Wittelsbach

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The Wittelsbach family is a Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an royal family
Royal family
A royal family is the extended family of a king or queen regnant. The term imperial family appropriately describes the extended family of an emperor or empress, while the terms "ducal family", "grand ducal family" or "princely family" are more appropriate to describe the relatives of a reigning...

 and a German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 dynasty from Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

.

Members of the family served as Dukes, Electors and Kings of Bavaria (1180–1918), Counts Palatine of the Rhine (1214–1803 and 1816–1918), Margraves of Brandenburg (1323–1373), Counts of Holland, Hainaut
County of Hainaut
The County of Hainaut was a historical region in the Low Countries with its capital at Mons . In English sources it is often given the archaic spelling Hainault....

 and Zeeland
Zeeland
Zeeland , also called Zealand in English, is the westernmost province of the Netherlands. The province, located in the south-west of the country, consists of a number of islands and a strip bordering Belgium. Its capital is Middelburg. With a population of about 380,000, its area is about...

 (1345–1432), Elector-Archbishops of Cologne (1583–1761), Dukes of Jülich
Duchy of Jülich
The Duchy of Jülich comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries. The duchy lay left of the Rhine river between the Electorate of Cologne in the east and the Duchy of Limburg in the west. It had territories on both sides of the river Rur, around its capital...

 and Berg (1614–1794/1806), Kings of Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 (1441–1448 and 1654–1720) and Dukes of Bremen-Verden
Bremen-Verden
Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden , were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained Imperial immediacy in 1180...

 (1654–1719).

The family also provided two Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

s (1328/1742), one King of the Romans
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire following his election to the office by the princes of the Kingdom of Germany...

 (1400), two Anti-Kings of Bohemia (1619/1742), one King of Hungary (1305), one King of Denmark and Norway (1440) and a King of Greece
Kingdom of Greece
The Kingdom of Greece was a state established in 1832 in the Convention of London by the Great Powers...

 (1832–1862).

The family's head, since 1996, is Franz, Duke of Bavaria
Franz, Duke of Bavaria
Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern , styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria...

.

Origin


Berthold, Margrave in Bavaria (died 980), was the ancestor of Otto I, Count of Scheyern
Scheyern Abbey
Scheyern Abbey, formerly also Scheyern Priory is a house of the Benedictine Order in Scheyern in Bavaria.-First foundation:...

 (died 1072), whose 3rd son Otto II, Count of Dachau
Dachau
Dachau is a town in Upper Bavaria, in the southern part of Germany. It is a major district town—a Große Kreisstadt—of the administrative region of Upper Bavaria, about 20 km north-west of Munich. It is now a popular residential area for people working in Munich with roughly 40,000 inhabitants...

 acquired the castle of Wittelsbach (near Aichach
Aichach
Aichach is a town in Germany, located in the Bundesland of Bavaria and situated just northeast of Augsburg. It is the capital of the district of Aichach-Friedberg. The municipality of Aichach counts some 20,000 inhabitants. It isn't far from the motorway that connects Munich and Stuttgart, the A8....

). The Counts of Scheyern left Burg Scheyern ("Scheyern Castle", constructed in about 940) in 1119 for Burg Wittelsbach
Burg Wittelsbach
Burg Wittelsbach was a castle near Aichach in today's Bavarian Swabia.The castle was first mentioned around the year 1000. In 1119, Count Otto III of Scheyern moved into the castle of Wittelsbach. The castle's name, "Witilinesbac", is however already mentioned as the place of origin of Otto III...

 ("Wittelsbach Castle").

Count Otto II was the ancestor of the Count palatine
Count palatine
Count palatine is a high noble title, used to render several comital styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine, which can have other meanings as well.-Comes palatinus:...

 of Bavaria Otto IV
Otto IV, Count of Wittelsbach
Otto IV, Count of Wittelsbach was a descendant of Count Otto II of Scheyern and Richgard of Weimar-Istrien. Otto entitled himself after Wittelsbach Castle near Aichach from 1116 onwards, served Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor and was Count palatine of Bavaria since 1120.Otto was married with Heilika...

 (died 1156), whose son Otto
Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
Otto I , called the Redhead , was Duke of Bavaria from 1180 until his death. He was the first Bavarian ruler from the House of Wittelsbach, a dynasty which reigned until the abdication of King Ludwig III of Bavaria in the German Revolution of 1918.-Biography:Duke Otto I was probably born at...

 was invested with the Duchy of Bavaria in 1180 after the fall of Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180....

. Duke Otto's son Louis I, Duke of Bavaria
Louis I, Duke of Bavaria
Duke Louis I of Bavaria was the Duke of Bavaria in 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1214. He was a son of Otto I and his wife Agnes of Loon. Louis was married to Ludmilla, a daughter of Duke Frederick of Bohemia.-Biography:Louis extended the duchy of Bavaria and founded many cities...

 acquired also the Palatinate in 1214.

Reign in the Holy Roman Empire



The Wittelsbach family was the ruling dynasty of the German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 territories of Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

 from 1180 to 1918 and of the Electoral Palatinate from 1214 until 1805; in 1815 the latter territory was partly incorporated as Rhine Palatinate into Bavaria, which was elevated to a kingdom by Napoleon in 1806.

On Duke Otto II
Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
Otto II of Bavaria was the Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine . He was a son of Louis I and Ludmilla of Bohemia and a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty.- Biography :...

's death in 1253, the Wittelsbach possessions were divided between his sons: Henry
Henry XIII, Duke of Bavaria
Henry XIII of Bavaria, member of the Wittelsbach dynasty was Duke of Lower Bavaria. As Duke of Lower Bavaria he is also called Henry I.- Family :...

 became Duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis II
Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
Duke Louis II of Bavaria was Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. Born in Heidelberg, he was a son of duke Otto II and Agnes of the Palatinate...

 Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine. When Henry's branch died out in 1340 the duchy was reunited under Emperor Louis IV, a son of Duke Louis II.

The family provided two Holy Roman Emperors
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

: Louis IV
Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Louis IV , called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was the King of Germany from 1314, the King of Italy from 1327 and the Holy Roman Emperor from 1328....

 (1314–1347) and Charles VII
Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VII Albert a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745...

 (1742–1745), both members of the Bavarian branch of the family, and one German King with Rupert of the Palatinate
Rupert of Germany
Rupert of Germany from the House of Wittelsbach was Elector Palatine from 1398 and German King from 1400 until his death...

 (1400–1410), a member of the Palatinate branch.

The House of Wittelsbach split into these two branches in 1329: Under the Treaty of Pavia
Treaty of Pavia (1329)
The Treaty of Pavia which divided the House of Wittelsbach two branches, was signed in Pavia in 1329. Under the accord, Emperor Louis IV granted during his stay in Italy the Palatinate including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to his brother Duke Rudolph's descendants, Rudolph II, Rupert I and...

, Emperor Louis IV granted the Palatinate including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to his brother Duke Rudolf's
Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria
Rudolf I of Bavaria , a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine...

 descendants, Rudolf II, Rupert I and Rupert II. Rudolf I this way became the ancestor of the older (Palatinate) line of the Wittelsbach dynasty, which returned to power also in Bavaria in 1777 after the extinction of the younger (Bavarian) line, the descendants of Louis IV.

Bavarian branch


The Bavarian branch kept the duchy of Bavaria until its extinction in 1777.

The Wittelsbach Emperor Louis IV
Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Louis IV , called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was the King of Germany from 1314, the King of Italy from 1327 and the Holy Roman Emperor from 1328....

 acquired Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Brandenburg is one of the sixteen federal-states of Germany. It lies in the east of the country and is one of the new federal states that were re-created in 1990 upon the reunification of the former West Germany and East Germany. The capital is Potsdam...

, Tyrol
County of Tyrol
The County of Tyrol, Princely County from 1504, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, from 1814 a province of the Austrian Empire and from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary...

, Holland and Hainaut
County of Hainaut
The County of Hainaut was a historical region in the Low Countries with its capital at Mons . In English sources it is often given the archaic spelling Hainault....

 for his House but he had also released the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
The Upper Palatinate is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria.- History :The region took its name first in the early 16th century, because it was by the Treaty of Pavia one of the main portions of the territory of the Wittelsbach Elector...

 for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. His sons succeeded him as Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland and Hainaut
County of Hainaut
The County of Hainaut was a historical region in the Low Countries with its capital at Mons . In English sources it is often given the archaic spelling Hainault....

. So for half a century, from 1323 until 1373, the younger branch of the dynasty also ruled Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Brandenburg is one of the sixteen federal-states of Germany. It lies in the east of the country and is one of the new federal states that were re-created in 1990 upon the reunification of the former West Germany and East Germany. The capital is Potsdam...

 in the north-east of Germany. In the south Tyrol
German Tyrol
German Tyrol is a historical region in the Alps now divided between Austria and Italy. It includes largely ethnic German areas of historical County of Tyrol: the Austrian state of Tyrol and the province of South Tyrol but not the largely Italian-speaking province of Trentino .-History:German...

 was kept between 1342 and 1363. Between 1345 and 1432, they governed also in Holland, Zeeland
Zeeland
Zeeland , also called Zealand in English, is the westernmost province of the Netherlands. The province, located in the south-west of the country, consists of a number of islands and a strip bordering Belgium. Its capital is Middelburg. With a population of about 380,000, its area is about...

 and Hainaut
County of Hainaut
The County of Hainaut was a historical region in the Low Countries with its capital at Mons . In English sources it is often given the archaic spelling Hainault....

 in the north-west of the former German Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

. Tyrol was lost with the death of duke Meinhard
Meinhard III of Gorizia-Tyrol
Meinhard III was Duke of Upper Bavaria and the last Count of Tyrol from the House of Wittelsbach.Meinhard was the son of Duke Louis V of Bavaria with Countess Margaret of Gorizia-Tyrol and as such also the last descendant of Meinhard I, Count of Gorizia .-Biography:Meinhard III was born in Landshut...

 and the following Peace of Schärding when Tyrol was finally renounced to the Habsburg
Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

s in 1369. In 1373 Otto
Otto V, Duke of Bavaria
Otto V, Duke of Bavaria , was a duke of Bavaria and Elector of Brandenburg as Otto VII. Otto was the fourth son of Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV by his second wife Margaret II of Avesnes, countess of Hainaut and Holland.-Biography:...

, the last Wittelsbach regent of Brandenburg, released the country to the House of Luxembourg
House of Luxembourg
The House of Luxembourg was a late medieval German dynasty, which between 1308 and 1437 ruled the Holy Roman Empire, twice interrupted by the rivaling House of Wittelsbach.-History:...

. On Duke Albert's
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria
Duke Albert I or Albrecht KG was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries...

 death in 1404, he was succeeded in the Netherlands by his eldest son, William. A younger son, John III, became Bishop of Liège. However, on William's death in 1417, a war of succession broke out between John and William's daughter Jacqueline of Hainaut. This would be the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars
Hook and Cod wars
The Hook and Cod wars comprise a series of wars and battles in the County of Holland between 1350 and 1490. Most of these wars were fought over the title of count of Holland, but some have argued that the underlying reason was because of the power struggle of the bourgeois in the cities against...

 and finally place the counties into Burgundian hands in 1432.

