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, Yerevan became the capital of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

 on 21 September 1991. Maintaining supplies of gas and electricity proved difficult; constant electricity was not restored until 1996 amidst the chaos of the badly instingated and planned transition to a market based economy.

Since 2000, central Yerevan has been transformed into a vast construction site, with cranes erected all over the Kentron district. Officially, the scores of multi-storied buildings are part of large-scale urban planning projects. Roughly $1.8 billion was spent on such construction in 2006, according to the national statistical service. Prices for downtown apartments have increased by about ten times over the last decade.

Political demonstrations are a common scene in Yerevan. In 2008, unrest in the capital
2008 Armenian presidential election protests
The 2008 Armenian presidential election protests were a series of mass protests held in Armenia in the wake of the Armenian presidential election of 19 February 2008...

 between the authorities and opposition demonstrators led by ex-President Levon Ter-Petrossian
Levon Ter-Petrossian
Levon Ter-Petrossian , sometimes transliterated Levon Ter-Petrosyan or Ter-Petrosian , was the first President of Armenia from 1991 to 1998...

 occurred after the 2008 Armenian presidential election
Armenian presidential election, 2008
A presidential election was held in Armenia on 19 February 2008. Prime Minister of Armenia Serzh Sargsyan won the election in the first round according to official results, but this is disputed by former President Levon Ter-Petrossian, who officially placed second.The candidacy of Sargsyan was...

. The events resulted in ten deaths and a subsequent 20-day state of emergency
State of emergency
A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend some normal functions of the executive, legislative and judicial powers, alert citizens to change their normal behaviours, or order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. It can also be used as a rationale...

 declared by President Robert Kocharian
Robert Kocharian
Robert Kocharyan was the second President of Armenia, serving from 1998 till 2008. He was previously President of Nagorno-Karabakh from 1994 to 1997 and Prime Minister of Armenia from 1997 to 1998.-Biography:...

.

Topography and location


  • Altitude: average 990 m (3,248.03 ft) - minimum 865 m (2,837.93 ft) - maximum 1390 m (4,560.37 ft).
  • Location: to the edge of the Hrazdan
    Hrazdan
    Hrazdan is the capital of the Kotayk province of Armenia. The name Hrazdan is derived from the Middle-Persian name Frazdan. Farzdan is connected to the Zoroastrian mythology. With a population of 52,900 it is the fifth-largest city in Armenia by population. It has lost significant population since...

     river, north-east of the Ararat plain
    Ararat plain
    The Ararat plain is one of the largest of the Armenian Plateau, stretches west of the Sevan basin, at the foothills of the Gegham mountains. In the north the plain borders on Mount Aragats, and in the south, on Mount Ararat...

    .


Yerevan is located in the center-west of the country in the north-eastern extremity of the Ararat
Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat is a snow-capped, dormant volcanic cone in Turkey. It has two peaks: Greater Ararat and Lesser Ararat .The Ararat massif is about in diameter...

 Valley. Historically, the city is situated at the heart of the Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
The Armenian Highland is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East...

, in Kotayk canton ( Kotayk gavar, not to be confused with the current Kotayk Province) of Ayrarat province, within Armenia Major.

The upper part of the city is surrounded with mountains on three sides while it descends to the banks of the river Hrazdan
Hrazdan River
The Hrazdan is a major river of Armenia. It starts at the northwest extremity of Lake Sevan and flows south through the Kotayk marz and Armenia's capital, Yerevan. It then joins the Aras River along the border with Turkey. A Hydro-electric plant is located on the Hrazdan river...

 at the south. Hrazdan divides Yerevan into two parts through a picturesque canyon. The city's elevation ranges between 900 to 1300 m (2,952.8 to 4,265.1 ) above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

.

As the capital of Armenia, Yerevan is not part of any marz
Administrative divisions of Armenia
Armenia is subdivided into eleven administrative divisions. Of these, ten are provinces, known as marzer or in the singular form marz in Armenian....

("province"). Instead, it is bordered with the following provinces: Kotayk from the north and the east, Ararat
Ararat (province)
Ararat is a province of Armenia with capital in Artashat. Named after Mount Ararat, the province borders Turkey to the west and Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic to the south...

 from the south and the south-west, Armavir
Armavir (province)
Armavir is a province of Armenia with the capital in Armavir. It is in the west of the country, located in the Ararat valley, between Mount Ararat and Mount Aragats, and shares a 45-mile border with Turkey to the south and west...

 from the west and Aragatsotn
Aragatsotn
Aragatsotn is a province of Armenia. It is in the west of the country, and its capital is Ashtarak. The name means "a foot of Aragats" . During the Arsacid Dynasty of the Kingdom of Armenia, the region was part of the Ayrarat province...

 from the north-west.

Climate


The climate
Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods...

 of Yerevan is a semi-arid, continental
Continentality
Continentality is the tendency of land to experience more thermal variation than water, due to the land's lower specific heat capacity. Continental climate also tends to be dryer than oceanic climate as there is less moisture input to the atmosphere from evaporation...

 climate (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSk), with hot and dry summers and cold and snowy winters. This is attributed to the fact that Yerevan is located on a plain surrounded by mountains and to its distance to the sea and its effects. The summers are usually very hot with the temperature
Temperature
Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot...

 in August reaching up to 40 °C (104 °F), while winters generally carry snowfall and freezing temperatures with January often being as cold as -15 °C. The amount of precipitation
Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

 is small, amounting annually to about 318 millimetres (12.5 in). Yerevan experiences an average of 2,700 sunlight hours per year.

Government and politics


Capital


Yerevan has been the capital of Armenia since the independence of the First Republic in 1918. Situated in the Ararat plain, the historic lands of Armenia, it served as the best logical choice for capital of the young republic at the time.

When Armenia became a republic of the Soviet Union, Yerevan remained as capital and accommodated all the political and diplomatic institutions in the republic. In 1991 with the independence of Armenia, Yerevan continued with its status as the political and cultural centre of the country, being home to all the national institutions: the Government house, the Parliament
National Assembly of Armenia
The Azgayin Zhoghov of Armenia is the official name of the legislative branch of the government of Armenia.-History:Until the promulgation of the Hatt-i Sharif of 1839, the patriarch and his clients, within limits, possessed authority over Armenian people in the Ottoman Empire...

, ministries, the presidential palace, the constitutional court, judicial bodies and other public organisations.

Municipalities



The Armenian Constitution, adopted on 5 July 1995, granted Yerevan the status of a marz (region). Therefore, Yerevan functions similarly to the other regions of the country with a few specificities.
The administrative authority of Yerevan is thus represented by:
  • the mayor, appointed by the President (who can remove him at any moment) upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister, alongside a group of four deputy mayors heading eleven ministries (of which financial, transport, urban development etc.),
  • the Yerevan Council, regrouping the Chiefs of neighborhood communities under the authority of the mayor,
  • twelve "neighborhood communities" (or districts), with each having its own chief and their elected councils. Yerevan has a principal city hall and twelve deputy mayors of districts.


The last modification to the Constitution on 27 November 2005 turned the city into a "community" (hamaynk); since, the Constitution declares that this community has to be led by a mayor, elected directly or indirectly, and that the city needs to be governed by a specific law. This law is currently in preparation in the Armenian parliament that adopted its first draft in December 2007 and should do the same in the second draft in spring of 2008. The project on the law envisions an indirect election of the mayor.

Artashes Geghamyan
Artashes Geghamyan
Artashes Geghamyan is an Armenian politician.Geghamyan, born in Yerevan, finished Chekhov Secondary School in 1966 and graduated from the State Yerevan Polytechnic Institute in 1971. He joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1972. From 1989 to 1990 he was the Mayor of Yerevan.In 1990,...

 was the last mayor of the Armenian SSR and Hambartsoum Galstyan, the first mayor of the newly independent republic. Since 1991, there have been eight mayors of Yerevan. The current mayor, Karen Karapetyan
Karen Karapetyan
Karen Karapetyan is the current mayor of Yerevan, Armenia. He became the mayor on December 17, 2010, after receiving the overwhelming support from the municipal assembly. Prior to becoming the mayor, Karapetyan was chief executive of the Armenian-Russian joint venture, ArmRosGazprom, since 2001...

, replaced Gagik Beglaryan, who resigned in December 2010 after allegations he assaulted a government employee at a public event. In addition to the national police and road police, Yerevan has its own municipal police. All three bodies cooperate to maintain law in the city.

Districts


Yerevan is divided into twelve "neighborhood communities" (թաղային համայնքներ), commonly translated as "districts", each with an elected community leader. Each district is divided into neighborhoods (թաղամաս). A district could have up to eight neighborhoods.
Districts and neighborhoods of Yerevan
District
(Համայնք)
Population Area Neighborhood (Թաղամաս)
Ajapnyak
Ajapnyak
Ajapnyak is a district of the Armenian capital Yerevan, with a population over 125,000. It is situated northwest of the city centre.Its name, literally "right bank", refers to its location on the right bank of Hrazdan river. The administrative district of Ajapnyak has common borders with the...


Աջափնյակ
125 800
25 km²
Ajapnyak block, Norashen (16 qvartal), Nazarbekyan (17 qvartal), Silikyan, Lukashin
Lukashin, Yerevan
Lukashin is a town in the Yerevan region of Armenia. The town was named for Sargis Lukashin , President of the Armenian Council of People's Commissars....

, Vahagni, Anastasavan
Anastasavan
Anastasavan is a town in the Yerevan Province of Armenia....

, Cheryomushki
Arabkir
Arabkir District
Arabkir District is a neighborhood that used to be a separate village in Yerevan, Armenia. At the census in 2001, it had a population of over 132,000. It is bordered by Hrazdan River to the north and west, the Kentron to the south, and Kanaker-Zeytun to the east. Its main thoroughfare is Komitas...


Արաբկիր
150 200
12.35 km²
Nor Arabkir
Nor Arabkir
Nor Arabkir is a town in the Yerevan Province of Armenia....

, Aygedzor, Mergelyan, Raykom, Kanaker Hydro Power Plant
Kanaker Hydro Power Plant
The Kanaker Hydro Power Plant is a hydroelectric power plant adjacent to the Hrazdan River near Armenia's capital city of Yerevan. It is next to the RUSAL ARMENAL aluminum smelter in Kanaker and has an installed electric capacity of 102 MW....

Avan
Ավան
50 400
8.37 km²
Avan block, Avan-Arinj
Arinj
Arinj is a town in the Kotayk Province of Armenia.- References :* – World-Gazetteer.com...

, Aghi Hank
Davtashen
Davtashen
Davtashen is a district of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It is located northwest of Yerevan's Arabkir district, on the opposite side of the Hrazdan River.-Gallery:...


Դավթաշեն
50 500
6.71 km²
Davtashen blocks (4 blocks), Huysi Avan
Erebuni
Erebuni, Armenia
Erebuni is a district of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It is situated southeast of the city centre where Erebuni Fortress is located. The name of Yerevan itself is derived from Erebuni. At the census in 2001, it had a population of over 126,200...


Էրեբունի
126 200
48.41 km²
Kayaran, Erebuni block, Nor Aresh
Nor Aresh
Nor Aresh is a town in the Yerevan Province of Armenia....

, Saritagh
Saritagh
Saritagh is a town in the Yerevan Province of Armenia....

, Vardashen
Vardashen, Yerevan
Vardashen is a town in the Yerevan Province of Armenia....

, Mushakan, Verin Jrashen
Verin Jrashen
Verin Jrashen is a town in the Kotayk Province of Armenia....

, Nor Butaniya
Nor Butaniya
Nor Butaniya is a town in the Yerevan Province of Armenia....

Kanaker-Zeytun
Քանաքեր-Զեյթուն
102 700
8.10 km²
Kanaker, Nor Zeytun
Nor Zeytun
Nor Zeytun is a town in the Yerevan Province of Armenia....

, Mounument
Kentron
Kentron District
Kentron is a district of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It comprises the city center.-Gallery:...


Կենտրոն
179 100
14.20 km²
Pokr Kentron (Mini Centre), Noragyugh
Noragyugh
Noragyugh is a neighborhood in Kentron District of Yerevan, Armenia....

, Nor Kilikia, Aygestan
Aygestan
Aygestan is a town in the Ararat Province of Armenia.- References :* – World-Gazetteer.com*...

