Wichita, Kansas

Wichita, Kansas

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Wichita icon
is the largest city in the U.S.
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 state of Kansas
Kansas
Kansas is a US state located in the Midwestern United States. It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south...

.
As of the 2010 census, the city population was 382,368. Located in south-central Kansas on the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. The Arkansas generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's initial basin starts in the Western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas...

, Wichita is the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Sedgwick County
Sedgwick County, Kansas
Sedgwick County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas. The county's population was 498,365 for the 2010 census. The largest city and county seat is Wichita. The county was named after General John Sedgwick...

 and the principal city of the Wichita metropolitan area
Wichita metropolitan area
The Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of four counties in south central Kansas, anchored by the city of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 659,372...

. As of 2011, the metro area had a population of 630,721.

The city was incorporated in 1870, based on the success of businessmen who came to hunt and trade with native populations. Its position on the Chisholm Trail
Chisholm Trail
The Chisholm Trail was a trail used in the late 19th century to drive cattle overland from ranches in Texas to Kansas railheads. The portion of the trail marked by Jesse Chisholm went from his southern trading post near the Red River, to his northern trading post near Kansas City, Kansas...

 made it a destination for cattle drives heading north to access railroads to eastern markets. In the 20th century, aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 pioneers such as Clyde Cessna, Walter Beech and Bill Lear
Bill Lear
William Powell Lear was an American inventor and businessman. He is best known for founding the Lear Jet Corporation, a manufacturer of business jets...

 began projects that would lead to Wichita's nicknaming as the Air Capital of the World. The aircraft corporations Stearman
Stearman Aircraft
Stearman Aircraft Corporation was an aircraft manufacturer in Wichita, Kansas. Although the company designed a range of other aircraft, it is most known for producing the Model 75, which is commonly known simply as the "Stearman" or "Boeing Stearman"....

, Cessna
Cessna
The Cessna Aircraft Company is an airplane manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, USA. Their main products are general aviation aircraft. Although they are the most well known for their small, piston-powered aircraft, they also produce business jets. The company is a subsidiary...

, Mooney
Mooney Airplane Company
The Mooney Aviation Company, Inc. is a U.S. manufacturer of single-engined general aviation aircraft. Mooney has been a leader in civil aviation even though the company has gone bankrupt and changed ownership several times...

 and Beechcraft
Beechcraft
Beechcraft is an American manufacturer of general aviation and military aircraft, ranging from light single engine aircraft to business jets and light military transports. Previously a division of Raytheon, it has been a brand of Hawker Beechcraft since 2006....

 were all founded in Wichita in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Cessna and Hawker Beechcraft remain based in Wichita today, along with Learjet and Spirit AeroSystems
Spirit AeroSystems
Spirit AeroSystems, Inc. , based in Wichita, Kansas, is the world's largest first-tier aerostructures manufacturer. The company builds several important pieces of Boeing aircraft, including the fuselage of the 737, portions of the 787 fuselage, and the cockpit of nearly all of its airliners...

, and both Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

 and Boeing maintain a workforce in Wichita. The city was also at one time the headquarters of the former Derby Oil Company, which was purchased by Coastal Corporation in 1988.

An area cultural center, Wichita is home to Intrust Bank Arena as well as numerous nightclubs, restaurants, shopping centers, museums and parks. Several universities are in Wichita, the largest being Wichita State University
Wichita State University
Wichita State University is a NCAA Division I public university in Wichita, Kansas with selective admissions. WSU is one of six state universities governed by the Kansas Board of Regents. The current president is Dr. Donald Beggs....

 with an enrollment of 15,000 students. In July 2006, CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Wichita 9th on its list of the 10 best U.S. big cities in which to live. In 2008, MSN Real Estate ranked Wichita 1st on its list of most affordable cities. Wichita was also named most "Uniquely American" city by Newsmax Magazine.

History



The site at the confluence of the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers has served as a trading center and meeting place for nomadic hunting people for at least 11,000 years. Human habitation in the Wichita area has been dated, in archeological digs, as far back as 3,000 B.C. The area was visited by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado y Luján was a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542...

 in 1541, while he was in search of the fabulous "cities of gold." While there, he encountered a group of Indians whom he called Quiviras and who have been identified by archeological and historical studies as Wichita Indians. By 1719, these people had moved south to Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

, where they met French traders. The first permanent settlement in Wichita was a collection of grass houses inhabited by the Wichita Indians in 1863. They had moved back to Wichita from Oklahoma during the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 because of their pro-Union sentiments.

The city was officially incorporated in 1870. Its position on the Chisholm Trail
Chisholm Trail
The Chisholm Trail was a trail used in the late 19th century to drive cattle overland from ranches in Texas to Kansas railheads. The portion of the trail marked by Jesse Chisholm went from his southern trading post near the Red River, to his northern trading post near Kansas City, Kansas...

 made it a destination for cattle drives headed north to access railroads to eastern markets. As a result, it became a railhead
Railhead
The word railhead is a railway term with two distinct meanings, depending upon its context.Sometimes, particularly in the context of modern freight terminals, the word is used to denote a terminus of a railway line, especially if the line is not yet finished, or if the terminus interfaces with...

 destination for cattle drive
Cattle drive
For the 1951 film, see Cattle Drive .A cattle drive is the process of moving a herd of cattle from one place to another, usually moved and herded by cowboys on horses.-Australia:Australia is noted for long drives...

s from Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 and other south-western points, from whence it has derived its nickname "Cowtown." It quickly gained a wild reputation, and had numerous well-known lawmen pass through, employed to help keep the rowdy cowboys in line. Among those was Wyatt Earp
Wyatt Earp
Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was an American gambler, investor, and law enforcement officer who served in several Western frontier towns. He was also at different times a farmer, teamster, bouncer, saloon-keeper, miner and boxing referee. However, he was never a drover or cowboy. He is most well known...

.

Following the incorporation of the city in 1870, rapid immigration resulted in a land boom involving speculation into the late 1880s. By 1890 Wichita had become the third largest city in the state (behind Kansas City
Kansas City, Kansas
Kansas City is the third-largest city in the state of Kansas and is the county seat of Wyandotte County. It is a suburb of Kansas City, Missouri, and is the third largest city in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. The city is part of a consolidated city-county government known as the "Unified...

 and Topeka
Topeka, Kansas
Topeka |Kansa]]: Tó Pee Kuh) is the capital city of the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Shawnee County. It is situated along the Kansas River in the central part of Shawnee County, located in northeast Kansas, in the Central United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was...

), with a population of nearly 24,000. After the boom the city suffered from 15 years of comparative depression and slow growth.
An island in the middle of the Arkansas River, named Ackerman Island was home to an amusement park, and a dance pavilion. The island was connected to the West Bank of the river through a WPA project in the thirties.
Wichita reached national fame in 1900 when Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union was the first mass organization among women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity." Originally organized on December 23, 1873, in...

 (WCTU) member Carrie Nation
Carrie Nation
Carrie Amelia Moore Nation was a member of the temperance movement, which opposed alcohol in pre-Prohibition America. She is particularly noteworthy for promoting her viewpoint through vandalism. On many occasions Nation would enter an alcohol-serving establishment and attack the bar with a hatchet...

 decided to carry her crusade against alcohol to Wichita. On December 27 of that year she entered the Carey House bar in downtown Wichita and smashed the place with a rock and a pool ball. Although she had visited all the bars in Wichita the night before, demanding that they close their doors, the John Noble painting Cleopatra at the Roman Bath in the Carey House had drawn her particular wrath.

Air Capital


In the 20th century, aircraft pioneers such as Clyde Cessna and Walter Beech began projects that led to Wichita's establishment as the "Air Capital of the World". The aircraft corporations Stearman
Stearman Aircraft
Stearman Aircraft Corporation was an aircraft manufacturer in Wichita, Kansas. Although the company designed a range of other aircraft, it is most known for producing the Model 75, which is commonly known simply as the "Stearman" or "Boeing Stearman"....

, Cessna
Cessna
The Cessna Aircraft Company is an airplane manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, USA. Their main products are general aviation aircraft. Although they are the most well known for their small, piston-powered aircraft, they also produce business jets. The company is a subsidiary...

, Mooney
Mooney Airplane Company
The Mooney Aviation Company, Inc. is a U.S. manufacturer of single-engined general aviation aircraft. Mooney has been a leader in civil aviation even though the company has gone bankrupt and changed ownership several times...

 and Beech were all founded in Wichita in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

In 1914-1915, oil
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 was discovered nearby and Wichita became a major oil center. The money derived from oil allowed local entrepreneurs to invest in a nascent airplane industry. In 1917, the Cessna Comet
Cessna Comet
-See also:...

 became the first aircraft to be manufactured in Wichita. Soon after, the Swallow became Wichita's first airplane made specifically for production and the Swallow Airplane Company
Swallow Airplane Company
In January 1920, the E.M. Laird Aviation Co. Ltd. was started with the purchase of the six month old Witchita Aircraft Company, it's aircraft and the factory of the Watkins Manafacturing Company. Oilman Jacob Mollendick and Buick-Franklin salesman W.A. Burke each contributed $15,000.The first...

 built 43 of them between 1920 and 1923. Lloyd Stearman and Walter Beech were both employees of the Swallow Company, but in January 1925 they left Swallow and teamed up with Clyde Cessna to form Travel Air
Travel Air
The Travel Air Manufacturing Company was an aircraft manufacturer established in Wichita, Kansas in the United States in January 1925 by Clyde Cessna, Walter Beech, and Lloyd Stearman.-Company history:...

. Stearman left the company in 1926 to start Stearman Aircraft
Stearman Aircraft
Stearman Aircraft Corporation was an aircraft manufacturer in Wichita, Kansas. Although the company designed a range of other aircraft, it is most known for producing the Model 75, which is commonly known simply as the "Stearman" or "Boeing Stearman"....

 in Venice, California and Cessna quit in January 1927 to start Cessna. In 1927, Stearman would relocate his factory back to Wichita. This varied aircraft industry, along with Wichita becoming a test center for new aviation, established Wichita as the "Air Capital."

Travel Air, with Walter Beech at the helm, grew to over 600 employees and operated from a huge factory
Factory
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial building where laborers manufacture goods or supervise machines processing one product into another. Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production...

 complex constructed a few miles outside the city from 1927 to 1929. Due to so many employees working at such a large complex, it was dubbed "Travel Air City" by Wichita residents. The company merged with the huge Curtiss Wright Corporation in the Roaring Twenties
Roaring Twenties
The Roaring Twenties is a phrase used to describe the 1920s, principally in North America, but also in London, Berlin and Paris for a period of sustained economic prosperity. The phrase was meant to emphasize the period's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism...

