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William of Saliceto
(1210–1277) was a surgeon
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...
and cleric in Lombardy
Lombardy is one of the 20 regions of Italy. The capital is Milan. One-sixth of Italy's population lives in Lombardy and about one fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in this region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest in the whole of Europe...
who broke tradition with Galen
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus , better known as Galen of Pergamon , was a prominent Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher...
by claiming that pus
Pus is a viscous exudate, typically whitish-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammatory during infection. An accumulation of pus in an enclosed tissue space is known as an abscess, whereas a visible collection of pus within or beneath the epidermis is known as a pustule or...
formation was bad for wounds and for the patient. He was a professor at the University of Bologna
The Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna is the oldest continually operating university in the world, the word 'universitas' being first used by this institution at its foundation. The true date of its founding is uncertain, but believed by most accounts to have been 1088...
. In 1275 he wrote Chirurgia
which promoted the use of a surgical knife over cauterizing
Cauterize was an alternative rock band from Canada, active from 1995 to 2007.In 2003, Cauterize’s first single Something Beautiful was released, with its only music video, was broadcast on the web site muchloud.com...
. He also was the author of Summa conservationis et curationis
on hygiene and therapy. Lanfranc of Milan
The surgeon Lanfranc of Milan , variously called Guido Lanfranchi, Lanfranco, or Alanfrancus was a student of Guglielmo da Saliceto. Involved in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines, he was exiled from Milan by Matteo I Visconti in 1290. He moved first to Lyons, then on to Paris...
was a pupil who brought William's methods into France. William gave lectures on the importance of regular bathing for infants, and special care for the hygiene of pregnant women.
- Of blood, inflammation and gunshot wounds: the history of the control of sepsis
Sepsis is a potentially deadly medical condition that is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state and the presence of a known or suspected infection. The body may develop this inflammatory response by the immune system to microbes in the blood, urine, lungs, skin, or other tissues...
, AJ Thurston.