, Kond
Kond
This is about the city in Armenia. For the ethnic group, see Gondi people.Kond is one of the oldest neighborhoods of Yerevan. It is situated within the boundaries of modern Kentron District of the capital of Armenia.- External links :***...

, Dzoragyugh
Malatia-Sebastia
Մալաթիա-Սեբաստիա
158 700
25.80 km²
Nor Malatia
Nor Malatia
Nor Malatia is a town in the Yerevan Province of Armenia....

, Nor Sebastia, Zoravar Andranik, Shahumyan, Araratyan, Haghtanak
Nork-Marash
Նորք-Մարաշ
14 600
4.60 km²
Nork
Nork, Armenia
Nork is a town in the Yerevan Province of Armenia....

, Nor Marash
Nor Nork
Nor Nork
Nor Nork is a district of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It is situated east of the city centre....


Նոր Նորք
132 100
14.47 km²
Nor Nork blocks (9 blocks), Jrvezh
Jrvezh
Jrvezh is a town in the Kotayk Province of Armenia.- References :* – World-Gazetteer.com...

, Bagrevand
Nubarashen
Nubarashen
Nubarashen is a district of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It is situated southeast of the city centre.- History :In 1930, by the support and sponsorship of the founder and president of the AGBU Egyptian-Armenian benefactor Boghos Nubar was decided to build a town with name Nubarashen...


Նուբարաշեն
9 300
18.11 km²
Nubarashen
Shengavit
Shengavit District
Shengavit is a district of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It is situated southwest of the city centre and consists of the following 7 parts: The South-Western district, Nerkin Shengavit, Verin Shengavit, Nerkin Charbakh, Verin Charbakh, Noragavit, Aeratsia. Garegin Nzhdehi square and metro...


Շենգավիթ
146 100
40.50 km²
Nerkin Shengavit
Nerkin Shengavit
Nerkin Shengavit is a part of Shengavit District in Yerevan, Armenia....

, Verin Shengavit
Verin Shengavit
Verin Shengavit is a part of Shengavit District in Yerevan, Armenia....

, Nerkin Charbakh
Nerkin Charbakh
Nerkin Charbakh is a part of Shengavit District in Yerevan, Armenia....

, Verin Charbakh
Verin Charbakh
Verin Charbakh is a part of Shengavit District in Yerevan, Armenia....

, Noragavit
Noragavit
Noragavit or Noragavit’ is a part of Shengavit District in Yerevan, Armenia....

, Aeratsia, Harav-Arevmtyan Taghamas (South-Western district, 7 blocks)

Demographics



Originally a small town, Yerevan became the capital of Armenia and a large city with over one million inhabitants.

Until the fall of the Soviet Union, the majority of the population of Yerevan were Armenians with minorities of Russians
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

, Kurds, Azerbaijanis and Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

ians present as well. However with the breakout of the Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an armed conflict that took place from February 1988 to May 1994, in the small enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan...

 from 1988 to 1994, the Azerbaijani minority diminished in the country in what was part of population exchanges between Armenia and Azerbaijan. A big part of the Russian minority also fled the country during the 1990s economic crisis in the country. Today, the population of Yerevan is mainly Armenian.

Like the rest of the country and all other ex-Soviet republics, a lot of people fled their countries (mostly to Europe and North America) due to economic crises. The population of Yerevan fell from 1,250,000 in 1989 to 1,103,488 in 2001 and to 1,091,235 in 2003. However, the population of Yerevan has been increasing since. In 2007, the capital had 1,107,800 inhabitants.


Sources : Municipality of Yerevan, ArmStat

  • Growth rate of the population : 0,29 % (in 2006).
  • Birth rate : 1,12 % (in 2006).
  • Death rate : 0,83 % (in 2006).
  • Rate of infantile mortality : 1,05 % (in 2006).

Ethnic groups

Ethnic groups in Yerevan since 1831
Year Armenians % Azerbaijanis % Russians % Others % Total
1831
6,125
53.6
5,338
46.6
11,463
1873
5,959
49.9
5,805
48.6
150
1.3
24
0.2
11,938
1897
12,523
43.2
12,359
42.6
2,765
9.5
1,359
4.7
29,006
1926
59,838
89.2
5,216
7.8
1,401
2.1
666
1
67,121
1939
174,484
87.1
6,569
3.3
15,043
7.5
4,300
2.1
200,396
1959
473,742
93
3,413
0.7
22,572
4.4
9,613
1.9
509,340
1979
974,126
95.8
2,341
0.2
26,141
2.6
14,681
1.4
1,017,289
2001
1,088,389
98.6
6,684
0.6
8,415
0.8
1,103,488


Yerevan was inhabited first by Armenians and stayed like that for a long time until the 1620s when the wars started to change the demographics of this region.

Until the Sovietizaton of Armenia, Yerevan have been a multicultural city, mainly with Armenian and Caucasian Tatar (nowadays Azerbaijanis) population.

After the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I...

, many Armenians from Western Armenia (nowadays Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, then Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

) had escaped to Eastern Armenia.
In 1919 about 75 thousand Western Armenian refugees had come to Yerevan, mostly from Vaspurakan
Vaspurakan
Vaspurakan was the first and biggest province of Greater Armenia, which later became an independent kingdom during the Middle Ages, centered around Lake Van...

 region (city of Van
Van, Turkey
Van is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of the Kurdish-majority Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. The city's official population in 2010 was 367,419, but many estimates put this as much higher with a 1996 estimate stating 500,000 and former Mayor Burhan...

 and surroundings). A significant part of these refugees died of typhus and other diseases.

In 1921-1936 about 42 thousand ethnic Armenians from Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Greece, Syria, France, Bulgaria etc. came to Soviet Armenia, with most of them residing in Yerevan. The second wave of repatriation was in 1946-1948. About 100,000 ethnic Armenians from Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus, Palestine, Iraq, Egypt, France, United States etc. came to Soviet Armenia, again most of whom settled in Yerevan.

Thus, the ethnic makeup of Yerevan became more monoethnic during the first 3 decades in the Soviet Union.

In late 1980s early 1990s, the remaining 2,000 Azeri population left the city, because of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

Religion


The Armenian Apostolic Christianity
Armenian Apostolic Church
The Armenian Apostolic Church is the world's oldest National Church, is part of Oriental Orthodoxy, and is one of the most ancient Christian communities. Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its official religion in 301 AD, in establishing this church...

 is the dominant religion in Armenia as well as Yerevan. The Armenian Church is represented in the city by the Araratian Patriarchal Diocese which is based within the complex of Surb Sargis Cathedral. Yerevan is home to the largest Armenian church in the world, the Cathedral of Saint Gregory the Illuminator
Saint Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral, Yerevan
Saint Gregory the Ilumminator Cathedral is the largest Armenian church in the world and is located in the Kentron District of Yerevan in Armenia. It is adjacent to the Zoravar Andranik metro station...

.

After the independence in 1991, the Evangelical Church of Armenia was founded and officially recognized by the authorities on 1 July 1994. The Evangelical church and its headquarters are located on Marshall Baghramyan Street in the centre of Yerevan.

The tiny community of the Orthodox Russians
Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church or, alternatively, the Moscow Patriarchate The ROC is often said to be the largest of the Eastern Orthodox churches in the world; including all the autocephalous churches under its umbrella, its adherents number over 150 million worldwide—about half of the 300 million...

 have its own; the Holy Mother of God church, which is located on Zakaria Kanakertsi Street in Kanaker-Zeytun district of Yerevan. The church was built across the barracks of the Cossack troops which had been deployed in Yerevan since the Russian victory in the Russian-Persian war in 1828. The church was closed in the Soviet times to be used first as a warehouse and later as a regimental club. Divine services were resumed in it only in 1991. In 2004, the reconstructed church re-acquired a cupola and a belfry. The consecration of the new Holy Cross Russian Orthodox church of Yerevan was conducted on 18 March 2010, by Patriarch Kirill I of Moscow. The church is being built on Admiral Isakov Avenue, and is set to be finished by 2013.

Yerevan's Blue Mosque
Blue Mosque, Yerevan
The "Blue Mosque" was built by Iran, and is also known as the "Persian Mosque," "Gök Jami", . The mosque is in Yerevan, Armenia. The Yerevan region was under various Muslim rulers since the incursions of Timur in the 14th century...

 of the 18th century was restored and reopened in the latter half of the 1990s funded by Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, to become the only working mosque in Armenia. Nowadays, Islamic religious services are conducted within the Blue Mosque to serve the Shia Iranian visitors and tradesmen.

Few members of the Yezidi
Yazidis in Armenia
The Yazidis are the largest ethnic and religious minority in Armenia.Yazidis are well integrated minority. They have freedom of religion and non-interference in their cultural traditions .-Early 20th century:Many Yazidis came to Armenia and Georgia during the 19th and early...

 and Jewish communities of Armenia live in Yerevan. The city is the home of the Jewish Council of Armenia.

A variety of other religious communities are also present in the city.

Museums and Libraries


Yerevan is home to dozens of museums, art galleries, and libraries. The most prominent of these are the National Gallery of Armenia
National Gallery of Armenia
The National Gallery of Armenia is one of the biggest museums of the Republic of Armenia, locate in its capital, Yerevan.-History:...

, the History Museum of Armenia
History Museum of Armenia
The History Museum of Armenia is the national museum of Armenia founded in 1919 as Ethnographic-Anthropological Museum-Library. It is located on the Republic Square in Yerevan.- History :...

, the Cafesjian Museum of Art, the Matenadaran
Matenadaran
The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts , commonly referred to as the Matenadaran , is an ancient manuscript repository located in Yerevan, Armenia...

 library of ancient manuscripts, and the Armenian Genocide museum. Others include the Modern Art Museum, the Children’s Picture Gallery, and the Martiros Saryan Museum. Moreover, many private galleries are in operation, with many more opening every year, featuring rotating exhibitions and sales.

Constructed in 1921, the National Gallery of Armenia is Yerevan principal museum. It is integrated with the Armenia's History Museum of Armenia
History Museum of Armenia
The History Museum of Armenia is the national museum of Armenia founded in 1919 as Ethnographic-Anthropological Museum-Library. It is located on the Republic Square in Yerevan.- History :...

. In addition to having a permanent exposition of works of painters such as Aivazovsky
Ivan Aivazovsky
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky July 29, 1817 – May 5, 1900) was a Russian world-renowned painter of Armenian descent living and working in Crimea, most famous for his seascapes, which constitute more than half of his paintings...

, Kandinsky, Chagall, Theodore Rousseau
Théodore Rousseau
Pierre Étienne Théodore Rousseau , French painter of the Barbizon school, was born in Paris, of a bourgeois family.-Youth:At first he received a business training, but soon displayed aptitude for painting...

, Monticelli or Eugene Boudin
Eugène Boudin
Eugène Boudin was one of the first French landscape painters to paint outdoors.Boudin was a marine painter, and expert in the rendering of all that goes upon the sea and along its shores...

, it usually hosts temporary expositions such as Yann Arthus-Bertrand
Yann Arthus-Bertrand
Yann Arthus-Bertrand is a French photographer, journalist, reporter and environmentalist.- Early life :Yann Arthus-Bertrand was born in Paris on March 13, 1946 in a renowned jewellers' family founded in 1803 by Claude Arthus-Bertrand and Michel-Ange Marion. His sister Catherine is one of his...

 in 2005 or the one organized on the occasion of the Year of Armenia in France in October 2006.
The Armenian Genocide museum is found at the foot of Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd is a memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide; it is located on a hill overlooking Yerevan, Armenia. Every year on April 24, hundreds of thousands of Armenians gather here to remember the victims of the 1915 Armenian Genocide that took place in the Ottoman Empire...

 memorial and features numerous eyewitness accounts, texts and photographs from the time. It comprises a Memorial stone made of three parts, the latter of which is dedicated to the intellectual and political figures who, as the museum's site says, "raised their protest against the Genocide committed against the Armenians by the Turks. Among them there are Armin T. Wegner
Armin T. Wegner
Armin Theophil Wegner was a German soldier and medic in World War I, a prolific author and a seminal figure in German Expressionism, a human rights activist, and a victim of Nazi persecution...

, Hedvig Büll, Henry Morgenthau
Henry Morgenthau, Sr.
Henry Morgenthau was a lawyer, businessman and United States ambassador, most famous as the American ambassador to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. He was father of the politician Henry Morgenthau, Jr. and the grandfather of Robert M. Morgenthau, who was the District Attorney of...