Emperor Louis IV had reunited Bavaria in 1340 but from 1349 onwards Bavaria was split among the descendants of Louis IV, who created the branches Bavaria-Landshut
Bavaria-Landshut
-History:The creation of the duchy was the result of the death of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian. In the Treaty of Landsberg 1349, which divided up Louis's empire, his sons Stephen, William, and Albert were to receive jointly Lower Bavaria and the Netherlands. Four years later the inheritance was...

, Bavaria-Straubing
Bavaria-Straubing
Bavaria-Straubing denotes the widely-scattered territorial inheritance in the Wittelsbach house of Bavaria that were governed by independent dukes of Bavaria-Straubing between 1353 and 1432; a map of these marches and outliers of the Holy Roman Empire, vividly demonstrates the fractionalisation of...

, Bavaria-Ingolstadt
Bavaria-Ingolstadt
Bavaria-Ingolstadt was a duchy which was part of the Holy Roman Empire from 1392 to 1447.-History:After the death of Stephen II in 1375, his sons Stephen III, Frederick, and John II jointly ruled Bavaria-Landshut. After seventeen years, the brothers decided to formally divide their inheritance...

 and Bavaria-Munich
Bavaria-Munich
-History:After the death of Stephen II in 1375, his sons Stephen III, Frederick, and John II jointly ruled Bavaria-Landshut. After seventeen years, the brothers decided to formally divide their inheritance. John received Bavaria-Munich, Stephen received Bavaria-Ingolstadt, while Frederick kept...

. With the Landshut War of Succession
Landshut War of Succession
The Landshut War of Succession resulted from an agreement between the duchies of Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Landshut . The agreement concerned the law of succession when one of the two Dukes should die without a male heir...

 Bavaria was reunited in 1505 against the claim of the Palatinate branch under the Bavarian branch Bavaria-Munich.

From 1549 to 1567 the Wittelsbach owned the County of Kladsko
County of Kladsko
The County of Kladsko was a historical administrative unit in the Kingdom of Bohemia and later in the Kingdom of Prussia with its capital at Kłodzko on the Nysa river...

 in Bohemia. A strict Catholic
Catholic
The word catholic comes from the Greek phrase , meaning "on the whole," "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words meaning "about" and meaning "whole"...

 by upbringing, the Bavarian dukes were leaders of the German Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
The Counter-Reformation was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 as a response to the Protestant Reformation.The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort, composed of four major elements:#Ecclesiastical or...

. From 1583 to 1761, the Bavarian branch of the dynasty provided the Prince-elector
Prince-elector
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Roman king or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.The heir-apparent to a prince-elector was known as an...

s and Archbishops of Cologne and many other Bishops of the Holy Roman Empire. Wittelsbach princes served for example as Bishops of Regensburg, Freising, Liege, Münster
Bishopric of Münster
The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony...

, Hildesheim
Bishopric of Hildesheim
The Diocese of Hildesheim is a diocese or ecclesiastical territory of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in Germany. Founded in 815 as a missionary diocese by King Louis the Pious, his son Louis the German appointed the famous former archbishop of Rheims, Ebbo, as bishop...

, Paderborn
Bishopric of Paderborn
The Archdiocese of Paderborn is an Archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany; its seat is Paderborn. It was a diocese from its foundation in 799 until 1802, and again from 1821 until 1930. In 1930, it was promoted to an archdiocese...

 and Osnabrück
Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück
The Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück was a prince-bishopric centred on the Roman Catholic Diocese of Osnabrück. The diocese was erected in 772 and is the oldest see founded by Charlemagne, in order to Christianize the conquered stem-duchy of Saxony....

, and as Grand Masters
Grand Master (order)
Grand Master is the typical title of the supreme head of various orders of knighthood, including various military orders, religious orders and civil orders such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Orange Order...

 of the Teutonic Order.

In 1623 under Maximilian I
Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian I, Duke/Elector of Bavaria , called "the Great", was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. His reign was marked by the Thirty Years' War ....

 the dukes were invested with the electoral
Prince-elector
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Roman king or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.The heir-apparent to a prince-elector was known as an...

 dignity. His grandson Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian II , also known as Max Emanuel or Maximilian Emanuel, was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. He was also the last Governor of the Spanish Netherlands and duke of Luxembourg...

 served also as Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands
Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands
The Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands ruled the Habsburg Netherlands as a representative of the Duke of Burgundy .- Habsburg Netherlands :...

 (1692–1706) and as Duke of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg , officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg , is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the North as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland in the south...

 (1712–1714). His son Emperor Charles VII
Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VII Albert a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745...

 was also king of Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

 (1741–1743). With the death of Charles' son Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria the Bavarian branch died out in 1777.

Palatinate branch


The Palatinate branch kept the Palatinate until 1918 and succeeded also in Bavaria in 1777. With the Golden Bull of 1356
Golden Bull of 1356
The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by the Reichstag assembly in Nuremberg headed by the Luxembourg Emperor Charles IV that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire...

 the Counts Palatine were invested with the electoral
Prince-elector
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Roman king or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.The heir-apparent to a prince-elector was known as an...

 dignity.

After the death of the Wittelsbach king Rupert of Germany
Rupert of Germany
Rupert of Germany from the House of Wittelsbach was Elector Palatine from 1398 and German King from 1400 until his death...

 in 1410 began the split of Palatinate lands under numerous branches such as Neumarkt
House of Palatinate-Neumarkt
Palatinate-Neumarkt was a subdivision of the Wittelsbach dynasty of the German Palatinate. Its capital was Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz....

, Simmern, Zweibrücken
House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
The House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720.By this point it had splintered into several different houses...

, Birkenfeld
House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld
Palatinate-Birkenfeld , later Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, was the name of a collateral line of the Palatine Wittelsbachs. The Counts Palatine from this line initially ruled over only a relatively unimportant territory, namely the Palatine share of the Rear County of Sponheim; however, their...