' heyday of company buyouts and takeovers just two months before the Stock Market crash in 1929. Workers were laid off by the hundreds during 1930 and 1931 and by the fall of 1932, the remaining Travel Air employees were let go, the equipment was sold, and the entire Travel Air plant sat empty.

In March 1932, Beech quit the Curtis Wright Corporation to form Beech Aircraft, along with his wife Olive Ann
Olive Ann Beech
Olive Ann Beech was a U.S. aviation pioneer and businesswoman.With her husband, Walter Herschel Beech, she founded the Beech Aircraft Company....

, and hired Ted Wells
Ted Wells
Ted Wells is a prominent criminal attorney. A litigation partner at the New York law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP, the National Law Journal has selected Wells as one of America's best white-collar defense attorneys on numerous occasions. Wells received his B.A. from...

 as his chief engineer. While the first few "Beechcraft" were built in the vacant Cessna Aircraft plant, which had also closed during the depression, Beech later leased and then bought the Travel Air plant from Curtis Wright and moved his factory to this plant. Beech's first aircraft was the Model 17, later dubbed the "Staggerwing", was first flown on November 5, 1932. Staggerwing production ended in 1946 (to be replaced by the Beechcraft Bonanza
Beechcraft Bonanza
The Beechcraft Bonanza is an American general aviation aircraft introduced in 1947 by The Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. , it is still being produced by Hawker Beechcraft, and has been in continuous production longer than any other airplane in history...

) with approximately 750 built. Nearly 100 Staggerwings are still in existence, many in flying condition. However, the aircraft that would propel the small company into a huge corporation was the Model 18 "Twin Beech"
Beechcraft Model 18
The Beechcraft Model 18, or "Twin Beech", as it is better known, is a 6-11 seat, twin-engine, low-wing, conventional-gear aircraft that was manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas...

, of which thousands were built from 1937 to 1969. On February 8, 1980, Beech Aircraft Corporation was purchased by the Raytheon Corporation
Raytheon
Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007...

 and later renamed Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft Corporation is an aerospace manufacturing company that builds the Beechcraft and Hawker business jet lines of aircraft....

.


The city experienced a population explosion during World War II when it became a major manufacturing center for airplanes needed in the war effort
United States home front during World War II
This page, United States home front during World War II, covers the developments within the United States, 1940–1945, to support its efforts during World War II.-Economics:...

. By 1945, an average of 4.2 bombers were being produced daily in Wichita. In 1962, the Lear Jet Corporation began when the Swiss American Aviation Corporation bought the tooling for building a failed ground-attack fighter to Wichita and opened a plant at Wichita's airport. On February 7, 1963 assembly of the first Learjet aircraft began and the following year, the company was renamed the Lear Jet Corporation. In 1990, Canadian firm, Bombardier Aerospace
Bombardier Aerospace
Bombardier Aerospace is a division of Bombardier Inc. and is the third-largest airplane manufacturer in the world. It is headquartered in Dorval, Quebec, Canada.- History :...

 purchased Learjet Corporation.

The city remains a major manufacturing center for the aircraft industry today, with Boeing, Hawker Beechcraft, Bombardier, Cessna, and even Airbus all having major manufacturing centers in town."

Wichita was also a significant entrepreneurial business center during the pre and post-war period, with Coleman
Coleman Company
Coleman Company, Inc., is an American company that specializes in outdoor recreation products. Historically, Coleman is known for camping gear....

, Mentholatum
Mentholatum
The Mentholatum Company, Inc., founded in 1889 by Albert Alexander Hyde, is a maker of non-prescription health care products. It was bought out by Rohto Pharmaceutical Co., a Japanese health care company, in 1988...

, Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread....

, White Castle
White Castle (restaurant)
White Castle is an American regional fast food hamburger restaurant chain in the Midwestern United States and in the New York metropolitan area, and the first of its kind in the US. It is known for its small, square hamburgers. Sometimes referred to as "sliders", the burgers were priced at five...

, Taco Tico
Taco Tico
Taco Tico is a chain of Tex-Mex cuisine fast-food restaurants. This establishment serves tacos, tostadas, nachos, enchiladas, burritos, refried beans, quesadillas, taco burgers, and sanchos available for dine-in, take-out, or drive-thru. Dan Foley opened the first Taco Tico in 1962, in his native...

 and Koch Industries
Koch Industries
Koch Industries, Inc. , is an American private energy conglomerate based in Wichita, Kansas, with subsidiaries involved in manufacturing, trading and investments. Koch also owns Invista, Georgia-Pacific, Flint Hills Resources, Koch Pipeline, Koch Fertilizer, Koch Minerals and Matador Cattle Company...

 having all been founded in Wichita. (Ironically, White Castle closed all of their restaurants in Wichita in 1938 and has not operated in the state of Kansas after a failed revival attempt in the Kansas City area in the early 1990s.) The entrepreneurial spirit of Wichita led to the creation of one of the first academic centers to study and support entrepreneurship at the Wichita State University
Wichita State University
Wichita State University is a NCAA Division I public university in Wichita, Kansas with selective admissions. WSU is one of six state universities governed by the Kansas Board of Regents. The current president is Dr. Donald Beggs....

 Center for Entrepreneurship.

In October 1932, orchestra leader Gage Brewer
Gage Brewer
Gage Kelso Brewer was an American musician.He never recorded a commercially released record, published a hit song or performed at any length as part of a nationally famous musical organization. His only known recording was a direct-to-disk 78rpm record made in Denver, Colorado in the early 1930s...

 introduced the electric guitar to the world from Wichita using an instrument developed by what would later become known as the Rickenbacker
Rickenbacker
Rickenbacker International Corporation, also known as Rickenbacker, is an electric and bass guitar manufacturer based in Santa Ana, California...

 Guitar Company.

The Dockum Drug Store sit-in
Dockum Drug Store sit-in
The Dockum Drug Store sit-in was one of the first organized lunch-counter sit-ins for the purpose of integrating segregated establishments in the United States. The protest began in July 1958 in Wichita, Kansas at the Dockum Drug Store, a store in the old Rexall chain, in which protesters would sit...

 was one of the first organized lunch-counter sit-in
Sit-in
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of protest that involves occupying seats or sitting down on the floor of an establishment.-Process:In a sit-in, protesters remain until they are evicted, usually by force, or arrested, or until their requests have been met...

s for the purpose of integrating segregated establishments in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The protest began in July 1958 in Wichita at the Dockum Drug Store, a store in the old Rexall
Rexall
Rexall was a chain of North American drugstores, and the name of their store-branded products. The stores, having roots in the federation of United Drug Stores starting in 1902, licensed the Rexall brand name to as many as 12,000 drug stores across the United States from 1920 to 1977...

 chain, in which protesters would sit at the counter all day until the store closed, ignoring taunts from counterprotesters. The sit-in ended three weeks later when the owner relented and agreed to serve black patrons, taking place 18 months before the more widely publicized Greensboro sit-ins
Greensboro sit-ins
The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests which led to the Woolworth's department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States....

 in January 1960. A 20 feet (6.1 m)-long bronze sculpture first announced in 1998 at a cost of $3 million marks the site of the successful sit-in, with a lunch counter and patrons depicting the protest.

Recent history has seen increased development in downtown and to the east and west sides of Wichita. Sedgwick County voters recently approved a sales tax raise to build a new arena downtown to replace the aging Kansas Coliseum
Kansas Coliseum
Kansas Coliseum was a complex, in the Wichita suburb, of Valley Center, Kansas, that hosted sporting events, concerts and shows.It consists of four pavilions, one RV park and the 9,686-seat Britt Brown Arena, named for Harry Britton Brown Jr., of Wichita, the former owner of The Wichita Eagle...

, located north of the city. This is considered by some as a stepping stone to launch new development downtown.

Geography



Downtown Wichita is located at 37°41′20"N 97°20′10"W (37.688888, -97.336111) at an elevation of 1,299 feet (396 m). The city lies on the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. The Arkansas generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's initial basin starts in the Western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas...

 near the western edge of the Flint Hills
Flint Hills
The Flint Hills, historically known as Bluestem Pastures or Blue Stem Hills, are a band of hills in eastern Kansas stretching into north-central Oklahoma, extending from Marshall County, Kansas and Washington County, Kansas in the north to Cowley County, Kansas and Osage County, Oklahoma in the south...

 in the Wellington-McPherson Lowlands region of the Great Plains
Great Plains
The Great Plains are a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, which lies west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S...

. The broad, flat alluvial plain
Alluvial plain
An alluvial plain is a relatively flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms...

 of the Arkansas River valley and the gently rolling slopes which rise to the higher lands on either side characterize the topography of the area.

The Arkansas flows windingly south-southeast through Wichita, roughly bisecting the city, and is joined along the way by several of its tributaries
Tributary
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean...

. The largest of these is the Little Arkansas River
Little Arkansas River
The Little Arkansas River is a river located in south-central Kansas. It rises in northern Rice County just north of Lyons and flows southeast past Buhler and Halstead to meet the Arkansas River in Wichita....

 which enters the city from the north and flows south to its confluence with the Arkansas immediately west of downtown. Chisholm Creek, formed by the confluence of its West and Middle Forks in extreme north-central Wichita, flows south through the city, diverted for most of its length into a drainage canal between the lanes of Interstate 135
Interstate 135
Interstate 135 is a 95.7-mile-long Interstate Highway in central and south-central Kansas, USA. I-135 runs between the cities of Salina and Wichita. The interstate's northern terminus is at the junction of Interstate 70 and its southern terminus is with Interstate 35 .Until 1976, I-135 was...

. The creek's East Fork flows south and west through far northeast Wichita, joining the creek just north of its diversion into the canal. Gypsum Creek and its tributary Dry Creek flow south then southwest through east Wichita, joining Chisholm Creek just north of its confluence with the Arkansas River in the south-central part of the city. West of the river lies the Wichita-Valley Center Floodway, known locally as "The Big Ditch." The Floodway splits from the river and flows south through west Wichita, then turns southeast, wrapping around the city's southern fringe, before emptying back into the river. Further west are Big Slough Creek and Cowskin Creek, two more tributaries of the Arkansas River which both run south through west Wichita and, at separate points, join the Floodway, then split off to continue along their courses toward the river. Fourmile Creek, a tributary of the Walnut River, flows south through the far eastern part of the city.