, Franz Werfel
Franz Werfel
Franz Werfel was an Austrian-Bohemian novelist, playwright, and poet.- Biography :Born in Prague , Werfel was the first of three children of a wealthy manufacturer of gloves and leather goods. His mother, Albine Kussi, was the daughter of a mill owner...

, Johannes Lepsius
Johannes Lepsius
Johannes Lepsius was a German Protestant missionary, Orientalist, and humanist with a special interest in trying to prevent the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire. He initially studied mathematics and philosophy in Munich and a PhD in 1180 with an already award-winning work...

, James Bryce
James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce
James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce OM, GCVO, PC, FRS, FBA was a British academic, jurist, historian and Liberal politician.-Background and education:...

, Anatole France
Anatole France
Anatole France , born François-Anatole Thibault, , was a French poet, journalist, and novelist. He was born in Paris, and died in Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire. He was a successful novelist, with several best-sellers. Ironic and skeptical, he was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters...

, Giacomo Gorrini
Giacomo Gorrini
Giacomo Gorrini was an Italian diplomat.During World War I he openly denounced the Armenian genocide through press articles and interviews and he didn't hesitate to describe the horror the Turkish rulers perpetrated against the Armenians...

, Benedict XV, Fritjof Nansen, Fayez el Husseini". This place of remembrance was created by Laurenti Barseghian, the Museum's director, and Pietro Kuciukian
Pietro Kuciukian
- Biography:Pietro Kuciukian, the son of a survivor of the Armenian Genocide, studied in Venice where he learnt Armenian and lives and works in Milan....

, the founder of the "Memory is the Future" Committee for the Righteous for the Armenians. This Memorial hosts the ashes or fistfuls of earth from the tombs of the Righteous and of those non-Armenians who witnessed the genocide and tried to help the Armenians. Here, people also celebrates living characters who stand out for their pro-memory engagement.

The Matenadaran
Matenadaran
The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts , commonly referred to as the Matenadaran , is an ancient manuscript repository located in Yerevan, Armenia...

 is a library-museum regrouping 17,000 ancient manuscripts and several bibles from the Middle Ages. Its archives hold a rich collection of valuable ancient Armenian, Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

, Assyrian, Hebrew
Hebrews
Hebrews is an ethnonym used in the Hebrew Bible...

, Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 and Persian manuscripts. It is located in the center of the city on Mesrop Mashdots avenue.

Next to the Hrazdan river, the Sergey Parajanov Museum
Sergey Parajanov Museum
The Sergei Parajanov Museum is a tribute to Soviet Armenian director and artist Sergei Parajanov and is one of the most popular museums in Yerevan. It represents Parajanov's diverse artistic and literary heritage.-History:...

 that was completely renovated in 2002, has 250 works, documents and photos of the Armenian filmmaker and painter. Yerevan has several other museums like the museum of the Middle-East and the Museum of Yerevan.

Here is a list of Yerevan's most important museums:
Erebuni museum
Erebuni museum
Erebuni Museum of History of Foundation of Yerevan was established in 1968. The opening of the museum was timed to coincide with the 2750th anniversary of Yerevan. The Museum stands at the foot of the Arin Berd hill, on top of which the Urartian Fortress Erebouni has stood since 782 BCE...

founded in 1968 near the Erebuni fortress.
History Museum of Armenia
History Museum of Armenia
The History Museum of Armenia is the national museum of Armenia founded in 1919 as Ethnographic-Anthropological Museum-Library. It is located on the Republic Square in Yerevan.- History :...

opened in 1921, contains more than 400,000 items and pieces of Armenian heritage.
National Gallery of Armenia
National Gallery of Armenia
The National Gallery of Armenia is one of the biggest museums of the Republic of Armenia, locate in its capital, Yerevan.-History:...

exhibits more than 25,000 painting samples of Armenian, Russian and European artists.
Matenadaran
Matenadaran
The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts , commonly referred to as the Matenadaran , is an ancient manuscript repository located in Yerevan, Armenia...

Library, Museum and Institute of ancient manuscripts named after Mesrop Mashtots.
Cafesjian Museum of Art Gerard L. Cafesjian Museum and Art Centre of the Cascade complex, opened on 7 November 2009, showcases a massive collection glass artwork, particularly the works of the Czech artists Libenský / Brychtová. The front gardens showcase sculptures from Gerard Cafesjian's collection.
Museum of Folk Art of Armenia founded in 1978 on Abovyan Street.
Armenian Genocide Museum part of Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd is a memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide; it is located on a hill overlooking Yerevan, Armenia. Every year on April 24, hundreds of thousands of Armenians gather here to remember the victims of the 1915 Armenian Genocide that took place in the Ottoman Empire...

 memorial complex.
Museum of Armenian Patriotic Movement (Fedayees) named after Andranik Ozanian
Andranik Toros Ozanian
Andranik Ozanian , Andranik Toros Ozanian , General Andranik , also as Antranik or Antranig was an Armenian general, political and public activist and freedom fighter, greatly admired as a national hero.-Early Age:Antranik Toros Ozanian was born in the church...

opened in 1995 in Komitas Park. Renovated and reopened in 2006 on the occasion of the 15th anniversary of independence.
House-Museum of Hovhannes Tumanyan
Hovhannes Tumanyan
Hovhannes Tumanyan , is considered to be one of the greatest Armenian poets and writers. His work was mostly written in tragic form, often centering on the harsh lives of villagers in the Lori region.-Biography:...

opened in 1953, contains a large number of objects belonged to poet Hovhannes Tumanyan
Hovhannes Tumanyan
Hovhannes Tumanyan , is considered to be one of the greatest Armenian poets and writers. His work was mostly written in tragic form, often centering on the harsh lives of villagers in the Lori region.-Biography:...

 along with his personal library.
House-Museum of Yeghishe Charents
Yeghishe Charents
Yeghishe Charents was an Armenian poet, writer and public activist. Charents was an outstanding poet of the twentieth century, touching upon a multitude of topics that ranged from his experiences in the First World War, socialism, and, more prominently, on Armenia and Armenians.An early champion...

opened in 1964 on the Mashtots Avnue.
House-Museum of Avetik Isahakyan
Avetik Isahakyan
Avetik Isahakyan , Ghazarapat, near Aleksandropol, current Gyumri, Russian Empire – October 17, 1957, Yerevan) was a prominent Armenian lyric poet, writer, academian and public activist.-Biography:...

opened in 1963 on Baghramyan street.
House-Museum of Alexander Spendiaryan
Alexander Spendiaryan
Alexander Spendiaryan was an Armenian music composer, conductor, founder of Armenian national symphonic music and one of the patriarchs of Armenian classical music. His compositions include the opera Almast and the Yerevan Etudes among others...

opened in 1967 on Nalbantian street.
House-Museum of Aram Khachaturian
House-Museum of Aram Khachaturian
The Aram Khachaturian House-Museum opened in Yerevan, Armenia in 1982 and is devoted to the exhibition of the Armenian composer’s personal artifacts, as well as to the research and study of his creative output....

opened in 1984, contains more than 18,000 valuable items.
House-Museum of Yervand Kochar opened in 1984 to commemorate famous Armenian artist Yervand Kochar
Yervand Kochar
-BRIEF BIOGRAPHY:Yervand Kochar was born in Tbilisi on June 15, 1899. He was educated at Nersissyan school, in the Arts School of the Caucasus Association Promoting Fine Arts in Tbilisi, at Moscow Second State Tree Fine Arts Studios, at P. Konchalovsky's studio. In 1921 People's Commissariat of...

.
House-Museum of Martiros Saryan
Martiros Saryan
Martiros Saryan was an Armenian painter.He was born into an Armenian family in Nor Nakhijevan . In 1895, aged 15, he completed the Nakhichevan school and from 1897 to 1904 studied at the Moscow School of Arts, including in the workshops of Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin...

contains the works of the famous painter Martiros Saryan
Martiros Saryan
Martiros Saryan was an Armenian painter.He was born into an Armenian family in Nor Nakhijevan . In 1895, aged 15, he completed the Nakhichevan school and from 1897 to 1904 studied at the Moscow School of Arts, including in the workshops of Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin...

.
House-Museum of Khachatur Abovian
Khachatur Abovian
Khachatur Abovian ; ) was an Armenian writer and national public figure of the early 19th century who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and was presumed dead. He was an educator, poet and an advocate of modernization...

the home of writer Khachatur Abovian
Khachatur Abovian
Khachatur Abovian ; ) was an Armenian writer and national public figure of the early 19th century who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and was presumed dead. He was an educator, poet and an advocate of modernization...

 in Kanaker, turned into museum in 1939.
House-Museum of painter Minas Avetisyan located on Nalbantian street.
House-Museum of writer Derenik Demirchian
Derenik Demirchian
Derenik Karapeti Demirchian or Derenik Demirchyan was a Georgian born Armenian poet, novelist and translator as well as playwright.- Biography :Demirchian was born on February 6, 1877, in Akhalkalaki in what is now southern Georgia...

located on Abovian street.
Sergei Parajanov Museum opened in 1991, exhibits the works of Sergei Parajanov and other film directors.
State Museum of Nature of Armenia contains samples of animal and botanic life in Armenia.
"Mayr Hayastan" Military Museum located in the Victory Park and dedicated to the World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 and Karabakh Liberation war.
Museum of Russian Art founded in 1984 on Isahakyan street, contains a collection of paintings of Russian artists.
Museum of Children's creative work gallery located on Abovyan street, exhibits some talents of Armenian children.
Geological Museum of Armenia located on Abovian street.
Museum-Institute of Zoology institute and research centre located on Sevak
Paruyr Sevak
Paruyr Rafaeli Ghazaryan was an Armenian poet. He is considered one of the greatest Armenian poets of the twentieth century. -Biography:...

 street.
Charents Museum of Literature and Arts
Charents Museum of Literature and Arts
The Charents Museum of Literature and Arts of Armenia is the largest repository of Armenian manuscripts and books encompassing the last three hundred years....

located on Arami street.
ARF History Museum
ARF History Museum
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation History Museum is a museum in Yerevan, Armenia, that displays the history of the ARF and of its notable members....

commemorates the history of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Armenian Revolutionary Federation
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation is an Armenian political party founded in Tiflis in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian...

, dedicated to its notable members.
Museum of Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

museum of the Middle Eastern civilisations and cultures, located on Arami street.
Museum of sculptor Ara Sargsian and painter Hakop Kodjoian located on Mashtots Avenue.
Yerevan History Museum
Yerevan History Museum
The Yerevan History Museum is the history museum of Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia. The museum was founded in 1931 as the Communal Museum...

founded in 1931. In 2005 the museum settled in the Yerevan City Hall complex.
Museum of Wood Craft opened in 1977, located on Paronian street.
National Museum of Architecture named after Alexander Tamanyan located on Hanrapetutyan street, home to a research centre and samples of Tamanyan's works.


On 6 June 2010, Yerevan was named as the 2012 World Book Capital
World Book Capital
World Book Capital is a title bestowed by UNESCO to a city in recognition of the quality of its programs to promote books and reading and the dedication of all players in the book industry....

 by The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

). The Aremnian capital was chosen for the quality and variety of the programme it presented to the selection committee, which met at UNESCO’s headquarters in Paris on 2 July 2010.

Cinemas, Theatres, Opera and Concert Halls



The city is home to many cinema halls; among them the famous Moskva cinema. Most of the world's hit movies are available to watch there. Since 2004, every year Moskva hosts the Golden Apricot international film festival. Many other cinema halls characterized with important architectural values are operating in the city such as Hayrenik, Nayiri, Rossiya, etc.

The Yerevan Opera and Ballet Theatre
Armenian Opera Theater
The Alexander Spendiarian Armenian Opera and Ballet National Academic Theatre in Yerevan was officially opened on 20 January 1933. The building was designed by the Armenian architect Alexander Tamanian...

 consists of two concert halls: Aram Khatchaturian concert hall and the hall of the National Theatre of Opera and Ballet named after Alexander Spendiarian.

Numerous theatres and halls allow the audience to enjoy a multitude of various shows and performances, such as the modern Complex named after Karen Demirchyan
Karen Demirchyan Complex
Officially Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex , also known as Demirchyan Arena, Sports & Music Complex, or simply Hamalir , is a huge sports and concert complex located on Tsitsernakaberd hill which dominates over the western parts of Yerevan, near the Hrazdan River gorge...