, Neuburg
Palatinate-Neuburg
Palatinate-Neuburg is a former territory of the Holy Roman Empire, founded in 1505. Its capital was Neuburg an der Donau. Its area was about 2,750 km², with a population of some 100,000.-History:...

 and Sulzbach
Palatinate-Sulzbach
Palatinate-Sulzbach was the name of two separate states of the Holy Roman Empire located in modern Amberg-Sulzbach, Bavaria, Germany.-Palatinate-Sulzbach :...

.
The one of cadet branches of the Palatinate branch kept also the Duchy of Jülich
Duchy of Jülich
The Duchy of Jülich comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries. The duchy lay left of the Rhine river between the Electorate of Cologne in the east and the Duchy of Limburg in the west. It had territories on both sides of the river Rur, around its capital...

  and Berg
Berg (state)
Berg was a state – originally a county, later a duchy – in the Rhineland of Germany. Its capital was Düsseldorf. It existed from the early 12th to the 19th centuries.-Ascent:...

 from 1614 onwards. When the last duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died without direct heirs in 1609, the War of the Jülich succession
War of the Jülich Succession
The War of the Jülich Succession was a conflict that began in 1609 and ended in 1614 with the signing of the Treaty of Xanten.-Background:...

 broke out, ended by the 1614 Treaty of Xanten
Treaty of Xanten
The Treaty of Xanten was signed in the Lower Rhine town of Xanten on November 12, 1614 between Wolfgang William, Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg and John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, with representatives from England and France serving as mediators....

, which divided the separate duchies between Palatinate-Neuburg
Palatinate-Neuburg
Palatinate-Neuburg is a former territory of the Holy Roman Empire, founded in 1505. Its capital was Neuburg an der Donau. Its area was about 2,750 km², with a population of some 100,000.-History:...

 and the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
The Margraviate of Brandenburg was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806. Also known as the March of Brandenburg , it played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe....

. Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Count Palatine Wolfgang William of Neuburg.

In 1619, the Protestant Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Frederick V was Elector Palatine , and, as Frederick I , King of Bohemia ....

 was King of Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

 but was defeated by the Catholic Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian I, Duke/Elector of Bavaria , called "the Great", was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. His reign was marked by the Thirty Years' War ....

, a member of the Bavarian branch. As a result the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
The Upper Palatinate is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria.- History :The region took its name first in the early 16th century, because it was by the Treaty of Pavia one of the main portions of the territory of the Wittelsbach Elector...

 had to be ceded to the Bavarian branch in 1623. When the Thirty Years' War concluded with the Treaty of Münster
Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October of 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the...

 (also called the Peace of Westphalia) in 1648, a new additional electorate was created for the Count Palatine of the Rhine. During their exile Frederick sons, namely Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, 1st Duke of Cumberland, 1st Earl of Holderness , commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, KG, FRS was a noted soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century...

, gained fame in England. The house of Palatinate of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg
House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
The House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720.By this point it had splintered into several different houses...

 as heir to the Swedish throne ruled simultaneously the duchy of Bremen-Verden
Bremen-Verden
Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden , were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained Imperial immediacy in 1180...

 (1654–1719).

Also princes of the Palatinate branch served as Bishops of the Empire, also as Elector-Archbishops of Mainz
Archbishopric of Mainz
The Archbishopric of Mainz or Electorate of Mainz was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince-bishopric in the Holy Roman Empire between 780–82 and 1802. In the Roman Catholic Church hierarchy, the Archbishop of Mainz was the primas Germaniae, the substitute of the Pope north of the Alps...

 and Elector-Archbishops of Trier
Archbishopric of Trier
The Archbishopric of Trier was a Roman Catholic diocese in Germany, that existed from Carolingian times until the end of the Holy Roman Empire. Its suffragans were the dioceses of Metz, Toul and Verdun. Since the 9th century the Archbishops of Trier were simultaneously princes and since the 11th...

.

After the extinction of the Bavarian branch, a succession dispute and the brief War of the Bavarian Succession, the Palatinate branch under Elector Charles Theodore
Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria
Charles Theodore, Prince-Elector, Count Palatine and Duke of Bavaria reigned as Prince-Elector and Count palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and also as Prince-Elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777, until his death...

 succeeded in Bavaria in 1777.

With the death of Charles Theodore in 1799 all Wittelsbach land in Bavaria and the Palatinate was reunited under Maximilian IV Joseph, a member of the branch Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld
Palatinate-Birkenfeld , later Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, was the name of a collateral line of the Palatine Wittelsbachs. The Counts Palatine from this line initially ruled over only a relatively unimportant territory, namely the Palatine share of the Rear County of Sponheim; however, their...

. At the time there were two surviving branches of the Wittelsbach family: Zweibrücken (headed by Maximilian Joseph) and Birkenfeld (headed by Count Palatine William
Duke Wilhelm in Bavaria
Duke Wilhelm in Bavaria, full German name: Wilhelm, Herzog in Bayern was Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen between 1789 and 1799 and first Duke in Bavaria from 16 February 1799 until his death in 1837...

). Maximilian Joseph inherited Charles Thedore's title of Elector of Bavaria, while William was compensated with the title of Duke in Bavaria. The form Duke in Bavaria
Duke in Bavaria
Duke in Bavaria was a title used among others since 1506, when primogeniture was established, by all members of the House of Wittelsbach, with the exception of the Duke of Bavaria which began to be a unique position...

 was selected because in 1506 primogeniture
Primogeniture
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings . Historically, the term implied male primogeniture, to the exclusion of females...

 had been established in the House of Wittelsbach resulting in there being only one Reigning Duke of Bavaria at any given time. Maximillian Joseph assumed the title of king
King of Bavaria
King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1805 until 1918, when the kingdom was abolished...

 as Maximilian I Joseph on January 1, 1806. The new king still served as an Prince-elector
Prince-elector
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Roman king or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.The heir-apparent to a prince-elector was known as an...

 until the Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Bavaria
The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that existed from 1806 to 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1806 as Maximilian I Joseph. The monarchy would remain held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom's dissolution in 1918...

 left the Holy Roman Empire (1 August 1806).