Wichita is located in south-central Kansas at the intersection of Interstate 135 and U.S. Route 54
U.S. Route 54
U.S. Route 54 is an east–west United States highway that runs northeast-southwest for 1,197 miles from western Illinois to El Paso, Texas. It enters and leaves Texas twice...

. In addition, Interstate 35
Interstate 35
Interstate 35 is a north–south Interstate Highway in the central United States. I-35 stretches from Laredo, Texas, on the U.S.-Mexico border to Duluth, Minnesota, at Minnesota Highway 61 and 26th Avenue East. Many interstates used to have splits or spurs indicated with suffixed letters , but I-35...

 enters the city from the south, then runs northeast along the city's southeastern fringe. Located in the Central United States
Central United States
The Central United States is sometimes conceived as between the Eastern United States and Western United States as part of a three-region model, roughly coincident with the Midwestern United States plus the western and central portions of the Southern United States; the term is also sometimes used...

, Wichita is approximately 157 miles (252.7 km) north of Oklahoma City
Oklahoma city
Oklahoma City is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.Oklahoma City may also refer to:*Oklahoma City metropolitan area*Downtown Oklahoma City*Uptown Oklahoma City*Oklahoma City bombing*Oklahoma City National Memorial...

, 181 miles (291.3 km) southwest of Kansas City
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

, and 439 miles (706.5 km) east-southeast of Denver.

As the core of the Wichita metropolitan area
Wichita metropolitan area
The Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of four counties in south central Kansas, anchored by the city of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 659,372...

, the city is surrounded on all sides by suburb
Suburb
The word suburb mostly refers to a residential area, either existing as part of a city or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city . Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods...

s. Bordering Wichita on the north are, from west to east, Valley Center
Valley Center, Kansas
Valley Center is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 6,822.-History:Valley Center was incorporated on September 29, 1885, and was named for its location on the Arkansas River....

, Park City
Park City, Kansas
Park City is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States; it is a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 7,297.-History:...

, Kechi
Kechi, Kansas
Kechi is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,909.-19th century:In 1887, the Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska Railway built a branch line north-south from Herington through Kechi to Caldwell...

, and Bel Aire
Bel Aire, Kansas
Bel Aire is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. As a suburb of Wichita, Kansas, it is part of the Wichita metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 6,769.-Geography:...

. Enclosed within east-central Wichita is Eastborough
Eastborough, Kansas
Eastborough is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 773.-History:The first development in the Eastborough area began in 1929, but the discovery of oil in the area postponed its establishment until the middle of the 1930s...

. Adjacent to the city's east side is Andover
Andover, Kansas
Andover is a city in Butler and Sedgwick counties in the U.S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 11,791. Located almost entirely in Butler County, it is part of the Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area...

. McConnell Air Force Base
McConnell Air Force Base
McConnell Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located four miles southeast of the central business district of Wichita, a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. The base was named in honor of Wichita brothers Fred and Thomas McConnell, both Air Force pilots and World War II...

 lies immediately southeast of the city. To the south, from east to west, are Mulvane
Mulvane, Kansas
Mulvane is a city in Sedgwick and Sumner counties in the U.S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 6,111.-History:...

, Derby
Derby, Kansas
Derby is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. Formerly known as El Paso, it is a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 22,158. As of 2008 the population was estimated at 22,517, making it the 17th largest city in the state of Kansas...

 and Haysville
Haysville, Kansas
Haysville is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. It is a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 10,826.-History:...

. Goddard
Goddard, Kansas
Goddard is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. Part of the Wichita metropolitan area, it is a suburb of Wichita, Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 4,344.-History:...

 and Maize
Maize, Kansas
Maize is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. It is a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,420.-History:...

 border Wichita to the west and northwest, respectively.

According to the United States Census Bureau, Wichita has a total area of 138.9 square miles (359.7 km²), 3.2 square miles (8.3 km²) of which is water.

Climate


Located on the Great Plains far from any large moderating influences such as mountains or large bodies of water, Wichita lies between the humid subtropical (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfa) and humid continental (Köppen Dfa) zones with hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. Over the course of a year, the city experiences temperatures that range from an average low of 20 °F (-7 °C) in January to an average high of nearly 93 °F (34 °C) in July . Temperatures reach 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 64 days per year and reach 100 °F (38 °C) an average of 14 days per year; conversely, temperatures fall below 0 °F (-18 °C) an average of 3.6 nights per year. In 2011, the city had both the hottest day in 30 years (111 °F (44 °C) on July 10) and the coldest day in 30 years as well (-17 °F on February 10), exactly 5 months apart, further proving the wide range of temperature extremes in the city.

The area receives over 30 inches (762 mm) of precipitation during an average year. May and June receive the highest amount with a combined 21 days of measurable precipitation. During a typical year, the total amount of precipitation may be anywhere from 22 to 40 in (558.8 to 1,016 mm). There are on average 88 days of measurable precipitation per year. Winter snowfall averages about 17 inches (43.2 cm), but the median is less than 8 inches (20 cm). Measurable snowfall occurs an average of 11 days per year with at least an inch of snow being received on five of those days. Snow depth of at least an inch occurs an average of 18 days per year.

The area is vulnerable to severe weather
Severe weather
Severe weather phenomena are weather conditions that are hazardous to human life and property.- Examples Include :Severe weather can occur under a variety of situations, but three characteristics are generally needed: a temperature or moisture boundary, moisture, and , instability in the...

 with frequent thunderstorms occurring during the spring and summer months. These occasionally bring large hail
Hail
Hail is a form of solid precipitation. It consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice, each of which is referred to as a hail stone. Hail stones on Earth consist mostly of water ice and measure between and in diameter, with the larger stones coming from severe thunderstorms...

 as well as frequent lightning
Lightning
Lightning is an atmospheric electrostatic discharge accompanied by thunder, which typically occurs during thunderstorms, and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms...

. Sometimes tornadoes occur. The outskirts of Wichita were affected during the Andover, Kansas Tornado Outbreak
Andover, Kansas Tornado Outbreak
The 1991 Andover, Kansas tornado outbreak was a violent outbreak of 55 tornadoes which took place on April 26, 1991, killing 24 people and injuring hundreds more. The Andover outbreak was featured in two different documentaries: the first one was Enemy Wind, a documentary produced by The Weather...

 on April 26, 1991, which spawned an F5
Fujita scale
The Fujita scale , or Fujita-Pearson scale, is a scale for rating tornado intensity, based primarily on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures and vegetation...

 tornado—the most violent of its kind. During the 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak, on May 3, 1999, an F4 tornado hit the town of Haysville, which then tracked north and hit the southwest edge of Wichita. Previously, on September 3, 1965, a tornado struck and damaged the city of Wichita.

Cityscape


Wichita has several recognized areas and neighborhoods. The downtown area is generally considered to be east of the Arkansas River, west of Washington Street, north of Kellogg and south of 13th Street. The downtown area contains landmarks such as Century II, the Garvey Center, and the Epic Center
Epic Center
The Epic Center is a high-rise building located at 301 N. Main St. in Wichita, Kansas. At 325 feet, it is the tallest building in the city of Wichita, and the entire state of Kansas . The tallest structure in the state is the KWCH Tower.- History :Construction of the Epic Center began in 1987. It...

. Old Town is also part of downtown; this 2-3 square mile area is home to a cluster of night clubs, bars, restaurants, a movie theater, shops, and apartments and condominiums, many of which make use of historical warehouse-type spaces.


The two most notable residential areas of Wichita are Riverside and College Hill. Riverside is northwest of the downtown area, across the Arkansas River, and surrounds the 120 acre (0.4856232 km²) Riverside Park. College Hill is east of the downtown area, south of Wichita State University. College Hill is one of the more historic neighborhoods, along with Delano on the west side and Midtown in the north-central city.

The town of Eastborough, Kansas is east of College Hill, entirely engulfed by the city of Wichita.

Wichita is also home to two major shopping malls: Towne East Square
Towne East Square
Towne East Square is an enclosed, two-story shopping mall located in the northeast section of Wichita, Kansas, United States. It comprises more than 100 stores and restaurants in of gross leasable area. Dillard's, JCPenney, Sears and Von Maur are the mall's anchor stores.-External links:*...

 and Towne West Square
Towne West Square
Towne West Square is an enclosed shopping mall located in Wichita, Kansas, United States. It comprises more than 100 stores in of gross leasable area. The mall's anchor stores include Dick's Sporting Goods, two Dillard's locations, JCPenney and Sears....

, on opposite ends of town, and each managed by Simon Property Group
Simon Property Group
Simon Property Group, Inc. is an American commercial real estate company, ranked #1 in the United States as the largest real estate investment trust. Simon is a fully integrated real estate company which operates from five retail real estate platforms: regional malls, Premium Outlet Centers, The...

. Each mall is home to four anchor stores, and has more than 100 tenants apiece. The oldest mall, Wichita Mall, was for many years largely a dead mall
Dead mall
A dead mall or greyfield is a shopping mall with a high vacancy rate or a low consumer traffic level, or that is dated or deteriorating in some manner. Many malls in the United States are considered "dead" when they have no surviving anchor store or successor that could serve as an entry into or...

, but has since been converted into office space. There is also a large outdoor shopping center on the city's north-east and north west sides. Bradley Fair and NewMarket Square (respectively) are large outdoor malls with over 50 stores each spread out on several acres.

Demographics


As of the 2010 census, there were 382,368 people, 151,818 households, and 94,862 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 2,304.8 per square mile (889.9/km²). There were 167,310 housing units at an average density of 1,022.1 per square mile (475.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 71.9% White
White American
White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

, 11.5% African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

, 4.8% Asian
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

 (2.4% Vietnamese
Vietnamese American
A Vietnamese American is an American of Vietnamese descent. They make up about half of all overseas Vietnamese and are the fourth-largest Asian American group....

, 0.5% Indian
Indian American
Indian Americans are Americans whose ancestral roots lie in India. The U.S. Census Bureau popularized the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with Indigenous peoples of the Americas who are commonly referred to as American Indians.-The term: Indian:...

, 0.3% Filipino
Filipino American
Filipino Americans are Americans of Filipino ancestry. Filipino Americans, often shortened to "Fil-Ams", or "Pinoy",Filipinos in what is now the United States were first documented in the 16th century, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century...

, 0.4% Chinese
Chinese American
Chinese Americans represent Americans of Chinese descent. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and also a subgroup of East Asian Americans, which is further a subgroup of Asian Americans...