. Other significant theatres include: Yerevan State Musical Comedy Theatre
Yerevan State Musical Comedy Theatre
Yerevan State Musical Comedy Theatre, named after Hakob Paronyan, was founded in 1941.- References :**...

 named after Hagop Baronian
Hagop Baronian
Hakop Baronian was an influential Ottoman Armenian writer, satirist, educator, and social figure in the 19th century...

, Russian Drama Theatre named after Constantin Stanislavski, Yerevan State Dramatic Theatre named after Hrachia Ghaplanian, Yerevan State Hamazgain
Hamazkayin
Hamazkayin , short for Hamazkayin Armenian Educational and Cultural Society, is a major cultural organization of the Armenian Diaspora, with a presence in every significant Armenian community worldwide...

 Theatre and the State Pupppet Theatre named after Hovhannes Tumanyan
Hovhannes Tumanyan
Hovhannes Tumanyan , is considered to be one of the greatest Armenian poets and writers. His work was mostly written in tragic form, often centering on the harsh lives of villagers in the Lori region.-Biography:...

. The Sundukyan State Academic Theatre of Yerevan
Sundukyan State Academic Theatre of Yerevan
Sundukyan State Academic Theatre of Yerevan, founded in 1922, is the oldest modern theatre in Armenia.Well-known actors and directors such as Vardan Ajemian, Valentin Podpomogov, Vahram Papazian, Hrachia Ghaplanyan, Hrachya Nersisian, Hasmik, Avet Avetisian, and Arus Voskanian were the stars of...

 is the oldest modern theatre in Armenia.

Yerevan in artworks


Many celebrated Armenian singers and composers dedicated their songs to Yerevan: Arno Babajanian
Arno Babajanian
Arno Harutyuni Babajanian was a Soviet Armenian composer and pianist, People's Artist of the Armenian SSR and Soviet Union . He was a laureate of two Stalin State Prizes of the USSR and two Armenian SSR State Prizes ....

, Rouben Hakhverdian, Harout Pamboukjian
Harout Pamboukjian
Harout Pamboukjian , , is an Armenian American pop singer living in Los Angeles. His Armenian dance, folk and revolutionary songs make him a favorite among Armenians.- Early life :...

, Aram Asatryan
Aram Asatryan
Aram Asatryan was an Armenian pop singer and songwriter known for his energetic concerts and music.- Life :Aram Asatryan was born in Echmiadzin, Armenia, the son of Hapet Asatryan and Ashken Mampreyan. He was born to a refugee family. Ever since his childhood years he had been a prodigal...

, Tata Simonian, Arsen Petrosian, Arman Hovhannisian, Rudik Gabrielian, Arame, Tigran Asatryan, Artash Asatryan, Ararat Nurijanyan, Inga and Anush Arshakyans
Inga and Anush Arshakyans
Inga and Anush Arshakyan , or, the Arshakyan Sisters , are an Armenian folk singing duo. The sisters represented Armenia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2009, eventually finishing in 10th place in the final.-Early life:...

 and others.

Yerevan has been a key theme for such movies as "The capital", "Our yard", "Yerevan jan", "Taxi 'Eli lav a'" and others. In 2000 "SHARM Holding
SHARM Holding
"" was founded in 1991. General Director of company is Ruben Jaghinyan.List of activities includes: production and placement of TV commercials, TV programs, concert organization, PR campaigns, presentations, show programs and many others...

" released the "As long as I live" documentary dedicated to the 2782nd anniversary of Yerevan.

Tourism



Tourism in Armenia
Tourism in Armenia
Tourism in Armenia has been a key sector to the Armenian economy since the 1990s as half a million people visit the country ever year, mostly ethnic Armenians from the Diaspora...

 is developing year by year and the capital city of Yerevan is one of the major tourist destinations. The city has a majority of luxury hotels, modern restaurants, bars, pubs and nightclubs. Zvartnots airport has also conducted renovation projects with the growing number of tourists visiting the country. Numerous places in Yerevan are attractive for tourists, such as the dancing fountains of the Republic Square, the State Opera House, the Cascade complex, the ruins of the Urartian
Urartu
Urartu , corresponding to Ararat or Kingdom of Van was an Iron Age kingdom centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highland....

 city of Erebuni (Arin Berd), the historical site of Karmir Blur (Teishebaini
Teishebaini
Teishebaini was the capital of the Urartian Transcaucasian provinces. It is presently located near the modern city of Yerevan in Armenia...

), etc. The Armenia Marriott
Marriott International
Marriott International, Inc. is a worldwide operator and franchisor of a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. Founded by J. Willard Marriott, the company is now led by son J.W. Marriott, Jr...

 Hotel is situated in the heart of the city at Republic Square, while other major chains are also present in downtown Yerevan, such as the Golden Tulip Yerevan Hotel and the Best Western
Best Western
Best Western International, Inc. is the third largest hotel chain, with over 4,195 hotels in nearly 80 countries. The chain, with its corporate headquarters in Phoenix, Arizona, operates more than 2,000 hotels in North America alone. Best Western has a marketing program involving placement of free...

 Congress Hotel. Recently, a number of new modern hotels have been inaugurated in the Silikian neighborhood of Ajapnyak district.

The location of Yerevan itself, inspires foreigners to visit the city in order to enjoy the view of the biblical mount of Ararat
Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat is a snow-capped, dormant volcanic cone in Turkey. It has two peaks: Greater Ararat and Lesser Ararat .The Ararat massif is about in diameter...

, as the city lies on the feet of the mountain forming the shape of a Roman amphitheatre
Amphitheatre
An amphitheatre is an open-air venue used for entertainment and performances.There are two similar, but distinct, types of structure for which the word "amphitheatre" is used: Ancient Roman amphitheatres were large central performance spaces surrounded by ascending seating, and were commonly used...

.

There are plenty of historical sites, churches and citadels in areas and regions surrounding the city of Yerevan, such as the (Garni Temple
Garni Temple
Garni is a temple complex located in the Kotayk Province of Armenia, situated approximately 32 km southeast from Yerevan.The first traces of human occupation date back to the 3rd millennium BC and are concentrated in an easily defensible terrain at one of the bends of the Azat river. In the 8th...

, Zvartnots Cathedral
Zvartnots Cathedral
Zvartnots Cathedral are the ruins of a seventh century centrally-planned aisled tetraconch type Armenian cathedral built by order of the Catholicos Nerses the Builder from 641-653...

, and Khor Virap
Khor Virap
The Khor Virap is an Armenian Apostolic Church monastery located in the Ararat plain in Armenia, near the border with Turkey, about south of Artashat, Ararat Province...

, etc.).

Music and nightlife


Yerevan has an extensive nightlife scene with a variety of night clubs
Nightclub
A nightclub is an entertainment venue which usually operates late into the night...

, live venues, street cafes, jazz cafes, tea houses, casino
Casino
In modern English, a casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. Casinos are most commonly built near or combined with hotels, restaurants, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions...

s, pubs, karaoke
Karaoke
is a form of interactive entertainment or video game in which amateur singers sing along with recorded music using a microphone and public address system. The music is typically a well-known pop song minus the lead vocal. Lyrics are usually displayed on a video screen, along with a moving symbol,...

 clubs and restaurants. Many cafés and restaurants stay open into the late hours as the warm summer evenings bring tourists to the relaxing cafes. The swan lake next to the Opera House, is one of the major night-life areas with hundreds of open top and indoor cafés to choose from. The city prides itself on having connections 24/7 as taxis are available at any time of the day or night. The city has played host to many world-famous musical acts including Charles Aznavour
Charles Aznavour
Charles Aznavour, OC is an Armenian-French singer, songwriter, actor, public activist and diplomat. Besides being one of France's most popular and enduring singers, he is also one of the best-known singers in the world...

, Cher
Cher
Cher is an American recording artist, television personality, actress, director, record producer and philanthropist. Referred to as the Goddess of Pop, she has won an Academy Award, a Grammy Award, an Emmy Award, three Golden Globes and a Cannes Film Festival Award among others for her work in...

, Serj Tankian
Serj Tankian
Serj Tankian is a Lebanese-born Armenian-American singer–songwriter, composer, multi-instrumentalist, playwright, record producer, poet, and political activist...

, Jivan Gasparyan, Plácido Domingo
Plácido Domingo
Plácido Domingo KBE , born José Plácido Domingo Embil, is a Spanish tenor and conductor known for his versatile and strong voice, possessing a ringing and dramatic tone throughout its range...

, Uriah Heep
Uriah Heep (band)
Uriah Heep are an English rock band formed in London in 1969 and regarded as a seminal classic hard rock act of the 1970s. Uriah Heep's progressive/art rock/heavy metal fusion's distinctive features have always been massive keyboards sound, strong vocal harmonies and David Byron's operatic vocals...

, Deep Purple
Deep Purple
Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertford in 1968. Along with Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath, they are considered to be among the pioneers of heavy metal and modern hard rock, although some band members believe that their music cannot be categorised as belonging to any one genre...

, Joe Cocker
Joe Cocker
John Robert "Joe" Cocker, OBE is an English rock and blues musician, composer and actor, who came to popularity in the 1960s, and is most known for his gritty voice, his idiosyncratic arm movements while performing, and his cover versions of popular songs, particularly those of The Beatles...

, John McLaughlin
John McLaughlin (musician)
John McLaughlin , also known as Mahavishnu John McLaughlin, is an English guitarist, bandleader and composer...

, Brazzaville, The Alan Parsons Project
The Alan Parsons Project
The Alan Parsons Project was a British progressive rock band, active between 1975 and 1990, consisting of singer Eric Woolfson and keyboardist Alan Parsons surrounded by a varying number of session musicians....

, Jethro Tull
Jethro Tull (band)
Jethro Tull are a British rock group formed in 1967. Their music is characterised by the vocals, acoustic guitar, and flute playing of Ian Anderson, who has led the band since its founding, and the guitar work of Martin Barre, who has been with the band since 1969.Initially playing blues rock with...

, Akvarium, Goran Bregović
Goran Bregovic
Goran Bregović is one of the most internationally known modern musicians and composers of the Balkans. He currently splits his time between Paris and Belgrade, where he settled down during the Yugoslav Wars.Bregović has composed for such varied artists as Iggy Pop and Cesária Évora...

, Zucchero
Zucchero
Adelmo Fornaciari, Commander , more commonly known by his stage name Zucchero Fornaciari or simply Zucchero /ˈtsukkero/, is an Italian rock singer. His music is largely inspired by gospel, blues and rock music, and alternates between ballads and more rhythmic boogie-like pieces.Zucchero is the...

, Daniel Decker
Daniel Decker
Daniel Decker is a Puerto Rican - American composer, singer and recording artist known for his unique blending of musical influences from around the globe and infusing them into his own works....

, Michel Legrand
Michel Legrand
Michel Jean Legrand is a French musical composer, arranger, conductor, and pianist...

, Irina Allegrova
Irina Allegrova
Irina Aleksandrovna Allegrova is a Russian singer of Russian and Armenian descent.-Biography:Irina Allegrova was born in Rostov-on-Don in 1952. Her Armenian father Alexander Sarkisov took the last name Allegrov as a pseudonym when he was just 17 and Irina was born under the name Allegrova. Her...

, Garou
Garou (singer)
Garou , from the French expression "loup-garou", which means "werewolf" and is a transformation of "Garand", his last name; is a Canadian singer from Sherbrooke, Quebec. He is known for his work in the musical Notre-Dame de Paris and the #1 hits "Belle", "Seul", "Sous le vent", and "La Rivière de...

, Alla Pugacheva
Alla Pugacheva
Alla Borisovna Pugacheva or Pugachova , born 15 April 1949), is а Soviet and Russian musical performer. Her career started in 1965 and continues to this day...

, Shadmehr
Shadmehr
Shadmehr is a city in and capital of Shadmehr District, in Mahvelat County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 3,369, in 848 families....

, Ian Gillan
Ian Gillan
Ian Gillan is an English rock music vocalist and songwriter, best known as the lead singer and lyricist for Deep Purple. During his career Gillan also fronted his own band, had a year-long stint as the vocalist for Black Sabbath, and sang the role of Jesus in the original recording of Andrew Lloyd...