Under Maximilian's descendants, Bavaria became the third most powerful German state, behind only Prussia and Austria. It was also far and away the most powerful secondary state. When the German Empire
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

 was formed in 1871, Bavaria became the new empire's second most powerful state after Prussia. The Wittlesbachs reigned as kings of Bavaria until Ludwig III
Ludwig III of Bavaria
Ludwig III , was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.-Early life:...

 issued the Anif declaration
Anif declaration
The Anif declaration , issued by the Bavarian king Ludwig III on 12 November 1918 at Anif Palace, Austria, ended the 738-year rule of the House of Wittelsbach in Bavaria.-Historical background:...

(German: Anifer Erklärung), Ludwig III on 12 November 1918 at Anif Palace
Anif Palace
The Anif Palace, also known as Water Palace Anif, stands beside an artificial pond within the Austrian county of Anif at the southern edge of the city of Salzburg...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, in which he released his soldiers and officials from their oath of loyalty to him, ended the 738-year rule of the House of Wittelsbach in Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

.

Reign outside the Holy Roman Empire


With Duke Otto III of Lower Bavaria
Otto III, Duke of Bavaria
Otto III of Bavaria , member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was Duke of Lower Bavaria from 1290 to 1312 and disputably King of Hungary and Croatia between 1305 and 1307 as Béla V.-Family:...

, who was a maternal grandson of Béla IV of Hungary
Béla IV of Hungary
Béla IV , King of Hungary and of Croatia , duke of Styria 1254–58. One of the most famous kings of Hungary, he distinguished himself through his policy of strengthening of the royal power following the example of his grandfather Bela III, and by the rebuilding Hungary after the catastrophe of the...

 and was elected antiking
Antiking
An Antiking is a would-be king who, due to succession disputes or simple political opposition, declares himself king in opposition to a reigning monarch. Antikings are more often found in elected monarchies than in hereditary monarchies like those of England and France; such figures in hereditary...

 of Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 and Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 as Bela V (1305–1308) the Wittelsbach dynasty came to power outside the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 for the first time. Otto abdicated the Hungarian throne already in 1308.

Palatinate branch


Christopher III of the Palatinate branch was king of Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 and Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 in 1440/1442–1448, but he left no descendants. The House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
The House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720.By this point it had splintered into several different houses...

 contributed to the monarchy of Sweden again 1654–1720 under Charles X, Charles XI
Charles XI of Sweden
Charles XI also Carl, was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death, in a period in Swedish history known as the Swedish empire ....

, Charles XII
Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII also Carl of Sweden, , Latinized to Carolus Rex, Turkish: Demirbaş Şarl, also known as Charles the Habitué was the King of the Swedish Empire from 1697 to 1718...

 and Ulrika Eleonora
Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden
Ulrika Eleonora or Ulrica Eleanor , also known as Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 5 December 1718 to 29 February 1720, and then Queen consort until her death....

.

The Wittelsbach princess Sophia of Hanover
Sophia of Hanover
Sophia of the Palatinate was an heiress to the crowns of England and Ireland and later the crown of Great Britain. She was declared heiress presumptive by the Act of Settlement 1701...

 (1630–1714) was the mother of George I of Great Britain
George I of Great Britain
George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698....

; she died as Heiress Presumptive of Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 a few weeks before the case of succession. The line of Jacobite
Jacobitism
Jacobitism was the political movement in Britain dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland, later the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the Kingdom of Ireland...

 succession is currently within the House of Wittelsbach. Franz, Hereditary Prince of Bavaria
Franz, Duke of Bavaria
Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern , styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria...

 is recognised by the Jacobites as "Francis II".

The Wittelsbach prince Otto
Otto of Greece
Otto, Prince of Bavaria, then Othon, King of Greece was made the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers .The second son of the philhellene King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Otto ascended...

 of Bavaria was elected king of newly independent Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 in 1832 and was forced to abdicate in 1862.

Bavarian branch


Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria, Prince of Asturias
Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria, Prince of Asturias
Duke Joseph Ferdinand Leopold of Bavaria, Prince of Asturias was the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria and his first wife, Maria Antonia of Austria, daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, maternal granddaughter of King Felipe IV of Spain.--Youth--Prince Joseph Ferdinand was...

, a son of Maximilian II Emanuel, was the favored choice of England and the Netherlands to succeed as the ruler of Spain, young Charles II of Spain chose him as his heir. Due to the unexpected death of Joseph Ferdinand in 1699 the Wittelsbach did not come to power in Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

.

Kingdom of Sweden



Queen Christina of Sweden
Christina of Sweden
Christina , later adopted the name Christina Alexandra, was Queen regnant of Swedes, Goths and Vandals, Grand Princess of Finland, and Duchess of Ingria, Estonia, Livonia and Karelia, from 1633 to 1654. She was the only surviving legitimate child of King Gustav II Adolph and his wife Maria Eleonora...

 abdicated her throne on 5 June 1654 in favor of her cousin Charles X Gustavus
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Charles X Gustav also Carl Gustav, was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catherine of Sweden. After his father's death he also succeeded him as Pfalzgraf. He was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who...

, a member of the Wittelsbach branch Palatinate-Zweibrücken
House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
The House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720.By this point it had splintered into several different houses...