, 0.3% Laotian
Laotian American
A Laotian American is a resident of the United States who was originally from Laos, a person of Laotian descent residing in America, or a citizen born in the United States whose parents were originally from Laos. Laotian Americans are included in the larger category of Asian Americans...

, 0.1% Korean
Korean American
Korean Americans are Americans of Korean descent, mostly from South Korea, with a small minority from North Korea...

, 0.1% Pakistani
Pakistani American
A Pakistani American is any citizen or resident of the United States who has Pakistani heritage.- History in the United States :Muslim immigrants from areas that are now part of Pakistan have been migrating to America and first entered the United States as early as the eighteenth century, working...

, 1.1% other Asian), 1.2% American Indian
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, 0.1% Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander American
Pacific Islander Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population...

, 6.2% from other races, and 4.3% from two or more races. 15.3% of the population was Hispanic
Hispanic
Hispanic is a term that originally denoted a relationship to Hispania, which is to say the Iberian Peninsula: Andorra, Gibraltar, Portugal and Spain. During the Modern Era, Hispanic sometimes takes on a more limited meaning, particularly in the United States, where the term means a person of ...

 or Latino
Latino
The demonyms Latino and Latina , are defined in English language dictionaries as:* "a person of Latin-American descent."* "A Latin American."* "A person of Hispanic, especially Latin-American, descent, often one living in the United States."...

 of any race (13.0% Mexican
Mexican American
Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican descent. As of July 2009, Mexican Americans make up 10.3% of the United States' population with over 31,689,000 Americans listed as of Mexican ancestry. Mexican Americans comprise 66% of all Hispanics and Latinos in the United States...

, 0.4% Puerto Rican
Puerto Rican people
A Puerto Rican is a person who was born in Puerto Rico.Puerto Ricans born and raised in the continental United States are also sometimes referred to as Puerto Ricans, although they were not born in Puerto Rico...

, 0.1% Cuban
Cuban American
A Cuban American is a United States citizen who traces his or her "national origin" to Cuba. Cuban Americans are also considered native born Americans with Cuban parents or Cuban-born persons who were raised and educated in US...

, 1.7% other Hispanic or Latino).

Of the 151,818 households, 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.5% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48, and the average family size was 3.14.

In the city, the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males age 18 and over.

The median income for a household
Median household income
The median household income is commonly used to generate data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more...

 in the city was $44,477, and the median income for a family was $57,088. Males had a median income of $42,783 versus $32,155 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $24,517. About 12.1% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over.

In terms of population, Wichita is the largest city in Kansas and the 49th largest city in the United States.

Demographic history


The early 20th century saw a resurgence in growth from the nascent aircraft industry (see below) with the population increasing by 350% between 1900 and 1930. By 1920 Wichita had entered the top 100 largest cities in the United States and by 1930 reached 77th in rank. The depression of the 1930s again slowed growth, with total population only increasing by 3% between 1930 and 1940. The decades during and after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 saw a growth spurt as the city's population increased by more than 120% between 1940 and 1960. Wichita was the 51st largest city in the country by 1960.

The period between 1950 and 1970 saw a major shift in the city's racial make-up, as the proportion of blacks in the population increased significantly. Until 1950, blacks had made up about 5% of the population, with little variation. The black population increased from 8,082 (4.8%) in 1950 to 26,841 (9.7%) in 1970.

During the 1970s, the city's population grew by only 1%, but the growth rate accelerated in the following two decades to more than 13% in the 1990s. The growth among minorities is still strong.

Metropolitan area



Wichita is the principal city of both the Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the Wichita-Winfield Combined Statistical Area (CSA)
Combined Statistical Area
The United States Office of Management and Budget defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas consist of one or more counties...

. The Wichita MSA encompasses Sedgwick, Butler
Butler County, Kansas
Butler County is a county located in South Central Kansas, in the Central United States. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 65,880. Its county seat and most populous city is El Dorado. The county is a part of the Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area.-19th century:It was named in...

, Harvey
Harvey County, Kansas
Harvey County is a county located in South Central Kansas, in the Central United States. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 34,684. Its county seat and most populous city is Newton. The county is a part of the Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area which also includes Butler,...

, and Sumner
Sumner County, Kansas
Sumner County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas. The county's population was 24,132 for the 2010 census. Its county seat is Wellington. Sumner County is part of the Wichita, Kansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. It was named in honor of Charles Sumner, a U.S...

 counties and, as of 2010, had an estimated population of 623,061, making it the 84th largest MSA in the United States. The larger Wichita-Winfield CSA also includes Cowley County
Cowley County, Kansas
Cowley County is a county located in south-central Kansas, in the Central United States. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 36,311. Its county seat and most populous city is Winfield...

 and, as of 2010, had an estimated population of 659,372. Nearby Reno County is not a part of the Wichita MSA or Wichita-Winfield CSA, but, were it included, it would add an additional population of 64,511 as of 2010.

Economy



Wichita's principal industrial
Industry
Industry refers to the production of an economic good or service within an economy.-Industrial sectors:There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction,...

 sector is manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

, which accounted for 21.6 percent of area employment in 2003. Aircraft manufacturing has long dominated the local economy, and plays such an important role that it has the ability to influence the economic health of the entire region; the state offers tax breaks and other incentives to aircraft manufacturers. In the early 2000s a national and international recession combined with the after effects of the 9/11/2001 terrorist attacks to depress the aviation
Aviation
Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...

 sub-sector in and around Wichita
Wichita
Wichita is the name of:*Wichita people, a Native American tribe*Wichita language, the language of the tribeWichita may also refer to:-Places:United States*Wichita, Kansas*Wichita County, Kansas*Wichita County, Texas*Wichita Falls, Texas...

. Orders for new aircraft plummeted, prompting Wichita's five largest aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 manufacturers—Boeing Co.
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

, Cessna Aircraft Co., Bombardier Learjet Inc., Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft Corporation is an aerospace manufacturing company that builds the Beechcraft and Hawker business jet lines of aircraft....

 and Raytheon Aircraft Co.
Raytheon
Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007...

—to slash a combined 15,000 jobs between 2001 and 2004. In response, these companies began developing small- and mid-sized airplanes to appeal to business and corporate users.

Healthcare
Health care
Health care is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers...

 is Wichita's second-largest industry, employing approximately 28,000 people in the local area. Since health-care needs remain fairly consistent regardless of the economy, this field was not subject to the same pressures that affected other industries in the early 2000s. The Kansas Spine Hospital opened in 2004, as did a critical care tower at Wesley Medical Center
Wesley Medical Center
Located in Wichita, Kansas, Wesley Medical Center is an acute-care center licensed for 760 beds and 102 bassinets. The medical staff of 900 physicians and 3,000 employees provide a full range of diagnostic and treatment services for patients from throughout Kansas and northern Oklahoma...

. In July 2010, Via Christi Health, which is the largest provider of health care services in Kansas, is ready to open a hospital that will serve the northwest area of Wichita. Via Christi Hospital on St. Teresa will be the system's fifth hospital to serve the Wichita community.

Bombardier Learjet, Cessna
Cessna
The Cessna Aircraft Company is an airplane manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, USA. Their main products are general aviation aircraft. Although they are the most well known for their small, piston-powered aircraft, they also produce business jets. The company is a subsidiary...

, and Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft Corporation is an aerospace manufacturing company that builds the Beechcraft and Hawker business jet lines of aircraft....

 are based in Wichita, along with Spirit AeroSystems
Spirit AeroSystems
Spirit AeroSystems, Inc. , based in Wichita, Kansas, is the world's largest first-tier aerostructures manufacturer. The company builds several important pieces of Boeing aircraft, including the fuselage of the 737, portions of the 787 fuselage, and the cockpit of nearly all of its airliners...

, and both Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

 and Boeing maintain a large work force in Wichita.

The two largest privately held companies in the United States, Cargill
Cargill
Cargill, Incorporated is a privately held, multinational corporation based in Minnetonka, Minnesota. Founded in 1865, it is now the largest privately held corporation in the United States in terms of revenue. If it were a public company, it would rank, as of 2011, number 13 on the Fortune 500,...

 and Koch Industries
Koch Industries
Koch Industries, Inc. , is an American private energy conglomerate based in Wichita, Kansas, with subsidiaries involved in manufacturing, trading and investments. Koch also owns Invista, Georgia-Pacific, Flint Hills Resources, Koch Pipeline, Koch Fertilizer, Koch Minerals and Matador Cattle Company...

, both operate headquarters facilities in Wichita. Cargill's beef processing business is headquartered downtown, and Koch Industries' primary corporate headquarters complex is located in northeast Wichita.

Other firms with headquarters in Wichita include roller coaster manufacturer Chance Morgan, renewable energy
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable . About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from...

 company Alternative Energy Solutions
Alternative Energy Solutions
Alternative Energy Solutions International, Inc. is a privately-owned corporation based in Wichita, Kansas. The company was formed in 2001 in Fort Mill, South Carolina as Alternative Energy Solutions. In 2007, The company was acquired by David Daniels, CEO of Wichita Burner Inc., and operations...

, and Coleman Company
Coleman Company
Coleman Company, Inc., is an American company that specializes in outdoor recreation products. Historically, Coleman is known for camping gear....

, a manufacturer of camping and outdoor recreation supplies.

Prior to its dissolution Air Midwest
Air Midwest
Air Midwest, Inc., was a Federal Aviation Administration Part 121 certificated air carrier operating under air carrier certificate number AMWA510A issued on May 15, 1965. It was headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, United States, and was a subsidiary of Mesa Air Group. It operated flights as US...

, a regional airline, was based in Wichita.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Wichita metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual average:
  • Size of nonagricultural labor force: 282,800


Number of workers employed in:
  • construction and mining: 16,100
  • manufacturing: 58,400
  • trade, transportation and utilities: 49,500
  • information: 6,100
  • financial activities: 12,200
  • professional and business services: 26,300
  • educational and health services: 38,400
  • leisure and hospitality: 25,200
  • other services: 12,100
  • government: 38,500


Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $19.45 (2004)

Unemployment rate: 6.3% (February 2005)

Government



Since 1917, Wichita has had a council-manager
Council-manager government
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of municipal government in the United States; the other common form of local government is the mayor-council government form, which characteristically occurs in large cities...

 form of government. The city council
City council
A city council or town council is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality or local government area.-Australia & NZ:Because of the differences in legislation between the States, the exact definition of a City Council varies...

 consists of seven members popularly elected every four years with staggered terms in office. For representative purposes, the city is divided into six districts with one council member elected from each district. The mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

 is the seventh council member, elected at large
Plurality-at-large voting
Plurality-at-large voting is a non-proportional voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember electoral district using a series of check boxes and tallying votes similar to a plurality election...