, Hasmik Papian
Hasmik Papian
- Biography :Hasmik Papian graduated from High Academy in Yerevan first as a violinist, then as a singer. After her debut at the Armenian National Opera, she was invited as a soloist among others by Opera Bonn and Deutsche Oper am Rhein, Düsseldorf, Germany...

, Isabel Bayrakdarian
Isabel Bayrakdarian
Isabel Bayrakdarian is a Grammy Award-nominated Armenian Canadian opera singer.-Early life:Born in Lebanon in 1974, she moved to Canada as a teenager. Bayrakdarian graduated in 1997 from the University of Toronto with an honours B.A.Sc...

, Siavash Ghomayshi, Space, Bambir
Bambir
Bambir is an Armenian folk-rock band, formed in 1978 in Gyumri, who have gained acknowledgement in Armenia and abroad. They have performed in Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and the United States. Their repertoire also includes traditional Armenian songs, modern arrangements of Komitas and...

, Grigory Leps
Grigory Leps
Grigory Victorovich Lepsveridze , commonly known as Grigory Leps, is a Russian singer-songwriter created a unique style mixing between rock music, pop music, and in his early career shanson. Known for his low strength voice with long-range vocals....

, George Benson
George Benson
George Benson is a ten Grammy Award winning American musician, whose production career began at the age of twenty-one as a jazz guitarist....

, and many more.

Amusement Parks and Zoo


  • Yerevan Zoo
    Yerevan Zoo
    -External links:...

     was founded in 1940. Operated by the Yerevan municipality, the zoo is home to 1500 different animals and 260 species.

  • The Waterworld is a water park in Yerevan. It has several pools, toboggans, bars and restaurants. The park used to close from October to May but the construction of an indoor section called Aquatek has permitted the water park to be open all year. The indoor section has jacuzzis, pools, hammams, fitness rooms, restaurants and a hotel.

  • Play City is an enterteinment centre located in Avan district, consists of a bowling arena, a cinema hall, paint-ball, karting ring and video-game rooms.

  • The green areas in Yerevan are increasing day by day, the municipality is working towards the inauguration of new parks in all districts of Yerevan. The most popular park nowadays is the Lovers' park on Baghramyan street, while the Victory park is one of the largest parks in the city along with the Youth (Circular) park and the Botanical garden. Many other beautiful parks enhance the city of Yerevan, such as the English and Shahumyan parks in Kentron District
    Kentron District
    Kentron is a district of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It comprises the city center.-Gallery:...

    , Tumanyan park in Ajapnyak
    Ajapnyak
    Ajapnyak is a district of the Armenian capital Yerevan, with a population over 125,000. It is situated northwest of the city centre.Its name, literally "right bank", refers to its location on the right bank of Hrazdan river. The administrative district of Ajapnyak has common borders with the...

    , Komitas park in Shengavit
    Shengavit District
    Shengavit is a district of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It is situated southwest of the city centre and consists of the following 7 parts: The South-Western district, Nerkin Shengavit, Verin Shengavit, Nerkin Charbakh, Verin Charbakh, Noragavit, Aeratsia. Garegin Nzhdehi square and metro...

    , Vahan Zatikian park in Malatia-Sebastia, David Anhaght park in Kanaker-Zeytun, the Family park in Avan, Fridtjof Nansen
    Fridtjof Nansen
    Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. In his youth a champion skier and ice skater, he led the team that made the first crossing of the Greenland interior in 1888, and won international fame after reaching a...

     park in Nor Nork
    Nor Nork
    Nor Nork is a district of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It is situated east of the city centre....

    , etc.

Air


Yerevan is served by the Zvartnots International Airport
Zvartnots International Airport
Zvartnots International Airport is located near Zvartnots, west of Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia. The airport was built in 1961. It is now the busiest airport in Armenia and the Caucasus. The draftsmen of the airport included architects M. Khachikyan, A. Tarkhanyan, J. Sheqhlyan, L....

, located 12 km west of the city center. It is the primary airport of the country and the hub of Armavia
Armavia
Air Company "Armavia" is an airline with its head office on the grounds of Zvartnots International Airport in Zvartnots, Armenia, near Yerevan. It operates international passenger services from Yerevan to destinations in Europe and Asia...

, national air carrier company. Inaugurated in 1961 during the Soviet era, Zvartnots airport was renovated for the first time in 1985 and a second time in 2002 in order to adapt to international norms. It went through a facelift starting in 2004 with the construction of a new terminal. The first phase of the construction ended in September 2006 with the opening of the arrivals zone. A second section designated for departures was inaugurated in May 2007. The departure terminal is anticipated, October 2011 housing state of the art facilities and technology. This will make Yerevan Zvartnots International Airport, the largest, busiest and most modern airport in the entire Caucasus. The entire project costs more than $100 million USD.

The airport serves direct flights to dozens of countries which include France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

, Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

, Latvia
Latvia
Latvia , officially the Republic of Latvia , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Estonia , to the south by Lithuania , to the east by the Russian Federation , to the southeast by Belarus and shares maritime borders to the west with Sweden...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

, Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

, Georgia
Georgia (country)
Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

 etc.

A second airport, Erebuni Airport
Erebuni Airport
Erebuni Airport is a joint civil and military airport serving Yerevan and the country of Armenia. It is located south of the center of Yerevan. At present, the airport is mostly operated by the military, although private firms operate chartered helicopter flights inside the country and to the...

, is located just south of the city. Since the independence, "Erebuni" is mainly used for military or private flights. The Armenian Air Force
Armenian Air Force
The Armenian Air Force is a small air arm formed by independent Armenia in 1992 in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It is organized and equipped principally to provide Armenian ground forces with tactical air support in the form of ground attack and airlift in mountainous terrain...

 has equally installed its base there and there are several MiG-29s stationed on Erebuni's tarmac.

Bus and Trolleybus



Yerevan has 46 bus lines and 24 trolleybus
Trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

 lines. The Yerevan trolleybus system
Trolleybuses in Yerevan
The Yerevan trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network in Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia. Since the closure of the Gyumri trolleybus system in 2005, it has been Armenia's only trolleybus system.-History:...

 has been operating since 1949. Old Soviet-era buses have been replaced with new modern ones. Outside the bus lines that cover the city, some buses at the start of the central road train station located in the Nor Kilikia neighborhood serve practically all the cities of Armenia as well as of others abroad, notably Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The name is derived from an early Georgian form T'pilisi and it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936...

 in Georgia
Georgia (country)
Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

 or Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

 in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

.

A new route network has been developed in the city, according to which the number of minibuses will be reduced from the currently existing 2600 to 650 by the end of 2010.

The tramway network that operated in Yerevan since 1906 was decommissioned in January 2004. Its use had a cost 2.4 times higher than the generated profits, which pushed the municipality to shutdown the network, despite a last ditch effort to save it towards the end of 2003. Since the closure, the rails have been dismantled and sold.

Metro


The Yerevan Metro
Yerevan Metro
The Yerevan Metro is a rapid transit system that serves the capital of Armenia, Yerevan. The system was launched in 1981 and like most former Soviet Metros, its stations are very deep and intricately decorated with national motifs. The metro runs on a 13.4km line and currently services 10 active...

 named after Karen Demirchyan, is a rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system that serves the capital city since 1981. It has a single line of 13.4 km (8.3 mi) length with 10 active stations. The interiors of the stations resemble that of the former western Soviet nations, with chandelier
Chandelier
A chandelier is a branched decorative ceiling-mounted light fixture with two or more arms bearing lights. Chandeliers are often ornate, containing dozens of lamps and complex arrays of glass or crystal prisms to illuminate a room with refracted light...

s hanging from the corridors. The metro stations had most of their names changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Independence of the Republic of Armenia.

A northeastern extension of the line with two new stations is currently being developed. The construction of the first station (Ajapnyak) and of the one kilometer tunnel linking it to the rest of the network will cost 18 million USD. The time of the end of the project has not yet been defined. Another long term project is the construction of two new lines, but these have been suspended due to lack of finance.

More than 50,000 people are being transported by Yerevan metro on a daily basis.

Train


Yerevan has a single central train station (several train stations of suburbs have not been used since 1990) that is connected to the metro via the Sasuntsi Davit station. The train station is made in Soviet-style architecture with its long point on the building roof, representing the symbols of communism: red star
Red star
A red star, five-pointed and filled, is an important ideological and religious symbol which has been used for various purposes, such as: state emblems, flags, monuments, ornaments, and logos.- Symbol of communism :...

, hammer and sickle
Hammer and sickle
The hammer and sickle is a part of communist symbolism and its usage indicates an association with Communism, a Communist party, or a Communist state. It features a hammer and a sickle overlapping each other. The two tools are symbols of the industrial proletariat and the peasantry; placing them...

. Due to the Turkish and Azerbaijani blockades of Armenia, there is only one international train that passes by once every two days, with neighboring Georgia being its destination. For example, for a sum of 9 000 to 18 000 dram
Armenian dram
The dram is the monetary unit of Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. It is subdivided into 100 luma . The word "dram" translates into English as "money" and is cognate with the Greek drachma...

, it is possible to take the night train to the Georgian capital, Tbilisi. This train then continues to its destination of Batumi
Batumi
Batumi is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. Sometimes considered Georgia's second capital, with a population of 121,806 , Batumi serves as an important port and a commercial center. It is situated in a subtropical zone, rich in...

, on the shores of the Black sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

.

The only railway that goes to Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 to the south passes by the closed border of Nakhichevan
Nakhichevan
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan. The region covers 5,363 km² and borders Armenia to the east and north, Iran to the south and west, and Turkey to the northwest...

. For this reason, there are no trains that go south from Yerevan. A construction project on a new railway line connecting Armenia and Iran directly is currently being studied.

Recently, the South Caucasus Railway CJSC -which is the current operator of the railway system in Armenia- announced its readyness to put the Yerevan-Gyumri-Kars railway line in service in case the Armenian-Turkish protocols are ratified and the opening of the borders between the two countries is achieved.

There are several number of suburb trains to:
  • Armavir
    Armavir, Armenia
    Armavir is a city located in western Armenia. The 1989 census reported that the city had a total population of 46,900, but this has declined considerably: the 2001 census counted 32,034; estimate for 2008 is 26,387. It is the capital of the Armavir province . The city of Armavir in Russia, founded...

     (4), Gyumri
    Gyumri
    Gyumri is the capital and largest city of the Shirak Province in northwest Armenia. It is located about 120 km from the capital Yerevan, and, with a population of 168,918 , is the second-largest city in Armenia.The name of the city has been changed many times in history...

     (2);
  • Yeraskh
    Yeraskh
    Yeraskh is a town in the Ararat Province of Armenia. Yeraskh is the last town in Armenia at the border with Nakhichevan on what used to be the main road and rail connections between Nakhichevan and Azerbaijan proper. The rail line also was the only direct connection between the former USSR and Iran....

     (1), Ararat
    Ararat, Armenia
    Ararat is a city in Armenia in the province of Ararat, about 42 km northwest of Yerevan.The Ararat Cement Factory has been opened in 1927 along with small apartments to accommodate the workers. In 1935, it was incorporated with the village of Davalu. In 1939 the town of Ararat was officially...

     (2);
  • Hrazdan
    Hrazdan
    Hrazdan is the capital of the Kotayk province of Armenia. The name Hrazdan is derived from the Middle-Persian name Frazdan. Farzdan is connected to the Zoroastrian mythology. With a population of 52,900 it is the fifth-largest city in Armenia by population. It has lost significant population since...

     (2), Shorzha
    Shorzha
    Shorzha is a village located along Lake Sevan northwest of the Artanish Peninsula in the Gegharkunik Province of Armenia. There is a 17th century chapel and cemetery on the south edge of the village. On the hill overlooking the village, there are the ruins of a chapel, and somewhere in the...

     (1, on route only in summer).

Industry



In 2001, Yerevan's share of national industrial production was approximately 50%. Yerevan's manufactures include chemicals, primary metals, machinery, rubber
Rubber
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, is an elastomer that was originally derived from latex, a milky colloid produced by some plants. The plants would be ‘tapped’, that is, an incision made into the bark of the tree and the sticky, milk colored latex sap collected and refined...

 products, plastics, textiles, alcoholic beverages and processed food. Even though the economic crisis of the 90s ravaged the industry of the country, several factories remain always in service, notably in the petrochemical and the aluminium sectors. Not only is Yerevan the headquarters of major Armenian companies, but of international ones as well, as it's seen as an attractive outsourcing location for Western European, Russian and American multinationals. Yerevan is also the country's financial hub, home to the Central Bank of Armenia
Central Bank of Armenia
The Central Bank of Armenia is the central bank of Armenia with its headquarters in Yerevan. The CBA is an independent institution responsible for issuing all banknotes and coins in the country, overseeing and regulating the banking sector and keeping the government's currency reserves...