. It was the second term for the rule of the Wittelsbach in Sweden since already until 1448 Christopher III of the Palatinate branch was king of Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of Charles X after the treaty of Roskilde
Treaty of Roskilde
The Treaty of Roskilde was concluded on 26 February or 8 March 1658 during the Second Northern War between Frederick III of Denmark–Norway and Charles X Gustav of Sweden in the Danish city of Roskilde...

 in 1658. Charles' son, Charles XI
Charles XI of Sweden
Charles XI also Carl, was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death, in a period in Swedish history known as the Swedish empire ....

, rebuilt the economy and refitted the army. His legacy to his son, Charles XII
Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII also Carl of Sweden, , Latinized to Carolus Rex, Turkish: Demirbaş Şarl, also known as Charles the Habitué was the King of the Swedish Empire from 1697 to 1718...

, was one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet. Charles XII was a skilled military leader and tactician. However, although he was also skilled as a politician, he was reluctant in making peace. Although Sweden achieved several large scale military successes early on, and won the most battles, the Great Northern War eventually ended in Sweden's defeat and the end of the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
The Swedish Empire refers to the Kingdom of Sweden between 1561 and 1721 . During this time, Sweden was one of the great European powers. In Swedish, the period is called Stormaktstiden, literally meaning "the Great Power Era"...

. Charles was succeeded to the Swedish throne by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. Her abdication in 1720 marked the end of the Wittelsbach rule in Sweden.

Kingdom of Greece



The Wittelsbach Otto I
Otto of Greece
Otto, Prince of Bavaria, then Othon, King of Greece was made the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers .The second son of the philhellene King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Otto ascended...

 was made the first modern King of Greece
Kingdom of Greece
The Kingdom of Greece was a state established in 1832 in the Convention of London by the Great Powers...

 in 1832 under the Convention of London
London Conference of 1832
The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece. Negotiations between the three Great Powers resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece under a Bavarian Prince. The decisions were ratified in the Treaty of Constantinople...

, whereby Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers (the United Kingdom
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom during the period when what is now the Republic of Ireland formed a part of it....

, France
July Monarchy
The July Monarchy , officially the Kingdom of France , was a period of liberal constitutional monarchy in France under King Louis-Philippe starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848...

 and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

). Throughout his reign, Otto faced political challenges concerning Greece's financial weakness and the role of the government in the affairs of the Church. The politics of Greece of this era was based on affiliations with the three Great Powers, and Otto’s ability to maintain the support of the powers was key to his remaining in power. To remain strong, Otto had to play the interests of each of the Great Powers’ Greek adherents against the others, while not aggravating the Great Powers. When Greece was blockaded by the (British) Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 in 1850 and again in 1853, to stop Greece from attacking the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 during the Crimean War
Crimean War
The Crimean War was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining...

, Otto’s standing amongst Greeks suffered. As a result, there was an assassination attempt on the Queen and finally, in 1862, Otto was deposed while in the countryside.

The law of succession to the throne of Greece was defined by a supplementary article to the convention of 7 May 1832 awarding the Greek Throne to Otto I. It instituted a semi-salic order with an important rule prevented the union of the crown on the same head with any other crown, especially that of Bavaria. Under the terms of the succession law, a Wittelsbach claim to the throne would have passed on Otto's death in 1867 to his younger brother Luitpold, who was regent of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912; and after him to Ludwig who became king Ludwig III of Bavaria in 1913. At this point, tracing the claim becomes impossible as the same branch of the Wittelsbach became heir to both thrones, and a subsequent monarch or pretender should have issued a renunciation to one of the two thrones, which none did. In the end, neither Luitpold
Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria
Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria , was the de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, King Ludwig II and King Otto.-Early life:...

 nor his son Ludwig
Ludwig III of Bavaria
Ludwig III , was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.-Early life:...

 actively pursued a claim to the Greek throne inherited from Otto I
Otto of Greece
Otto, Prince of Bavaria, then Othon, King of Greece was made the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers .The second son of the philhellene King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Otto ascended...

, and the throne of Bavaria itself disappeared in 1918, leaving the future of the claim to be decided by a further arrangement that never occurred.

Patrilineal descent


Franz's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal house
Royal House
A royal house or royal dynasty consists of at least one, but usually more monarchs who are related to one another, as well as their non-reigning descendants and spouses. Monarchs of the same realm who are not related to one another are usually deemed to belong to different houses, and each house is...

s, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that Franz’s royal house, the House of Wittelsbach, ultimately originates from the Luitpolding dynasty
Luitpolding
The Luitpoldings were a medieval dynasty which ruled the German stem duchy of Bavaria from some time in the late ninth century off and on until 985. The progenitor of the family was Margrave Luitpold of Bavaria , possibly a descendant of the Early medieval Huosi noble family and maybe related to...

.
  1. Luitpold, Margrave of Bavaria
    Luitpold, Margrave of Bavaria
    Luitpold , perhaps of the Huosi family or related to the Carolingian dynasty by Liutswind, mother of Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia, was the ancestor of the Luitpolding dynasty which ruled Bavaria and Carinthia until the mid-tenth century.In 893, he was appointed margrave in the March of Carinthia...

    , d. 907
  2. Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria
    Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria
    Arnulf , called the Bad or the Evil , was the duke of Bavaria from 907 until his death. He was a member of the Luitpolding dynasty....

    , d. 937
  3. Berthold of Bavaria, 915–980
  4. Henry I of Schweinfurt, 960–1017
  5. Henry II of Schweinfurt, 1017–1043
  6. Otto I, Count of Scheyern, 1044–1072
  7. Otto II, Count of Scheyern, d. 1108
  8. Otto IV, Count of Wittelsbach
    Otto IV, Count of Wittelsbach
    Otto IV, Count of Wittelsbach was a descendant of Count Otto II of Scheyern and Richgard of Weimar-Istrien. Otto entitled himself after Wittelsbach Castle near Aichach from 1116 onwards, served Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor and was Count palatine of Bavaria since 1120.Otto was married with Heilika...