. The council sets policy for the city, enacts laws and ordinances, levies taxes, approves the city budget, and appoints members to citizen commission and advisory boards. The city manager
City manager
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council-manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities...

 is the city’s chief executive, responsible for administering city operations and personnel, submitting the annual city budget, advising the city council, preparing the council’s agenda, and oversight of non-departmental activities.

The Wichita Police Department, established in 1871, is the city’s law enforcement agency. With over 800 employees, including more than 600 commissioned officers, it is the largest law enforcement agency in Kansas.

Events


The Wichita River Festival is held in the Downtown and Old Town areas of the city. It is one of the longest continuous running festivals in the state of Kansas and features over 70 events, including musical entertainment, sporting events, traveling exhibits, cultural and historical activities, plays
Play (theatre)
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of scripted dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. There are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference whether their plays were performed...

, interactive children's events, a flea market
Flea market
A flea market or swap meet is a type of bazaar where inexpensive or secondhand goods are sold or bartered. It may be indoors, such as in a warehouse or school gymnasium; or it may be outdoors, such as in a field or under a tent...

, river events, a parade
Parade
A parade is a procession of people, usually organized along a street, often in costume, and often accompanied by marching bands, floats or sometimes large balloons. Parades are held for a wide range of reasons, but are usually celebrations of some kind...

, block parties, a food court, fireworks
Fireworks
Fireworks are a class of explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display. A fireworks event is a display of the effects produced by firework devices...

 and souvenir
Souvenir
A souvenir , memento, keepsake or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memories the owner associates with it. The term souvenir brings to mind the mass-produced kitsch that is the main commodity of souvenir and gift shops in many tourist traps around the world...

s for the roughly 370,000+ patrons who attend each year. In 2011, the festival was changed to June, because of rain during previous festivals in May.

The Tallgrass Film Festival
Tallgrass Film Festival
The Tallgrass Film Festival is an annual film festival held in Wichita, Kansas. It was founded in 2003 by Timothy Gruver, and is operated by the non-profit organization Tallgrass Film Association.It is a four-day independent film festival, open to the public, and screens roughly 120 features and...

 was founded in Wichita by the late Timothy Gruver in 2003. The festival draws an estimated 100 independent feature and short films from all over the world for three days each October. MPAA president Dan Glickman
Dan Glickman
Daniel Robert "Dan" Glickman is an American businessman and politician. He served as the United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1995 until 2001, prior to which he represented the Fourth Congressional District of Kansas as a Democrat in Congress for 18 years. He was Chairman and CEO of the...

 and legendary actor Seymour Cassel
Seymour Cassel
Seymour Joseph Cassel is an American actor.He first came to prominence in the 1960s in the pioneering independent films of writer/directorJohn Cassavetes...

 have attended.

Points of interest



The City of Wichita is a cultural center for Kansas, home to several art and history museum
Museum
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities...

s and performing arts groups. The Music Theatre of Wichita
Music Theatre of Wichita
Music Theatre of Wichita is the major performing arts company in the city of Wichita. Music Theatre of Wichita has been around since the early seventies and has premiered many shows in the state of Kansas. Many famous stars, including Tad Hilgenbrink and Kristin Chenoweth have performed onstage...

 and Wichita Symphony Orchestra
Wichita Symphony Orchestra
The Wichita Symphony Orchestra is a Wichita, Kansas, United States, based orchestra strongly associated with the Wichita State University School of Music. Founded in 1944, it is one of very few professional Symphony Orchestras in Kansas....

 perform regularly at the Century II Convention Hall
Century II Convention Hall
Century II Performing Arts & Convention Center is a performing arts and convention center located at 225 West Douglas Avenue in Wichita, Kansas, USA...

 downtown. The Orpheum Theatre, built in 1922, serves as a downtown venue for smaller shows.

Intrust Bank Arena features 22 suites, 2 party suites, 40 loge boxes and over 300 premium seats with a total potential capacity of over 15,000. This arena in the middle of Wichita opened in January 2010.

Small art galleries are scattered around the city with some clustered in the districts of Old Town, Delano and south Commerce street. These galleries started the Final Friday Gallery crawl event, where visitors tour attractions for free in the evening on the last Friday of each month. Larger museums began participating and staying open late on Final Fridays shortly after its beginning.
The Wichita Art Museum
Wichita Art Museum
The Wichita Art Museum is an art museum located in Wichita, Kansas. It was established in 1915, when Louise Murdock’s Will created a trust to start a collection of art works by “American painters, potters, sculptors, and textile weavers.” The collection includes works by Mary Cassatt, Arthur G...

 is the largest art museum in the state of Kansas, and contains 7,000 works in permanent collections. This museum is a hub of the city's museums along the Arkansas River: the Mid-America All-Indian Center, Old Cowtown
Old Cowtown Museum
Old Cowtown Museum is a living history museum located in Wichita, Kansas along the Arkansas River. It focuses on life in Wichita and the southern plains of Kansas during the last part of the 19th century. The museum contains over twenty-six historic buildings, including a blacksmith, saloon, and ...

 living history museum, Exploration Place
Exploration Place
Exploration Place is a modern hands-on science museum, located in the Delano Neighborhood and Museums on the River district in Wichita, Kansas, United States.-History:...

 science and discovery center, The Keeper of the Plains statue, and Botanica, The Wichita Gardens
Botanica, The Wichita Gardens
Botanica, The Wichita Gardens 9.5 acres are botanical gardens and park located at 701 North Amidon, Wichita, Kansas, USA. They are city-owned as part of the Wichita Park System....

. Botanica boasts 24 themed gardens including the popular Butterfly Garden and the award-winning Sally Stone Sensory Garden.

The Sedgwick County Zoo
Sedgwick County Zoo
The Sedgwick County Zoo is an AZA-accredited wildlife park and major attraction in Wichita, Kansas. Founded in 1971 with the help of the Sedgwick County Zoological Society, the zoo has quickly become recognized both nationally and internationally for its support of conservation programs and...

http://www.scz.org/ in the northwest part of Wichita is the most popular outdoor tourist attraction in the state of Kansas, and is home to more than 2,500 animals representing 500 different species. The zoo is next to Sedgwick county park and Sedgwick County Extension Arboretum
Sedgwick County Extension Arboretum
The Sedgwick County Extension Arboretum is located in Sedgwick County, Kansas, USA at 7001 W. 21st North Wichita, Kansas. It was established in 1994 and formally dedicated on Thursday, October 23, 2003....

.

The Wichita-Sedgwick County Historical Museum
Wichita-Sedgwick County Historical Museum
The Wichita-Sedgwick County Historical Museum is a non-profit 501 organization dedicated to preserving and presenting the local history of Wichita and Sedgwick County, Kansas, USA, to the public. The museum was established in 1939 as the Wichita Public Museum. Today the museum resides in the...

http://www.wichitahistory.org in downtown Wichita occupies the original Wichita city hall, built in 1892. The museum contains artifacts that tell the story of Wichita and Sedgwick County starting from 1865 and continuing to the present day.

Slightly east of downtown, Old Town was transformed in the early 1990s from an old warehouse district to a mixed-zone neighborhood with residential space, nightclubs, restaurants, hotels and museums, including the Great Plains Transportation Museum
Great Plains Transportation Museum
The Great Plains Transportation Museum is a railroad museum in Wichita, Kansas.-Collection:The museum's collection includes 6 locomotives and several pieces of rolling stock used on freight and passenger trains....

 and Museum of World Treasures.

The Coleman Factory Outlet and Museum on 235 N St. Francis street is the home of the Coleman Lantern
Coleman Lantern
The Coleman Lantern is a line of pressure lamps first introduced by the Coleman Company in 1914. This led to a series of lamps that were originally made to burn kerosene or gasoline. Current models use Coleman fuel or propane and use one or two mantles to produce an intense white light...

 and offers free admission http://www.kansastravel.org/colemanmuseum.htm.
Moody's Skidrow Beanery, 625 E. Douglas in what was to become Old Town, was one of the more famous places in Wichita in the 1960s. It was the scene of a nationally followed First Amendment struggle http://www.vlib.us/beats/oconnor.html and was visited by Allen Ginsberg in 1966 (the name had been changed to the Magic Theatre Vortex Art Gallery) where he first read his long poem "Wichita Vortex Sutra."

The Ulrich Museum of Art and Lowell D. Holmes Museum of Anthropology
Lowell D. Holmes Museum of Anthropology
The Lowell D. Holmes Museum of Anthropology began in 1966 as the Museum of Man, at the bequest and initiation of Dr. Lowell Holmes, Professor of Anthropology at Wichita State University in Wichita, Kansas, USA. Over the next 33 years it grew slowly and became known throughout the campus as a small...

 are part of Wichita State University.

There is also The Kansas Aviation Museum
Kansas Aviation Museum
Kansas Aviation Museum is located in Riverside Township, Sedgwick County, near Wichita, Kansas at 3350 George Washington Blvd. It is known for exhibiting aircraft made by the Boeing Company, which has a large presence in Wichita...

 in the Terminal and Administration building of the former Municipal Airport in South Wichita tucked away near Boeing and McConnell Air Force Base
McConnell Air Force Base
McConnell Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located four miles southeast of the central business district of Wichita, a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. The base was named in honor of Wichita brothers Fred and Thomas McConnell, both Air Force pilots and World War II...


Sports



Sports teams in Wichita are:
  • Friends University Falcons Athletics including Football, Volleyball, Soccer, Cross Country, Basketball, Tennis, Track and Field, and Golf
  • Newman University Jets Athletics including Baseball, Basketball, Bowling, Cross Country, Golf, Soccer, Tennis, Wrestling, Volleyball, Cheer/Dance
  • Wichita Wingnuts
    Wichita Wingnuts
    The Wichita Wingnuts are a professional baseball team based in Wichita, Kansas, in the United States. The Wingnuts are a member of the Central Division of the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball, which is not affiliated with Major League Baseball.An expansion franchise in the...

    , Baseball
    Baseball
    Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

  • Wichita Thunder
    Wichita Thunder
    The Wichita Thunder are a minor league hockey team based in Wichita, Kansas. The team plays in the Central Hockey League. From 1992 until January 2010 the Thunder played in the Britt Brown Arena located in the northern Wichita suburb of Park City...