, the Armenian Stock Exchange
Armenian Stock Exchange
NASDAQ OMX Armenia , formerly "Armenian Stock Exchange" or "Armex", is the only stock exchange currently operating in Armenia. It is located in Yerevan, the capital city. The stock exchange began operations in 2001 as a self-regulatory organization founded by the exchange members...

 (NASDAQ OMX Armenia), as well as some of the country's largest commercial banks.

Armenian beverages, especially the Armenian cognac
Cognac (drink)
Cognac , named after the town of Cognac in France, is a variety of brandy. It is produced in the wine-growing region surrounding the town from which it takes its name, in the French Departements of Charente and Charente-Maritime....

 and beer have a worldwide fame. Hence, Yerevan is home to many leading enterprises of Armenia and the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

 for the production of alcoholic beverages, such as Yerevan Brandy Company
Yerevan Brandy Company
Yerevan Brandy Company is the leading enterprise of Armenia for the production of alcoholic beverages. Its main brand name is Ararat. Currently the company boasts a large following, particularly in Russia, as well as in Ukraine and Belarus. The Russian market accounts for about 85% of exports...

, Yerevan Ararat Wine Factory
Yerevan Ararat Wine Factory
Officially Yerevan Ararat Brandy-Wine-Vodka Factory, also known as "Noy" is a company owned by Gagik Tsarukyan's "Multi Group Concern"*. The factory is located on the left bank of Hrazdan river in the heart of Yerevan city, occupying the area of the historic great Yerevan Fortress.-History:Nerses...

, Yerevan Kilikia Beer Company and Yerevan Champagne Wines Factory.

Yerevan is also home to other giant industrial and international plants: Nairit chemical and rubber plant, ArmRosGazProm a subsidiary of Russian giants Gazprom
Gazprom
Open Joint Stock Company Gazprom is the largest extractor of natural gas in the world and the largest Russian company. Its headquarters are in Cheryomushki District, South-Western Administrative Okrug, Moscow...

, RUSAL ARMENAL
RUSAL ARMENAL
RUSAL ARMENAL is a wholly owned subsidiary of RUSAL which runs an aluminum foil mill in the Arabkir district of Yerevan, Armenia. The premises of the mill was formerly known as the Kanaker aluminum smelter, which was commissioned in 1950, and became one of the largest aluminum foil mills in the...

 aluminium foil mill and Cigaronne company for tobacco products.

The carpet
Armenian carpet
The term Armenian carpet designates, but is not limited to, tufted rugs or knotted carpets woven in Armenia or by Armenians from pre-Christian times to the present...

 industry in Armenia has an ancient tradition and a very deep history, therefore, the carpet production is rather developed in Yerevan with three major factories that also produce hand-made carpets.

Yerevan's location on the shores of Hrazdan river has enabled the production of hydroelectricity. Two plants are established on the territory of the municipality. There is also a modern thermal power plant which is unique in the region for its quality and high technology, situated in the southern part of the city, furnished with a new gas-steam combined cycled turbine, to generate electric power.

Construction



The construction sector has experienced strong growth since 2000. Recently, Yerevan has been undergoing massive construction boom, funded mostly by Armenian millionaires from Russia, with an extensive and controversial redevelopment process in which Czarist and Soviet-period buildings have been demolished and replaced with new buildings. This urban renewal plan has been met with opposition and criticism from some residents. Coupled with the construction sector's growth has been the increase in real estate prices. Downtown houses deemed too small are more and more demolished and replaced by high-rise buildings.

Two major construction projects are scheduled in Yerevan: the Northern Avenue
Northern Avenue (Yerevan)
Northern Avenue , first conceived by Alexander Tamanyan, is a pedestrian avenue in Yerevan, linking the Opera House with Republic Square.-History:...

 and the Main Avenue projects. The Northern Avenue is almost completed and was put in service in 2007, while the Main Avenue is still under development. In the past few years, the city centre has also witnessed major road reconstruction, and the renovation of the Republic square, funded by the American-Armenian billionaire, Kirk Kerkorian
Kirk Kerkorian
Kerkor "Kirk" Kerkorian is an American businessman who is the president/CEO of Tracinda Corporation, his private holding company based in Beverly Hills, California. Kerkorian is known as one of the important figures in shaping Las Vegas and, with architect Martin Stern, Jr...

. Another diasporan Armenian from Argentina; Eduardo Eurnekian took over the airport, while the cascade development project was funded by the US based Armenian millionaire Gerard L. Cafesjian.

On 29 January 2010, another major project "Yerevan City" was announced by the municipality of Yerevan, to build a new cultural businesslike centre near the hill of Paskevich
Ivan Paskevich
Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich was a Ukrainian-born military leader. For his victories, he was made Count of Erivan in 1828 and Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland in 1831...

, where the Noragyugh neighborhood is located. The project will link Admiral Isakov
Ivan Isakov
Hovhannes Stepani Isakov -Early life:Ivan Isakov was born Hovhannes Ter-Isahakyan in the family of an Armenian railway worker in the village of Hadjikend in the Kars Oblast, then a part of the Russian Empire...

 Avenue with Arshakunyats Avenue and will be fulfilled through a cooperation with Moscow city government.

Monuments and landmarks


Erebuni Fortress
Erebuni Fortress
Erebuni Fortress also known as Arin Berd is a fortified city from the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in what is present-day Yerevan, Armenia. It was one of several fortresses built along the northern Urartian border and was one of the most important political, economic and cultural centers of...

or Arin Berd, where the city of Yerevan was founded in 782 BC by King Argishti I.
The Cascade massive white steps with fountains ascend through Tamanyan street towards Haghtanak Park, home to the Cafesjian Museum of Art.
Cossack Monument dedicated to the Cossacks killed during the Russian-Persian wars in 1826-1827.
Karen Demirchyan Complex
Karen Demirchyan Complex
Officially Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex , also known as Demirchyan Arena, Sports & Music Complex, or simply Hamalir , is a huge sports and concert complex located on Tsitsernakaberd hill which dominates over the western parts of Yerevan, near the Hrazdan River gorge...

or Hamalir, concert hall and sports complex.
Komitas Pantheon
Komitas Pantheon
Komitas Pantheon-Park is located in Yerevan's Shengavit district, on the right side of the main Arshakunyats Avenue. Many outstanding figures of Armenia's artistic world are buried here, including Komitas , one of Armenia’s great composers...

cemetery where many famous Armenians are buried.
Lover's Park or Boghossian gardens, located on Baghramyan street, the park is operating since October 2008.
Matenadaran
Matenadaran
The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts , commonly referred to as the Matenadaran , is an ancient manuscript repository located in Yerevan, Armenia...

Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts, one of the richest depositories of manuscripts in the world.
Moskva Cinema built on the site of St. Peter and Paul Church of the 5th century. The church was destroyed in 1931 to build the cinema.
Mother Armenia
Mother Armenia
Mother Armenia is the female personification of Armenia. Her most visual rendering is a monumental statue in Victory Park overlooking the capital city of Yerevan, Armenia.-History:...

World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 and Karabakh Liberation war memorial located in Haghtanak (Victory) Park.
Surb Zoravor Church
Surb Zoravor Astvatsatsin Church
Officially Surb Zoravor Astvatsatsin Church is one of the oldest churches of Yerevan. At first, it was called Surb Astvatsatsin, but later it was renamed 'Surb Zoravor', most probably in the honour of Saint Vartan Mamikonian...

built in the 17th century, the church is one the best monuments in Yerevan.
Saint Sarkis Cathedral
Saint Sarkis Cathedral, Yerevan
Saint Sarkis Cathedral is an Armenian church in Yerevan, Armenia. It is the seat of the Araratian Patriarchal Diocese. It is located on the left bank of the Hrazdan River in the Kentron District.-History:...

the seat of Araratian Patriarchal Diocese, rebuilt in 1835-1842.
Saint Gregory Cathedral
Saint Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral, Yerevan
Saint Gregory the Ilumminator Cathedral is the largest Armenian church in the world and is located in the Kentron District of Yerevan in Armenia. It is adjacent to the Zoravar Andranik metro station...

the largest Armenian church in the world, completed in 2001.
Argavand Funerary Tower Islamic funerary tower built in 1413, located in the village of Argavand now absorbed by Yerevan.
Blue Mosque
Blue Mosque, Yerevan
The "Blue Mosque" was built by Iran, and is also known as the "Persian Mosque," "Gök Jami", . The mosque is in Yerevan, Armenia. The Yerevan region was under various Muslim rulers since the incursions of Timur in the 14th century...

or "Gök Jami" built in 1764–1768, located on Mashtots Avenue. It is the only mosque operating in Armenia.
Sasuntsi Davit statue dedicated to the legendary Armenian hero David of Sasun
David of Sasun
David of Sasun or David of Sassoun is an Armenian epic hero from the Daredevils of Sassoun who drove Arab invaders out of Armenia.The Sasuntsi Davit is an Armenian national epic poem recounting David's exploits...

.
Statue of Haik the legendary patriarch
Patriarch
Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is called patriarchy. This is a Greek word, a compound of πατριά , "lineage, descent", esp...

 and founder of the Armenian nation.
Swan Lake located in the opera park, used as an ice-skating arena in winters.
Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd is a memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide; it is located on a hill overlooking Yerevan, Armenia. Every year on April 24, hundreds of thousands of Armenians gather here to remember the victims of the 1915 Armenian Genocide that took place in the Ottoman Empire...

monument commemorating the victims of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I...

.
Yerablur
Yerablur
Yerablur is a military cemetery located on a hilltop in the outskirts of Yerevan, Armenia. Since 1988, Yerablur has become the home of the Armenian soldiers who have lost their lives during the Nagorno-Karabakh war...

 Pantheon
a military cemetery where Armenian soldiers of Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an armed conflict that took place from February 1988 to May 1994, in the small enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan...

 are buried.
Yerevan Opera House
Armenian Opera Theater
The Alexander Spendiarian Armenian Opera and Ballet National Academic Theatre in Yerevan was officially opened on 20 January 1933. The building was designed by the Armenian architect Alexander Tamanian...

the Armenian National Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre.
Yerevan Waterworld modern entertainment complex of water adventures, operating both in summers and winters.
Yerevan Zoo
Yerevan Zoo
-External links:...

founded in 1940, home to 1500 different animals and 260 species.
Botanical Garden of Yerevan opened in 1935 in the northern part of Yerevan, occupys an area of 105 hectares.
The English Park opened in the 1860s and considered to be the oldest park in the city of Yerevan. It was further developed and reopened on 3 October 1910.
The Youth Park or Yeritasardakan Aygi, formerly known as the Circular park of Yerevan.
Yerevan Circus opened in 1956 on Agatangeghos street in the centre of Yerevan.

International relations



Yerevan is member of 6 international organizations: the "International Assembly of CIS Countries' Capitals and Big Cities" (MAG), the "Black Sea Capitals' Association" (BSCA), the "International Association of Francophone Mayors" (AIMF), the "Organization of World Heritage Cities" (OWHC), the "International Association of Large-scale Communities" and the "International Urban Community Lighting Association" (LUCI).

Twin towns — sister cities


Currently, Yerevan has thirty sister and partner cities.
City Country Year
Carrara
Carrara
Carrara is a city and comune in the province of Massa-Carrara , notable for the white or blue-grey marble quarried there. It is on the Carrione River, some west-northwest of Florence....

  Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

Since 1965
Podgorica
Podgorica
Podgorica , is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.Podgorica's favourable position at the confluence of the Ribnica and Morača rivers and the meeting point of the fertile Zeta Plain and Bjelopavlići Valley has encouraged settlement...

  Montenegro
Montenegro
Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

Since 1974
Antananarivo
Antananarivo
Antananarivo , formerly Tananarive , is the capital and largest city in Madagascar. It is also known by its French colonial shorthand form Tana....

  Madagascar
Madagascar
The Republic of Madagascar is an island country located in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa...

Since 1981
Cambridge, MA
Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Greater Boston area. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Cambridge is home to two of the world's most prominent...