    , 1083–1156
  9. Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
    Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
    Otto I , called the Redhead , was Duke of Bavaria from 1180 until his death. He was the first Bavarian ruler from the House of Wittelsbach, a dynasty which reigned until the abdication of King Ludwig III of Bavaria in the German Revolution of 1918.-Biography:Duke Otto I was probably born at...

    , 1117–1183
  10. Louis I, Duke of Bavaria
    Louis I, Duke of Bavaria
    Duke Louis I of Bavaria was the Duke of Bavaria in 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1214. He was a son of Otto I and his wife Agnes of Loon. Louis was married to Ludmilla, a daughter of Duke Frederick of Bohemia.-Biography:Louis extended the duchy of Bavaria and founded many cities...

    , 1173–1231
  11. Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
    Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
    Otto II of Bavaria was the Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine . He was a son of Louis I and Ludmilla of Bohemia and a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty.- Biography :...

    , 1206–1253
  12. Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
    Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
    Duke Louis II of Bavaria was Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. Born in Heidelberg, he was a son of duke Otto II and Agnes of the Palatinate...

    , 1229–1294
  13. Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria
    Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria
    Rudolf I of Bavaria , a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine...

    , 1274–1319
  14. Adolf, Count Palatine of the Rhine
    Adolf, Count Palatine of the Rhine
    Adolf of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach was formally Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1319–1327.He was the second son of Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria and his wife Mechtild of Nassau...

    , 1300–1327
  15. Rupert II, Elector Palatine, 1325–1398
  16. Rupert of Germany
    Rupert of Germany
    Rupert of Germany from the House of Wittelsbach was Elector Palatine from 1398 and German King from 1400 until his death...

    , 1352–1410
  17. Stefan, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken
    Stefan, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken
    Stephen of Simmern-Zweibrücken was Count Palatine of Simmern and Zweibrücken from 1410.He was the son of King Rupert of Germany and his wife Elisabeth of Nuremberg. After the death of Rupert the Palatinate was divided between four of his surviving sons...

    , 1385–1459
  18. Louis I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Louis I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Louis I of Zweibrücken was Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken and of Veldenz in 1444–1489.He was the younger son of Stefan, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken and his wife Anna, heiress of the County of Veldenz, whom he had wed in 1409. Although Anne died in 1439, her widower did not...

    , 1424–1489
  19. Alexander, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Alexander, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Alexander of Zweibrücken was Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken and of Veldenz in 1489–1514.He was the son of Louis I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken and his wife Johanna of Croÿ...

    , 1462–1514
  20. Louis II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Louis II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Louis II of Zweibrücken was Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken from 1514 to 1532.He was the son of Alexander, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken and his wife Margarete of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein. He was married in 1525 to Elisabeth of Hesse, daughter of William I, Landgrave of Lower Hesse, and they...

    , 1502–1532
  21. Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Count Palatine Wolfgang of Zweibrücken was member of the Wittelsbach family of the Counts Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken 1532–1559.-Biography:...

    , 1526–1569
  22. Charles I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld, 1560–1600
  23. Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld, 1598–1654
  24. Christian II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, 1637–1717
  25. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
    Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1731–1735. He was the son of Christian II of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld and Katharina Agathe, Countess of Rappoltstein...

    , 1674–1735
  26. Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken
    Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken
    Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. He was the father of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria...

    , 1724–1767
  27. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, 1756–1825
  28. Ludwig I of Bavaria
    Ludwig I of Bavaria
    Ludwig I was a German king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.-Crown prince:...

    , 1786–1868
  29. Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria
    Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria
    Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria , was the de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, King Ludwig II and King Otto.-Early life:...

    , 1821–1912
  30. Ludwig III of Bavaria
    Ludwig III of Bavaria
    Ludwig III , was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.-Early life:...

    , 1845–1921
  31. Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria
    Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria
    Rupprecht or Rupert, Crown Prince of Bavaria was the last Bavarian Crown Prince.His full title was His Royal Highness Rupprecht Maria Luitpold Ferdinand, Crown Prince of Bavaria, Duke of Bavaria, of Franconia and in Swabia, Count Palatine of the Rhine...

    , 1869–1955
  32. Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
    Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
    Albrecht Luitpold Ferdinand Michael, Duke of Bavaria, of Franconia and in Swabia, Count Palatine of the Rhine , was the son of Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria and his first wife, Duchess Marie Gabrielle in Bavaria. He was the one surviving child from that marriage...

    , 1905–1996
  33. Franz, Duke of Bavaria
    Franz, Duke of Bavaria
    Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern , styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria...

    , b. 1933

Bavarian branch

  • Louis V, Margrave of Brandenburg, Duke of Bavaria and Count of Tyrol
    Louis V, Duke of Bavaria
    Louis V, Duke of Bavaria, called the Brandenburger was Duke of Bavaria and as Louis I also Margrave of Brandenburg and Count of Tyrol. Louis V was the eldest son of Emperor Louis IV and his first wife Beatrix of Świdnica...

     (1323–1361)
  • Albert I, Duke of Bavaria, Count of Holland and Hainaut
    Albert I, Duke of Bavaria
    Duke Albert I or Albrecht KG was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries...

     (1347–1404)
  • Isabeau de Bavière (1371–1435), queen-consort of France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

  • Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland
    Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut
    Jacqueline of Wittelsbach was Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Hainaut and Holland from 1417 to 1432...

     (1417–1432)
  • Albert IV, duke of Bavaria
    Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria
    Duke Albert IV of Bavaria-Munich , , from 1467 Duke of Bavaria-Munich, from 1503 Duke of the reunited Bavaria.-Biography:...