    , ice hockey
    Ice hockey
    Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

  • Wichita Wild
    Wichita Wild
    The Wichita Wild is a professional indoor football team located in Wichita, Kansas. The wild plays in the Indoor Football League the second biggest football league in the United States only after the NFL. The IFL was formed in 2008 through a merger between the Intense Football League and the...

    , Indoor Football
  • Wichita Barbarians, Rugby Union
    Rugby union
    Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

  • Wichita World 11, Cricket
    Cricket
    Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

  • Wichita State Shockers Athletics, including Men's
    Wichita State Shockers men's basketball
    The Wichita State Shockers basketball team is the NCAA Division I men's basketball program of Wichita State University in Wichita, Kansas. They currently compete in the Missouri Valley Conference...

     and Women's Basketball, Baseball, Volleyball, Track and Field, and Tennis
  • Kansas Diamondbacks Semi-pro Football, member of the Gridiron Developmental Football League
  • Kansas Cougars Semi-Pro football, member of CFL


Note: Three of the teams listed do not play their home games within the city limits, but are headquartered in Wichita. The Wichita Wild play at Hartman Arena
Hartman Arena
Hartman Arena is a privately managed 5,000-seat multi-purpose arena located at 77th Street North and I-135 in Park City, Kansas. Ground was broken on March 25, 2008, and opened the last week of March, 2009. It hosts home games of the Wichita Wild indoor football team. Tickets.com and Hartman Arena...

, which is in Park City
Park City, Kansas
Park City is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States; it is a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 7,297.-History:...

, The Kansas Diamondbacks play at Maize South High School which is located in Maize
Maize, Kansas
Maize is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. It is a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,420.-History:...

, the Kansas Cougars play at Fischer Field in Newton
Newton, Kansas
Newton is a city in and the county seat of Harvey County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 19,132. Newton is located north of Wichita and is included in the Wichita metropolitan statistical area...


In popular culture and the arts


Wichita is mentioned in the songs "Wichita Skyline" by Shawn Colvin
Shawn Colvin
Shawn Colvin is an American singer-songwriter and musician.-Childhood and early career:Colvin was born in Vermillion, South Dakota. Her formative years were spent in the town of Carbondale, Illinois, where she attended Southern Illinois University Carbondale. She learned to play guitar at the age...

, "Seven Nation Army" by The White Stripes
The White Stripes
The White Stripes was an American rock band, formed in 1997 in Detroit, Michigan. The group consisted of the songwriter Jack White and drummer Meg White . Jack and Meg White were previously married to each other, but are now divorced...

, and the Negro spiritual "Brother, Why Are You Here" by local musician Jerry Hahn
Jerry Hahn
Jerry Hahn is an American jazz guitarist.Hahn studied at Wichita State University, then moved to San Francisco in 1962, where he played with John Handy . He toured with The 5th Dimension in 1968 and worked with Gary Burton in 1968-69...

. Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg
Irwin Allen Ginsberg was an American poet and one of the leading figures of the Beat Generation in the 1950s. He vigorously opposed militarism, materialism and sexual repression...

 wrote about a visit to Wichita in his poem Wichita Vortex Sutra
Wichita Vortex Sutra
"Wichita Vortex Sutra" is an anti-war poem by Allen Ginsberg, written in 1966. It appears in his collections Planet News and The Fall of America: Poems of These States...

, for which Philip Glass
Philip Glass
Philip Glass is an American composer. He is considered to be one of the most influential composers of the late 20th century and is widely acknowledged as a composer who has brought art music to the public .His music is often described as minimalist, along with...

 subsequently wrote a solo piano piece. Glen Campbell
Glen Campbell
Glen Travis Campbell is an American country music singer, guitarist, television host and occasional actor. He is best known for a series of hits in the 1960s and 1970s, as well as for hosting a variety show called The Glen Campbell Goodtime Hour on CBS television.During his 50 years in show...

's Wichita Lineman
Wichita Lineman
"Wichita Lineman" is a popular song written by Jimmy Webb in 1968, first recorded by Glen Campbell and widely covered by other artists. Campbell's version, which appeared on his 1968 album of the same name, reached #3 on the U.S. pop chart, remaining in the Top 100 for 15 weeks...

, written by Jimmy Webb
Jimmy Webb
Jimmy Webb is an American songwriter, composer, and singer. He wrote numerous platinum selling classics, including "Up, Up and Away", "By the Time I Get to Phoenix", "Wichita Lineman", "Galveston", "The Worst That Could Happen", "All I Know", and "MacArthur Park"...

, peaked at #1 on Billboard's country singles chart and at #3 on the pop chart in 1968. Ruby Vroom, released by the band Soul Coughing in 1994, contains a song called "True Dreams of Wichita".

There is a character who used the pseudonym Wichita in the Film Zombieland
Zombieland
Zombieland is a 2009 American zombie comedy film directed by Ruben Fleischer from a screenplay written by Rhett Reese and Paul Wernick. The film stars Woody Harrelson, Jesse Eisenberg, Emma Stone, and Abigail Breslin as survivors of a zombie apocalypse...

 played by Emma Stone. The award-winning stage play Hospitality Suite
Hospitality Suite
Hospitality Suite is an award-winning stage play written by Roger Rueff that centers around conflicting notions of character, salesmanship, honesty, religion, and love that simmer until they boil over as two experienced salesmen and a young research engineer await a CEO whose visit to their modest...

written by Roger Rueff
Roger Rueff
Roger Rueff is an award-winning writer whose produced dramatic works include stage plays, teleplays, and screenplays. His stage play Hospitality Suite premiered at South Coast Repertory in Costa Mesa, California in 1992 and has been subsequently produced internationally...

 takes place in Wichita. The film adaptation of the play, titled The Big Kahuna, is also set in the city.

In the 1987 movie Planes Trains and Automobiles a Chicago bound flight is diverted to Wichita because of bad weather.

Local rapper Kae Wun's first song was titled "ICT (The Official Anthem)". ICT is a common nickname locally for Wichita, stemming from the airport code for Wichita Mid-Continent Airport
Wichita Mid-Continent Airport
Wichita Mid-Continent Airport is a commercial airport located in southwest Wichita, in Sedgwick County, Kansas, USA. It is the busiest airport in the state of Kansas . In 2008, passenger traffic continued to grow despite increased fuel prices and economic troubles, with 1,615,075 passengers...

.

The title song for local rapper XV's 2011 mixtape, "Zero Heroes" is "Wichita" This song is also produced by Just Blaze
Just Blaze
Justin Smith, better known as Just Blaze, is an American hip hop music producer from Paterson, New Jersey. Blaze is also the CEO of Fort Knocks Entertainment. He is most well known for producing Jay-Z songs on the albums The Blueprint, The Blueprint 2, and The Black Album. He is also known for...

, another Kansas Native. XV (AKA Donovan Johnson) signed a major record deal with "Warner Bros. Records" in 2010

AMD will be releasing a new processor, code named Wichita, in 2012.

Media



The Wichita Eagle
The Wichita Eagle
The Wichita Eagle is a daily newspaper published in Wichita, Kansas. It is owned by The McClatchy Company, which publishes 31 other newspapers, including The Kansas City Star.It is the largest newspaper in Wichita, Kansas and the surrounding area....

, which began publication in 1872, is the city's major daily newspaper. With a daily circulation exceeding 70,000, it has the highest circulation of any newspaper published in Kansas. The Wichita Business Journal is a weekly newspaper that covers local business events and developments. Several other newspapers and magazines, including lifestyle and neighborhood publications aimed at various segments of the local population, are also published in the city.

Six AM
AM broadcasting
AM broadcasting is the process of radio broadcasting using amplitude modulation. AM was the first method of impressing sound on a radio signal and is still widely used today. Commercial and public AM broadcasting is carried out in the medium wave band world wide, and on long wave and short wave...

 and more than a dozen FM
FM broadcasting
FM broadcasting is a broadcasting technology pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong which uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. The term "FM band" describes the "frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting"...

 radio stations are licensed
City of license
A city of license or community of license, in American and Canadian broadcasting, is the community that a radio station or television station is officially licensed to serve by that country's broadcast regulator....

 to or broadcast from Wichita.

Wichita is the principal city of the Wichita-Hutchinson, Kansas television market
Media market
A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area , Television Market Area , or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet content...

 which consists of the western two-thirds of the state. All of the market's network affiliate
Network affiliate
In the broadcasting industry , a network affiliate is a local broadcaster which carries some or all of the television program or radio program line-up of a television or radio network, but is owned by a company other than the owner of the network...

s broadcast from Wichita with the ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

, CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

, Fox
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox Network or simply Fox , is an American commercial broadcasting television network owned by Fox Entertainment Group, part of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Launched on October 9, 1986, Fox was the highest-rated broadcast network in the...

, and NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

 affiliates serving the wider market through state network
State network
A State Network in the United States broadcasting industry is a term which refers to a miniature television network serving an entire state or multiple states...

s of satellite and translator stations. The city also hosts a PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

 member station, a Univision
Univision
Univision is a Spanish-language television network in the United States. It has the largest audience of Spanish language television viewers according to Nielsen ratings. Randy Falco, COO, has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva...

 affiliate, and several low-power stations. Cable television
Cable television
Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

 service for Wichita and the surrounding area is provided by Cox Communications
Cox Communications
Cox Communications is a privately owned subsidiary of Cox Enterprises providing digital cable television, telecommunications and wireless services in the United States...

 and AT&T
AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications corporation headquartered in Whitacre Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States. It is the largest provider of mobile telephony and fixed telephony in the United States, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services...

.

Primary and secondary education


With over 50,000 students, Wichita Public Schools
Wichita Public Schools
Wichita Public Schools is the public school district serving the city of Wichita, Kansas.-High Schools:* Wichita East High School* Wichita Heights High School* Wichita North High School* Wichita Northeast Magnet High School...

 (USD
Unified school district
A unified school district or unit school district is a school district which includes both primary school and high school under the same district control....

 259) is the largest school district in Kansas. It operates more than 90 schools in the city including 10 high schools, 16 middle schools, 61 elementary schools, and more than a dozen special schools and programs. Outlying portions of Wichita lie within suburban public school districts including Andover
Andover, Kansas
Andover is a city in Butler and Sedgwick counties in the U.S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 11,791. Located almost entirely in Butler County, it is part of the Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area...

 (USD 385), Circle
Towanda, Kansas
Towanda is a city in Butler County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,450.-21st century:In 2010, the Keystone-Cushing Pipeline was constructed a few blocks west of Towanda , running north to south through Butler County, with much controversy over tax...