  United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

Since 1987
Marseille
Marseille
Marseille , known in antiquity as Massalia , is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 852,395 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1,420,000 on an area of...

  France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

Since 1992
Athens
Athens
Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

  Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

Since 1993
Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

  France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

Since 1993
Stavropol
Stavropol
-International relations:-Twin towns/sister cities:Stavropol is twinned with: Des Moines, United States Béziers, France Pazardzhik, Bulgaria-External links:* **...

  Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

Since 1994
Isfahan
Isfahan (city)
Isfahan , historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 km south of Tehran. It has a population of 1,583,609, Iran's third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad...

  Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

Since 1995
Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

  Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

Since 1995
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

  Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

Since 1995
Odessa
Odessa
Odessa or Odesa is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the northwest shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000 .The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement,...

  Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

Since 1995
Florence
Florence
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

  Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

Since 1996
Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The name is derived from an early Georgian form T'pilisi and it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936...

  Georgia
Georgia (country)
Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

Since 1996
Beirut
Beirut
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon, with a population ranging from 1 million to more than 2 million . Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coastline, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport, and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan...

  Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

Since 1997
Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

  Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

Since 1997
Saint-Petersburg   Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

Since 1997
Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

  France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

Since 1998
Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

  Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

Since 1998
Volgograd
Volgograd
Volgograd , formerly called Tsaritsyn and Stalingrad is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River...

 Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

Since 1998
Bratislava
Bratislava
Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia and, with a population of about 431,000, also the country's largest city. Bratislava is in southwestern Slovakia on both banks of the Danube River. Bordering Austria and Hungary, it is the only national capital that borders two independent countries.Bratislava...

  Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

Since 2001
Minsk
Minsk
- Ecological situation :The ecological situation is monitored by Republican Center of Radioactive and Environmental Control .During 2003–2008 the overall weight of contaminants increased from 186,000 to 247,400 tons. The change of gas as industrial fuel to mazut for financial reasons has worsened...

  Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

Since 2002
São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

  Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

Since 2002
Chişinău
Chisinau
Chișinău is the capital and largest municipality of Moldova. It is also its main industrial and commercial centre and is located in the middle of the country, on the river Bîc...

  Moldova
Moldova
Moldova , officially the Republic of Moldova is a landlocked state in Eastern Europe, located between Romania to the West and Ukraine to the North, East and South. It declared itself an independent state with the same boundaries as the preceding Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1991, as part...

Since 2005
Rostov-on-Don
Rostov-on-Don
-History:The mouth of the Don River has been of great commercial and cultural importance since the ancient times. It was the site of the Greek colony Tanais, of the Genoese fort Tana, and of the Turkish fortress Azak...

  Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

Since 2005
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

  Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

Since 2007
Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

  United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

Since 2007
Nice
Nice
Nice is the fifth most populous city in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse, with a population of 348,721 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of more than 955,000 on an area of...

  France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

Since 2007
Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

  India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

Since 2008
Sofia
Sofia
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria and the 12th largest city in the European Union with a population of 1.27 million people. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of Mount Vitosha and approximately at the centre of the Balkan Peninsula.Prehistoric settlements were excavated...

  Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

Since 2008

Education



Yerevan is a major educational centre in the region. It has 166 nursery schools, 259 public education schools, 12 state musical & art schools and several state owned schools for special needs.

At present, 90 institutes of higher education are functioning in the Republic of Armenia. As a capital city, Yerevan has the majority with 71 higher educational institutions, 19 out of which are state universities and the rest 52 are private ones. In 2008-2009 academic year, according to data released by the National Statistical Service of Armenia, there were 114,399 students from which 91,806 students were studying at the institutes of higher education in the capital. 16,304 students in Yerevan institutes got their higher education for free while 75,502 students paid for their studies.

Currently, 38 state technical colleges (elementary and intermediate post-school educational institutions) are operating in the city, under the supervision of Yerevan Municipality, government ministries and state organizations.

Universities


Below is a list of Yerevan's most important Universities:
Institute Official website Date
established
Student
population
Yerevan State University
Yerevan State University
Yerevan State University is a university in Yerevan, Armenia. Founded on May 16 1919, it is the largest university in the country with 110 departments. Of its 3,150 employees, 1,190 comprise the teaching staff which includes 25 academicians, 130 professors, 700 docents , and 360 assistant lecturers...

 
YSU http://www.ysu.am/ 16 May 1919 10,450
Yerevan State Musical Conservatory
Yerevan State Musical Conservatory
Yerevan State Musical Conservatory or Yerevan Komitas State Conservatory, is a conservatory located in Yerevan, Armenia. It was founded in 1921 as a music studio, and re-founded two years later as a higher musical education institution.-History:...

 named after Komitas
YSC http://www.conservatory.am/ 1921
Armenian State Pedagogical University named after Khachatur Abovian ASPU http://www.aspu.am/ 1922
Yerevan State Medical University
Yerevan State Medical University
Yerevan State Medical University after Mkhitar Heratsi is a leading medical school in Yerevan, Armenia. YSMU was founded in 1920. The highest administrative organ is the University Council, which convenes at least twice a year. The Council makes decisions about the main activities of the University...

 named after Mkhitar Heratsi
YSMU http://www.ysmu.am/ 1930
State Engineering University of Armenia
State Engineering University of Armenia
The State Engineering University of Armenia is a technical university located in Yerevan, Armenia. Established as the Yerevan Polytechnic Institute in 1933, it provides educational and research programs in various fields of technology and science related to engineering...

 
SEUA http://www.seua.am/ 1933 10,000
Yerevan State Linguistic University
Yerevan State Linguistic University
Yerevan State Linguistic University after Valery Brusov is a university in Yerevan, Armenia, which trains specialists in Russian, English, French, German, Greek, Spanish languages, practical psychology, history, political science, area studies and other humanities.-History: Yerevan State...

 named after Valery Brusov
YSLU http://www.brusov.am/ 4 February 1935 full time 4,700
Yerevan State Academy of Fine Arts  YAFA http://www.yafa.am/ 1945
Armenian State Institute of Physical Culture
Armenian State Institute of Physical Culture
Armenian State Institute of Physical Culture is a high-education institute, located in Yerevan, Armenia. It was founded in 1945 and prepares trainers, sports journalists, specialists in kinesiology and adaptive physical training...

 
ASIPC http://www.asipc.am/ 1945
Yerevan State Institute of Economy
Yerevan State Institute of Economy
Armenian State University of Economics is a high-education institute, located in Yerevan, Armenia. It was founded on August 6, 1975, on the basis of economical faculties of Yerevan State University. Its 5 faculties contain 29 departments. The teaching staff includes 41 professors, 130 docents ,...

 
YSINE http://www.ysine.am/ 1975
Yerevan State Institute of Theatre and Cinematography YSITC
Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction  YSUAC http://www.ysuac.am/ 11 January 1989
American University of Armenia
American University of Armenia
The American University of Armenia is a private, nonsectarian, independent university founded in 1991 in Yerevan, Armenia. Its creation inspired in the aftermath of the 1988 Leninakan Earthquake, the university is the first Armenian institution modeled on Western-style higher education, committed...

 
AUA http://www.aua.am/ 1991 268
Crisis Management State Academy CMSA 1992
State Agrarian University of Armenia  SAUA http://www.armagrar-uni.am/ 1994
Fondation Université Française en Arménie
Fondation Université Française en Arménie
Fondation Université Française en Arménie is a French language higher educational institution in Armenia. The university is located on Davit Anhaght street at the Kanakerr-Zeytun district of Yerevan. Instruction is primarily in French and Armenian....

 
UFAR http://www.ufar.am/ 1995 700
Eurasia International University
Eurasia International University
name = Eurasia International Universityestablished = 1996type = Privatepresident = Suren Ohanyancity = Yerevancountry = Armeniafaculty = 80students = 550website = www.eiu.am...

 
EIU http://www.eiu.am/ 1996
Russian-Armenian State University  RAU http://www.rau.am/ 29 August 1997 1,600
Caucasus Institute  CI http://caucasusinstitute.org/ 2002
European Regional Institute of Information and Communication Technologies in Armenia  ERIICTA http://www.eriicta.am/ 4 October 2002
Yerevan State Armenian-Greek College AGC http://www.agc.am/ 2006
Cavendish University  CUA http://www.cavendish.am/ 2008 550

Sports



The most played and popular sport in Yerevan is football. Yerevan has many football clubs with five in the 2011 season
2011 Armenian Premier League
-League table:-Results:The league will be played in four stages. The teams will play four times with each other, twice at home and twice away, for a total of 28 matches per team.-Top goalscorers:Source: -External links:* * * *...

 of the Armenian Premier League.
Club Stadium
FC Banants
FC Banants
Football Club Banants is an Armenian professional football team, playing in the capital, Yerevan. The club plays in the Armenian Premier League and has won the Armenian Cup twice, in 1992 and 2007.- Banants Kotayk :...

 
Banants Stadium
Banants Stadium
Banants Stadium is an all-seater football stadium in the Malatia-Sebastia District of Yerevan, Armenia, built in 2006 with the assistance of the UEFA. It was officially opened in 2008. It can serve around 6,000 supporters and is the home ground of FC Banants. Three more grounds around the stadium...

Ararat Yerevan  Hrazdan Stadium
Hrazdan Stadium
Hrazdan Stadium is a multi-use, all-seater stadium in Yerevan, Armenia, built and opened in 1970. With the financial support of Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, the stadium was built in a remarkable period of 11 months....

Mika FC  Mika Stadium
Mika Stadium
Mika Stadium is an all-seater football stadium in Yerevan, Armenia, built in 2007. It can serve around 8,000 supporters and is the home ground of Mika FC.The stadium is also a home venue of the Armenia women's national football team.-References:...

Pyunik FC  Republican Stadium
Ulisses  Hrazdan Stadium
Hrazdan Stadium
Hrazdan Stadium is a multi-use, all-seater stadium in Yerevan, Armenia, built and opened in 1970. With the financial support of Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, the stadium was built in a remarkable period of 11 months....



Yerevan has four major stadiums: Banants Stadium
Banants Stadium
Banants Stadium is an all-seater football stadium in the Malatia-Sebastia District of Yerevan, Armenia, built in 2006 with the assistance of the UEFA. It was officially opened in 2008. It can serve around 6,000 supporters and is the home ground of FC Banants. Three more grounds around the stadium...

, Mika Stadium
Mika Stadium
Mika Stadium is an all-seater football stadium in Yerevan, Armenia, built in 2007. It can serve around 8,000 supporters and is the home ground of Mika FC.The stadium is also a home venue of the Armenia women's national football team.-References:...

, Republican Stadium and Hrazdan Stadium
Hrazdan Stadium
Hrazdan Stadium is a multi-use, all-seater stadium in Yerevan, Armenia, built and opened in 1970. With the financial support of Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, the stadium was built in a remarkable period of 11 months....

, along with two small ones; Nairi Stadium
Nairi Stadium
Nairi Stadium is an all-seater football stadium in Yerevan, Armenia, owned by Pyunik FC. Due to its bad infrastructure, Pyunik plays its home games in the Republican Stadium of Yerevan.The stadium can serve around 6,800 supporters....

 and Erebuni Stadium. Hrazdan -the largest football venue- is also home to a sports complex composed of a swimming pool, basket-ball arena, tennis courts and other facilities.

The largest indoor arena of the city and the whole country is the Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex
Karen Demirchyan Complex
Officially Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex , also known as Demirchyan Arena, Sports & Music Complex, or simply Hamalir , is a huge sports and concert complex located on Tsitsernakaberd hill which dominates over the western parts of Yerevan, near the Hrazdan River gorge...

, mostly used for hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

 matches, Figure Skating
Figure skating
Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level , and at local, national, and international competitions...

 shows and concerts.

Armenia has always excelled in chess with its players being very often among the highest ranked and decorated. The headquarters of the Armenian Chess Federation
Armenian Chess Federation
The Armenian Chess Federation is the governing chess organisation in Armenia and is affiliated to FIDE. The Armenian Chess Federation was founded in 1927.In 2011 the Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan was reelected as President of Armenian Chess Federation....

 is located in the Kentron (central district) in Yerevan and there exists plenty of chess clubs in the city. In 1996, despite a severe economic crisis, Yerevan hosted the 32nd Chess Olympiad
32nd Chess Olympiad
The 32nd Chess Olympiad, organized by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs and comprising an open and women's tournament, took place between September 15 and October 2, 1996, in Yerevan, Armenia.- Chess competition :...