     (1465–1508)
  • Albert V, duke of Bavaria
    Albert V, Duke of Bavaria
    Albert V was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death. He was born in Munich to William IV and Marie Jacobaea of Baden.-Early life:Albert was educated at Ingolstadt under good Catholic teachers...

     (1550–1579)
  • Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria
    Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria
    Maximilian I, Duke/Elector of Bavaria , called "the Great", was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. His reign was marked by the Thirty Years' War ....

     (1597–1651)
  • Maria Anna, Dauphine of France (1660–1690)
  • Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
    Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
    Maximilian II , also known as Max Emanuel or Maximilian Emanuel, was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. He was also the last Governor of the Spanish Netherlands and duke of Luxembourg...

     (1662–1726)
  • Duchess Violante Beatrice of Bavaria (1673–1731), Hereditary Princess of Tuscany and Governess of Siena
    Siena
    Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena.The historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation's most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008...

    ,
  • Clemens August of Bavaria
    Clemens August of Bavaria
    Clemens August of Bavaria was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria and Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.-Biography:...

     (1700–1761)
  • Maria Antonia of Bavaria (1724–1780)

Palatinate branch

  • Frederick I, Elector Palatine
    Frederick I, Elector Palatine
    Frederick I, the Victorious was a Count Palatine of the Rhine and Elector Palatine from the House of Wittelsbach in 1451 - 1476....

     (1451–1476)
  • Frederick III, Elector Palatine
    Frederick III, Elector Palatine
    Frederick III of Simmern, the Pious, Elector Palatine of the Rhine was a ruler from the house of Wittelsbach, branch Palatinate-Simmern-Sponheim. He was a son of John II of Simmern and inherited the Palatinate from the childless Elector Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine in 1559...

     (1559–1576)
  • Frederick V, Elector Palatine
    Frederick V, Elector Palatine
    Frederick V was Elector Palatine , and, as Frederick I , King of Bohemia ....

     (1610–1623)
  • Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
    Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
    Charles Louis, , Elector Palatine KG was the second son of Frederick V of the Palatinate, the "Winter King" of Bohemia, and his wife, Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King James I of England ....

     (1648–1680)
  • Prince Rupert of the Rhine
    Prince Rupert of the Rhine
    Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, 1st Duke of Cumberland, 1st Earl of Holderness , commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, KG, FRS was a noted soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century...

     (1619–1682)
  • Sophia of the Palatine (1630–1714), Heiress of Great Britain
    Great Britain
    Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

  • Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine (1652–1722)
  • Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine
    Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine
    Johann Wilhelm II, Elector Palatine was Elector Palatine , Duke Palatine of Neuburg/Danube , Duke of Jülich and Berg , and Duke of Upper Palatinate and Cham...

     (1690–1718)
  • King Ludwig I of Bavaria
    Ludwig I of Bavaria
    Ludwig I was a German king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.-Crown prince:...

     (1825–1848)
  • Princess Sophie of Bavaria
    Princess Sophie of Bavaria
    Sophie Friederike Dorothee Wilhelmine, Princess of Bavaria was born to King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and his second wife Karoline of Baden. She was the identical twin sister of Princess Maria Anna of Bavaria, Queen of Saxony as wife of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony...

     (1805–1872), Archduchess of Austria
    Austria
    Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

  • Elisabeth in Bavaria (1837–1898) ("Sisi"), Empress of Austria
  • Ludwig II of Bavaria
    Ludwig II of Bavaria
    Ludwig II was King of Bavaria from 1864 until shortly before his death. He is sometimes called the Swan King and der Märchenkönig, the Fairy tale King...

     (1864–1886)
  • Marie Sophie (1841–1925), last queen of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
  • Elizabeth of Bavaria (1876–1965), queen-consort of Albert I of Belgium
    Albert I of Belgium
    Albert I reigned as King of the Belgians from 1909 until 1934.-Early life:Born Albert Léopold Clément Marie Meinrad in Brussels, he was the fifth child and second son of Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders, and his wife, Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen...

  • Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein
    Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein
    Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein , is the wife of Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein, Regent of Liechtenstein and heir apparent to the Liechtensteiner throne.-Early life and education:...

    , b. 1967


Several other women in the family are known as Elisabeth of Bavaria
Elisabeth of Bavaria (disambiguation)
Elisabeth of Bavaria, or Elisabeth of Wittelsbach, may refer to:* Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Germany , wife of King Conrad IV of Germany* Elisabeth of Bavaria, Duchess of Austria , first wife of Otto, Duke of Austria...

.

See also

  • Kings of Germany family tree. The Wittelsbachs were the 11th dynasty to rule Germany and were related by marriage to all the others.
  • List of rulers of Bavaria
  • List of rulers of the Palatinate
  • Asteroid
    Asteroid
    Asteroids are a class of small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun. They have also been called planetoids, especially the larger ones...

     90712 Wittelsbach
    90712 Wittelsbach
    90712 Wittelsbach is a main-belt asteroid discovered on October 12, 1990 by F. Borngen and L. D. Schmadel at Tautenburg.- External links :*...

    , named in the castle and dynasty's honour
    Meanings of asteroid names
    This is a list of named minor planets , with links to the Wikipedia articles on the people, places, characters and concepts that they are named for.-See also:*List of minor planets*List of minor planets named after people...

  • Wittelsbach Diamond
    Wittelsbach Diamond
    The Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond is a fancy deep-blue diamond with internally flawless clarity. Laurence Graff purchased the Wittelsbach Diamond in 2008 for £16.4 million Sterling. In 2010, Graff revealed he had had the diamond cut by three diamond cutters to remove flaws. The diamond was now...

  • Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918
    Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918
    Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918 was driven by the belief that a monarchy would be the best form of government for the German state of Bavaria, despite the abolition of the Bavarian monarchy in 1918...


External links