 (USD 375), Derby
Derby, Kansas
Derby is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. Formerly known as El Paso, it is a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 22,158. As of 2008 the population was estimated at 22,517, making it the 17th largest city in the state of Kansas...

 (USD 260), Goddard
Goddard, Kansas
Goddard is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. Part of the Wichita metropolitan area, it is a suburb of Wichita, Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 4,344.-History:...

 (USD 265), Haysville
Haysville, Kansas
Haysville is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. It is a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 10,826.-History:...

 (USD 261), Maize
Maize, Kansas
Maize is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. It is a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,420.-History:...

 (USD 266), and Valley Center
Valley Center, Kansas
Valley Center is a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 6,822.-History:Valley Center was incorporated on September 29, 1885, and was named for its location on the Arkansas River....

 (USD 262).

There are more than 35 private and parochial schools in Wichita. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Wichita
Roman Catholic Diocese of Wichita
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Wichita is a Roman Catholic diocese in Kansas. It was founded on August 2, 1887, and covers Allen, Bourbon, Butler, Chase, Chautauqua, Cherokee, Cowley, Crawford, Elk, Greenwood, Harper, Harvey, Kingman, Labette, Marion, McPherson, Montgomery, Morris, Neosho, Reno,...

 operates 16 Catholic school
Catholic school
Catholic schools are maintained parochial schools or education ministries of the Catholic Church. the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system...

s in the city including 14 elementary schools and two high schools, Bishop Carroll Catholic High School
Bishop Carroll Catholic High School
Bishop Carroll Catholic High School, sometimes called Carroll or BC, is a private high school located in Wichita, Kansas. Along with Kapaun Mt. Carmel High School, it is one of two Catholic high schools in the city. It is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Wichita. Bishop Carroll graduates...

 and Kapaun Mt. Carmel High School
Kapaun Mt. Carmel High School
Kapaun Mt. Carmel Catholic High School, sometimes called Kapaun, is a private, four year, co-educational, secondary school operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Wichita. The mission of the school is to form the total person in the image of Jesus Christ...

. The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod operates two Lutheran school
Lutheran school
Lutheran schools and education were a priority for Lutherans who emigrated to the United States and Australia from Germany and Scandinavia. One of the first things they did was to create schools for their children. This strong educational tradition was handed down from Martin Luther himself. The...

s in the city, Bethany Lutheran School (Grades PK-5) and Holy Cross Lutheran School (PK-8). There are also two Seventh-day Adventist schools
Seventh-day Adventist education
The Seventh-day Adventist educational system is the second-largest Christian school system in the world, after the Roman Catholic system ....

 in Wichita, Three Angels School (K-8) and Wichita Adventist Christian Academy (K-10). Other Christian school
Christian school
A Christian school is a school run on Christian principles or by a Christian organization.The nature of Christian schools varies enormously from country to country, according to the religious, educational, and political cultures...

s in the city are Bethel Life School (K-8), Calvary Christian School (PK-12), Central Christian Academy (K-8), Sunrise Christian Academy (PK-12), Trinity Academy (9-12), and Wichita Friends School (PK-6). In addition, there is an Islamic school, Anoor School (PK-8), operated by the Islamic Society of Wichita. Non-religious private schools in the city include Wichita Collegiate School
Wichita Collegiate School
Wichita Collegiate School, known locally as Collegiate, is a private, co-educational, non-denominational, and non-profit college preparatory day school founded in 1963 currently enrolling 966 students from preschool through 12th grade located at 9115 E. 13th Street, Wichita Kansas, 67206. The...

 and The Independent School as well as three Montessori schools.

Colleges and universities


Three universities have their main campuses in Wichita. The largest is Wichita State University (WSU)
Wichita State University
Wichita State University is a NCAA Division I public university in Wichita, Kansas with selective admissions. WSU is one of six state universities governed by the Kansas Board of Regents. The current president is Dr. Donald Beggs....

, a four-year public university
Public university
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

 which has more than 14,000 students and is the third-largest university in Kansas. WSU's main campus is in northeast Wichita with four satellite campuses located throughout the metro area. Friends University
Friends University
Friends University is a private non-denominational Christian university in Wichita, Kansas.Friends University was founded in 1898. The main building was originally built in 1886 for Garfield University, but was donated in 1898 to the Religious Society of Friends by James Davis, a St. Louis...

, a private, non-denominational Christian university with approximately 2,800 students, has its main campus in west Wichita as does Newman University
Newman University
Newman University is a coeducational Catholic liberal arts university in Wichita, Kansas, United States. The university offers both undergraduate and masters level programs.-History:...

, a private Catholic university
Catholic University
A Catholic University is a private university run by the Catholic Church or by Catholic organizations like religious institutes. Those with closer ties to the Holy See are called pontifical universities....

 with over 2,500 students. In addition, Wichita Area Technical College
Wichita Area Technical College
Wichita Area Technical College is a technical college located in Wichita, Kansas. The school is coordinated by the [Kansas Board of Regents] and governed by the Sedgwick County Technical Training Authority Board . The college has been in operation since 1965 and currently offers associates...

, a two-year public college
Community colleges in the United States
In the United States, community colleges are primarily two-year public institutions of higher education and were once commonly called junior colleges....

 with over 2,100 students, has its main campus and two satellite locations in the city.

Several colleges and universities based outside Wichita operate satellite locations in and around the city. The University of Kansas School of Medicine
University of Kansas School of Medicine
The University of Kansas School of Medicine is a public medical school located on the University of Kansas Medical Center campuses in Kansas City, Kansas and in Wichita, Kansas.The Kansas City campus is located at the University of Kansas Hospital....

 has one of its three campuses in Wichita. Baker University
Baker University
Baker University is a private, residential university located in Baldwin City, Kansas, United States. Founded in 1858, it is the oldest university in Kansas and is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Baker University is made up of four schools...

, Butler Community College
Butler Community College
Butler Community College is an accredited 2-year community college located in El Dorado, Kansas, United States. Founded in 1927, it was originally named Butler County Community College, as El Dorado is the Butler County seat, but it was renamed in recent years.- Statistics :Butler is a fairly...

, Cowley College
Cowley County Community College
Cowley College is a two-year college located in Arkansas City, Kansas. It also operates satellite facilities in nearby Winfield, Wellington, Mulvane, and Wichita, and offers distance-learning classes at nine area high schools. Cowley College is accredited by the NCA's Higher Learning Commission.-...

, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University is a private university in the US specializing in aviation and aerospace engineering. It teaches the science, practice, and business of aviation and aerospace. Called "The Harvard of the Sky" by Time Magazine in 1979, Embry-Riddle has a history dating back to...

, Southwestern College
Southwestern College (Kansas)
Southwestern College is a four-year private college affiliated with the United Methodist Church located in Winfield, Kansas, United States. It was founded in 1885 and graduated its first class in 1889. In addition to its campus programs, it offers online programs.-Academics:The main campus is a...

, Tabor College, Vatterott College
Vatterott College
Vatterott College provides career training in the fields of Business, Technical, Medical, Trades, Court Reporting, and Culinary. The school currently offers programs at 24 campuses across the Midwest and through its online division.-History:...

, and Webster University
Webster University
Webster University is an American non-profit private university with its main campus in Webster Groves, a suburb of St. Louis, Missouri. Webster University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools...

 have Wichita facilities as do for-profit institutions including Heritage College
Heritage College & Heritage Institute
Heritage College was established in Denver, Colorado in 1986. The college trains adults for careers in healthcare related fields...

, ITT Technical Institute
ITT Technical Institute
ITT Technical Institute is a for-profit technical institute with over 130 campuses in 38 states of the United States. ITT Tech is owned and operated by ITT Educational Services, Inc. , a publicly traded company headquartered in Carmel, Indiana. ITT Educational Services, Inc...

, and University of Phoenix
University of Phoenix
The University of Phoenix is a for-profit institution of higher learning. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Apollo Group Inc. which is publicly traded , an S&P 500 corporation based in Phoenix, Arizona...

.

Libraries


The Wichita Public Library
Wichita Public Library
The Wichita Public Library consists of nine locations throughout the city of Wichita in the U.S. state of Kansas. The Library offers the most research capabilities from its Central Library, located in downtown Wichita....

 is the city's library system, presently consisting of a Central Library downtown and nine branch locations in neighborhoods around the city. Local business owners funded the establishment of the library in 1876. In 1912, it expanded into a Carnegie library
Carnegie library
A Carnegie library is a library built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. 2,509 Carnegie libraries were built between 1883 and 1929, including some belonging to public and university library systems...

 that would remain open until the establishment of the current Central Library and its system of branches in 1967. The library operates several free programs for the public, including special events, technology training classes, and programs specifically for adults, children, and families. As of 2009, its holdings included more than 1.3 million books and 2.2 million items total.

Highway



Several federal and state highways pass through Wichita. Interstate 35
Interstate 35
Interstate 35 is a north–south Interstate Highway in the central United States. I-35 stretches from Laredo, Texas, on the U.S.-Mexico border to Duluth, Minnesota, at Minnesota Highway 61 and 26th Avenue East. Many interstates used to have splits or spurs indicated with suffixed letters , but I-35...

, as the Kansas Turnpike
Kansas Turnpike
The Kansas Turnpike is a freeway-standard toll road that lies entirely within the U.S. state of Kansas. It runs in a general southwest-northeast direction from the Oklahoma border, and passes through several major Kansas cities, including Wichita, Topeka, Lawrence and Kansas City...

, enters the city from the south and turns northeast, running along the city's southeastern edge and exiting through the eastern part of the city. Interstate 135
Interstate 135
Interstate 135 is a 95.7-mile-long Interstate Highway in central and south-central Kansas, USA. I-135 runs between the cities of Salina and Wichita. The interstate's northern terminus is at the junction of Interstate 70 and its southern terminus is with Interstate 35 .Until 1976, I-135 was...

 runs generally north-south through the city, its southern terminus lying at its interchange with I-35 in south-central Wichita. Interstate 235
Interstate 235 (Kansas)
Interstate 235 in Kansas is a 16.52 mile-long north–south bypass spur route of Interstate 35 that travels through the western part of Wichita. Its northern terminus is at an interchange with K-96 and Interstate 135/U.S. Route 81 north of the city, where the freeway continues east as K-254...