. In 2006, the four members from Yerevan of the Armenian chess team won the 37th Chess Olympiad
37th Chess Olympiad
The 37th Chess Olympiad, comprising an open and women's tournament and the general assembly of the Fédération Internationale des Échecs , took place between 20 May and 6 June 2006, in Turin, Italy.-Open tournament:...

 in Turin
Turin
Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

 and repeated the feat at the 38th Chess Olympiad
38th Chess Olympiad
The 38th Chess Olympiad, organized by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs and comprising an open and women's tournament, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between 12–25 November 2008, in Dresden, Germany and was won by Armenia.The 2010 Olympiad is...

 in Dresden
Dresden
Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

. The Yerevan-born leader of this team, Levon Aronian
Levon Aronian
Levon Grigor Aronian is an Armenian chess Grandmaster and the reigning World Blitz Chess Champion. On the September 2011 FIDE list, he has an Elo rating of 2807, making him number three in the world and Armenia's number one...

, is currently one of the world's top chess players and is number three on the February 2011 FIDE rankings.

Notable natives and residents



  • Khachatur Abovian
    Khachatur Abovian
    Khachatur Abovian ; ) was an Armenian writer and national public figure of the early 19th century who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and was presumed dead. He was an educator, poet and an advocate of modernization...

    , writer
  • Alexander Shirvanzade
    Alexander Shirvanzade
    Alexander Shirvanzade was an Armenian playwright and novelist...

    , writer
  • Martiros Saryan
    Martiros Saryan
    Martiros Saryan was an Armenian painter.He was born into an Armenian family in Nor Nakhijevan . In 1895, aged 15, he completed the Nakhichevan school and from 1897 to 1904 studied at the Moscow School of Arts, including in the workshops of Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin...

    , painter
  • Viktor Ambartsumian, astrophysicist
  • Silva Kaputikyan
    Silva Kaputikyan
    Sirvard Barunaki "Silva" Kaputikyan was a 20th century prominent Armenian poet, writer, academian and public activist....

    , poet
  • Rafik Khachatryan
    Rafik Khachatryan
    Rafik Khachatryan was an Armenian sculptor.File:Banakum carayelis.jpg|thumb|right|...

    , sculptor
  • Armen Dzhigarkhanyan
    Armen Dzhigarkhanyan
    Armen Dzigarkhanyan is one of the most popular Soviet, Russian and Armenian actors.He starred in dozens of Soviet films and provided the voice for many cartoon characters. He founded his own theater in Moscow.Dzigarkhanyan worked as assistant cameraman at Armenfilm studios in 1953–1954...

    , actor
  • Robert Amirkhanyan
    Robert Amirkhanyan
    Robert Amirkhanyan is an Armenian composer and songwriter. Professor of Yerevan State Conservatory.In 1969 he graduated from the Composer department of Yerevan State Conservatory. From 1969 to 1972 Amirkhanyan was the musical editor of Armenian Radio...

    , composer, professor
  • Alexander Arutiunian
    Alexander Arutiunian
    Alexander Grigorevich Arutiunian , also known as Arutunian, Arutyunyan, Arutjunjan or Harutiunian Alexander Grigorevich Arutiunian (Arm. Ալեքսանդր Գրիգորի Հարությունյան), also known as Arutunian, Arutyunyan, Arutjunjan or Harutiunian Alexander Grigorevich Arutiunian (Arm. Ալեքսանդր Գրիգորի...

    , composer
  • Djivan Gasparyan
    Djivan Gasparyan
    Djivan Gasparyan is an Armenian musician and composer. He plays the duduk, a double reed woodwind instrument related to the orchestral oboe. Gasparyan is known as the Master of the duduk.-Biography:...

    , composer
  • Ara Gevorgian, composer
  • Sergei Khachatryan, violinist
  • Samvel Yervinyan
    Samvel Yervinyan
    Samvel Yervinyan is an Armenian violinist and composer.Yervinyan was born in Yerevan, Armenia. He began studying at the age of 7 in Spenderian Music School under the tutoring of Armen Minasian. In the competitions he participated, he won all the first place prizes in his age group...

    , violinist
  • Tigran Mansurian
    Tigran Mansurian
    Tigran Mansurian is an Armenian composer of classical music and film scores. He was born in Beirut and educated in Yerevan, Armenia, where his family had moved in 1947...

    , Grammy nominated composer
  • Gevorg Sargsyan
    Gevorg Sargsyan
    Gevorg Sargsyan is an Armenian conductor.Winner of Sir Georg Solti Foundation grant-award for 2006, Gevorg Sargsyan is one of the youngest and most renowned Armenian conductors....

    , opera conductor
  • Armen Movsessian
    Armen Movsessian
    Armen Movsessian is a violin player. His formal training as a musician began as a child. He received his high school diploma from the Tchaikovsky's School of Music for the musically gifted, and earned his B.A. and Master’s from the Yerevan Conservatory named after Komitas...

    , violinist
  • Shavo Odadjian
    Shavo Odadjian
    Shavarsh "Shavo" Odadjian is an Armenian American songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, music video director/editor, music producer, and artist/painter. He is best known as the bassist, backing vocalist and occasional songwriter of the Grammy Award-winning rock band System of a Down...

    , bassist of the rock band System of a Down
    System of a Down
    System of a Down, also known by the acronym SOAD and often shortened to System, is a rock band from Southern California. The band was formed in 1994. It consists of Serj Tankian , Daron Malakian , Shavo Odadjian and John Dolmayan...

  • Smbat Lputian
    Smbat Lputian
    Smbat Gariginovich Lputian is an Armenian chess Grandmaster. He was first at tournament in Berlin 1982, shared first at Athens 1983 and at Irkutsk 1983, first at Sarajevo 1985 and at Irkutsk 1986, shared first at Hastings 1986-87 and first at Dortmund 1988...

    , chess player
  • Gabriel Sargissian, chess player

  • Vladimir Akopian, chess player
  • Levon Aronian
    Levon Aronian
    Levon Grigor Aronian is an Armenian chess Grandmaster and the reigning World Blitz Chess Champion. On the September 2011 FIDE list, he has an Elo rating of 2807, making him number three in the world and Armenia's number one...

    , chess player
  • Rafael Vaganian
    Rafael Vaganian
    Rafael Artemovich Vaganian, also transliterated Vahanyan is an Armenian chess grandmaster known for his sharp tactical style of play...

    , chess player
  • Ashot Nadanian
    Ashot Nadanian
    Ashot Nadanian is an Armenian chess International Master , chess theoretician and chess coach....

    , chess player
  • Sargis Sargsian
    Sargis Sargsian
    Sargis Sargsian is a former professional tennis player from Armenia.Sargsian turned pro in 1995, and has won one singles and two doubles titles during his career on the ATP Tour...

    , tennis player
  • Khoren Hovhannisyan
    Khoren Oganesian
    Khoren Georgijević Oganesian is a former Armenian and Soviet football midfielder, and a member of the USSR national football team. At the club level, he mostly played for Ararat Yerevan...

    , football player
  • Roman Berezovsky
    Roman Berezovsky
    Roman Anatoliy Berezovsky is an Armenian football goalkeeper, currently with Russian First Division club FC Khimki and is a member of Armenia national team. He is of Russian origin...

    , football player, goalkeeper
  • Edgar Manucharyan
    Edgar Manucharyan
    Edgar Manucharyan is an Armenian footballer, who currently plays for Russian First Division club Ural Ekaterinburg on loan from Armenian Premier League club Pyunik Yerevan.-Pyunik:...

    , football player
  • Henrikh Mkhitaryan, football player
  • Arthur Abraham
    Arthur Abraham
    Arthur Abraham is an Armenian-German professional boxer HyeFighter residing in Berlin, Germany. He was IBF world middleweight champion from 2005 to 2009, making ten successful defences of his title...

    , boxer, current IBF
    International Boxing Federation
    The International Boxing Federation or IBF is one of four major organizations recognized by IBHOF which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the WBA, WBC and WBO.- History :...

     middleweight
    Middleweight
    Middleweight is a division, or weight class, in boxing. Early boxing history is less than exact, but the middleweight designation seems to have begun in the 1840s. In the bare-knuckle era, the first middleweight championship fight was between Tom Chandler and Dooney Harris in 1897...

     World champion
  • Susianna Kentikian
    Susianna Kentikian
    Susianna "Susi" Levonovna Kentikian is an Armenian professional boxer HyeFighter now residing in Germany. She was born in Yerevan, Armenian SSR, but she left the country with her family at the age of five because of the Nagorno-Karabakh War...

    , boxer, current WBA
    World Boxing Association
    The World Boxing Association is a boxing organization that sanctions official matches, and awards the WBA world championship title at the professional level. It was previously known as the National Boxing Association before changing its name in 1962...

    , WBO and WIBF flyweight
    Flyweight
    Flyweight is a class in boxing which includes fighters weighing less than 112 lb but above 108 lb .-Professional boxing:...

     World champion
  • Gokor Chivichyan
    Gokor Chivichyan
    Gokor Chivichyan is an Armenian Judo, submission grappling, and mixed martial arts instructor. Gokor currently trains professional and amateur fighters at the Hayastan MMA Academy in North Hollywood. Chivichyan was born in Yerevan, Armenia....

    , judoka
  • Karo Parisyan
    Karo Parisyan
    Karapet Parisyan is an Armenian-American mixed martial artist. From his days as a UFC mainstay Karo holds notable wins over Ryo Chonan, Shonie Carter, Drew Fickett, Matt Serra, Nick Thompson, Chris Lytle, Nick Diaz and Antonio McKee.- Early life:...

    , mixed martial artist/judoka
  • Gevorg Petrosyan, kickboxer
  • Ashot Danielyan
    Ashot Danielyan
    Ashot Danielyan is an Armenian weightlifter. The 1999 and 2000 European Champion, he initially won a bronze medal in the men's super heavyweight weight class at the 2000 Summer Olympics, but was stripped of the medal and suspended following a positive drug test...

    , weightlifter, double European champion
  • Ruben Hakhverdyan, contemporary poet and singer
  • Harout Pamboukjian
    Harout Pamboukjian
    Harout Pamboukjian , , is an Armenian American pop singer living in Los Angeles. His Armenian dance, folk and revolutionary songs make him a favorite among Armenians.- Early life :...

    , contemporary singer
  • Aram Satian
    Aram Satian
    Aram Satian is an Armenian classical composer and popular music songwriter.-Biography:...

    , composer
  • Sirusho
    Sirusho
    Siranush Harutyunyan , known simply as Sirusho , is an Armenian pop singer. She began her music career singing live in Canada, in the Armenian diaspora music scene, when she was seven years old and, at the age of nine, she received an Armenian Music Award for her song "Lusabats"...

    , contemporary singer


List of notable persons born in Yerevan: People from Yerevan

Cityscape














See also

  • List of hospitals in Yerevan
  • Radio Yerevan
    Radio Yerevan
    Radio Yerevan, or Armenian Radio jokes have been very popular in the Soviet Union and in other Communist countries of the ex-Eastern bloc since the second half of the 20th century....

  • Yerevan Metro
    Yerevan Metro
    The Yerevan Metro is a rapid transit system that serves the capital of Armenia, Yerevan. The system was launched in 1981 and like most former Soviet Metros, its stations are very deep and intricately decorated with national motifs. The metro runs on a 13.4km line and currently services 10 active...

  • Yerevan Physics Institute
    Yerevan Physics Institute
    Yerevan Physics Institute is a research and development institute, located in Yerevan, Armenia. It was founded in 1942 as a branch of Yerevan State University by brothers, Abraham Alikhanov and Artem Alikhanian. It is often referred to by the acronym YerPhI .-External links:*...

  • Yerevan TV Tower
    Yerevan TV Tower
    Yerevan TV Tower is a 311.7-metre high lattice tower on Nork Hill in Yerevan, Armenia. It was built from 1974 to 1977 as a replacement for the old 180-meter high TV tower at Yerevan...

  • Zvartnots International Airport
    Zvartnots International Airport
    Zvartnots International Airport is located near Zvartnots, west of Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia. The airport was built in 1961. It is now the busiest airport in Armenia and the Caucasus. The draftsmen of the airport included architects M. Khachikyan, A. Tarkhanyan, J. Sheqhlyan, L....


External links