, a bypass
Bypass (road)
A bypass is a road or highway that avoids or "bypasses" a built-up area, town, or village, to let through traffic flow without interference from local traffic, to reduce congestion in the built-up area, and to improve road safety....

 route, passes through north-central, west, and south-central Wichita, traveling around the central parts of the city. Both its northern and southern termini are interchanges with I-135. U.S. Route 54
U.S. Route 54
U.S. Route 54 is an east–west United States highway that runs northeast-southwest for 1,197 miles from western Illinois to El Paso, Texas. It enters and leaves Texas twice...

 and U.S. Route 400
U.S. Route 400
U.S. Route 400 is a mostly east–west U.S. Highway, commissioned in 1994. Its route number is a "violation" of the usual AASHTO numbering scheme, as there is no US 0 or US 100....

 run concurrently through Wichita as Kellogg Avenue, the city's primary east-west artery, with interchanges, from west to east, with I-235, I-135, and I-35. U.S. Route 81
U.S. Route 81
U.S. Route 81 is one of the many United States Numbered Highways established in 1926 by the US Department of Agriculture Bureau of Public Roads....

, a north-south route, enters Wichita from the south as Broadway, turns east as 47th Street South for approximately half a mile, and then runs concurrently north with I-135 through the rest of the city. K-96
K-96 (Kansas highway)
K-96 is a state highway in central and southern Kansas. Its western terminus is at the Colorado state line east of Towner, Colorado, where it continues as Colorado State Highway 96; its eastern terminus since 1999 is at U.S. Route 54/U.S. Route 400 east of Wichita.The eastern terminus was once at...

, an east-west route, enters the city from the northwest, runs concurrently with I-235 through north-central Wichita, turns south for approximately a mile, running concurrently with I-135 before splitting off to the east and traveling around northeast Wichita, ultimately terminating at an interchange with U.S. 54/U.S. 400 in the eastern part of the city. K-254
K-254 (Kansas highway)
K-254 links Wichita to El Dorado. The road begins at the intersection of I-135/US-81/K-15 and I-235 north of Wichita. It bypasses Kechi, Benton and Towanda, ending in downtown El Dorado at an intersection with US-54 and US-77. It is limited access from I-135 to just east of Kechi...

 begins at I-235's interchange with I-135 in north-central Wichita and exits the city to the northeast. K-15
K-15 (Kansas highway)
K-15 is a Kansas state highway originating at the Oklahoma state line and continuing to the Nebraska state line where it is then signed as Nebraska Highway 15. It is signed as State Highway 18 once the highway enters Oklahoma. It is 206 miles long...

, a north-south route, enters the city from the south and joins I-135 and U.S. 81 in south-central Wichita, running concurrently with them through the rest of the city. K-42
K-42 (Kansas highway)
K-42 is a state highway in the U.S. state of Kansas. The highway serves as a connection to Wichita for communities between the US-160 and US-54 corridors.-Route description:...

 enters the city from the southwest and terminates at its interchange with U.S. 54/U.S. 400 in west-central Wichita.

Mass Transit


Wichita Transit
Wichita Transit
Wichita Transit is the public transportation department of the City of Wichita which operates paratransit and transit bus services within the city.-Fleet:Wichita Transit maintains a fleet of 51 ADA compliant buses and 26 wheelchair-lift vans.-Services:...

 operates 53 buses on 18 fixed bus routes within the city. The organization reports over 2 million trips per year (5,400 trips per day) on its fixed routes. Wichita Transit also operates a demand response paratransit
Paratransit
Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules. Typically mini-buses are used to provide paratransit service, but also share taxis and jitneys are important providers....

 service with 320,800 passenger trips annually. A 2005 study ranked Wichita near the bottom of the fifty largest American cities in terms of percentage of commuters using public transit. Only 0.5% used it to get to or from work. Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 provides intercity bus service with a station in Wichita.

Walkability


A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Wichita 38th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.

Air


The Wichita Airport Authority manages the city's two main public airports, Wichita Mid-Continent Airport
Wichita Mid-Continent Airport
Wichita Mid-Continent Airport is a commercial airport located in southwest Wichita, in Sedgwick County, Kansas, USA. It is the busiest airport in the state of Kansas . In 2008, passenger traffic continued to grow despite increased fuel prices and economic troubles, with 1,615,075 passengers...

 and Colonel James Jabara Airport
Colonel James Jabara Airport
Colonel James Jabara Airport is a public airport located nine miles northeast of the central business district of Wichita, a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. It is named in honor of World War II and Korean War flying ace James Jabara, an American of Lebanese descent who has the...

. Located in the western part of the city, Mid-Continent Airport is the city's primary airport as well as the largest airport in the state of Kansas. Ten commercial airlines serve Mid-Continent with daily flights to several U.S. airline hub
Airline hub
An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations...

s. Wichita Transit provides hourly daytime bus service to and from the airport six days a week. Jabara Airport is a general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 facility located on the city's northeast side. In addition, there are several privately-owned airports located throughout the city. Cessna Aircraft Field
Cessna Aircraft Field
Cessna Aircraft Field is a public use airport located four nautical miles southeast of the central business district of Wichita, in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. It is privately owned by the Cessna Aircraft Company.- Facilities and aircraft :...

 and Beech Factory Airport
Beech Factory Airport
Beech Factory Airport is a public use airport located five nautical miles east of the central business district of Wichita, a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. It is privately owned by the Hawker Beechcraft Corporation....

, operated by manufacturers Cessna and Hawker Beechcraft, respectively, lie in east Wichita. Two smaller airports, Riverside Airport and Westport Airport, are located in west Wichita.

Rail


Two Class I railroad
Class I railroad
A Class I railroad in the United States and Mexico, or a Class I rail carrier in Canada, is a large freight railroad company, as classified based on operating revenue.Smaller railroads are classified as Class II and Class III...

s, BNSF Railway
BNSF Railway
The BNSF Railway is a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc., and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas. It is one of seven North American Class I railroads and the second largest freight railroad network in North America, second only to the Union Pacific Railroad, its primary...

 and Union Pacific Railroad (UP)
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad , headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, is the largest railroad network in the United States. James R. Young is president, CEO and Chairman....

, have lines which pass through Wichita. UP's OKT Line runs generally north-south through the city; north of downtown, the line consists of trackage leased to BNSF. An additional UP line enters the city from the northeast and terminates downtown. BNSF's main line through the city enters from the north, passes through downtown, and exits to the southeast, paralleling highway K-15. The Wichita Terminal Association
Wichita Terminal Association
The Wichita Terminal Association is a switching and terminal railroad in northern Wichita, Kansas, jointly owned by the BNSF Railway and Union Pacific Railroad. It handles mainly grain and some scrap steel, serving customers at the former Wichita Union Stock Yards...

, a joint operation between BNSF and UP, provides switching service on three miles (5 km) of track downtown. In addition, two lines of the Kansas and Oklahoma Railroad
Kansas and Oklahoma Railroad
The Kansas and Oklahoma Railroad is a shortline railroad operating in the western United States.The tracks Kansas and Oklahoma operate on include the Kansas City-Colorado main line formerly operated by the Missouri Pacific and later Union Pacific railways....

 enter the city, one from the northwest and the other from the southwest, both terminating at their junction in west-central Wichita.

Wichita has not had passenger rail service since 1979. The nearest Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 station is in Newton
Newton, Kansas
Newton is a city in and the county seat of Harvey County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 19,132. Newton is located north of Wichita and is included in the Wichita metropolitan statistical area...

 25 miles (40.2 km) north, offering service on the Southwest Chief
Southwest Chief
The Southwest Chief is a passenger train operated by Amtrak on a 2256-mile BNSF route through the Midwestern and Southwestern United States. It runs from Chicago, Illinois, to Los Angeles, California, passing through Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California...

line between Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles , with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621, is the most populous city in California, USA and the second most populous in the United States, after New York City. It has an area of , and is located in Southern California...

 and Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

. However, since 2008, Amtrak and the Kansas Department of Transportation
Kansas Department of Transportation
The Kansas Department of Transportation is a state government organization in charge of maintaining public roadways of the U.S. state of Kansas.-Organization:*Secretary of Transportation...

 have been studying the feasibility of restoring service via route options between Oklahoma City
Oklahoma city
Oklahoma City is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.Oklahoma City may also refer to:*Oklahoma City metropolitan area*Downtown Oklahoma City*Uptown Oklahoma City*Oklahoma City bombing*Oklahoma City National Memorial...

 and Newton or Kansas City
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

.

Sister cities

Cancún
Cancún
Cancún is a city of international tourism development certified by the UNWTO . Located on the northeast coast of Quintana Roo in southern Mexico, more than 1,700 km from Mexico City, the Project began operations in 1974 as Integrally Planned Center, a pioneer of FONATUR Cancún is a city of...

, Mexico - November 25, 1975 Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Kaifeng , known previously by several names , is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, Central China. Nearly 5 million people live in the metropolitan area...

, Henan, China - December 3, 1985 Orléans
Orléans
-Prehistory and Roman:Cenabum was a Gallic stronghold, one of the principal towns of the Carnutes tribe where the Druids held their annual assembly. It was conquered and destroyed by Julius Caesar in 52 BC, then rebuilt under the Roman Empire...

, France - August 16, 1944 through Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between United States and international communities. More than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in 136 countries around the world...

 Zacatecas
Zacatecas
Zacatecas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Zacatecas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas....

, Mexico - October 16, 1973 Omaha, Nebraska
Omaha, Nebraska
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska, United States, and is the county seat of Douglas County. It is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 20 miles north of the mouth of the Platte River...

, United States - August 8, 1993

See also

  • Joyland Amusement Park
    Joyland Amusement Park (Wichita)
    Joyland Amusement Park opened in Wichita, Kansas, United States on June 12, 1949, and was in continuous operation for 55 years. The park closed in 2004 when its owners experienced financial difficulties due to declining attendance....


Historical
  • Abilene Trail
    Abilene Trail
    The Abilene Trail was a cattle trail leading from Texas to Abilene, Kansas. Its exact route is disputed owing to its many offshoots, but it crossed the Red River just east of Henrietta, Texas, and continued north across the Indian Territory to Caldwell, Kansas and on past Wichita and Newton to...

  • Chisholm Trail
    Chisholm Trail
    The Chisholm Trail was a trail used in the late 19th century to drive cattle overland from ranches in Texas to Kansas railheads. The portion of the trail marked by Jesse Chisholm went from his southern trading post near the Red River, to his northern trading post near Kansas City, Kansas...


Further reading


Wichita
Sedgwick County
Kansas

External links


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