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The white tiger is a recessive mutant of the Bengal tiger
Bengal Tiger
The Bengal tiger is a tiger subspecies native to the Indian subcontinent that in 2010 has been classified as endangered by IUCN...

, which was reported in the wild from time to time in Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

, Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

, Bihar
Bihar
Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India....

 and especially from the former State of Rewa
Rewa (princely state)
Rewa was a princely state of India, surrounding its eponymous capital, the town of Rewa.-Description:With an area of about 13,000 mi², Rewa was the largest princely state in the Bagelkhand Agency and the second largest in Central India Agency. The British political agent for Bagelkhand resided...

.

Color comparison


Compared to normal coloured tigers without the white gene, white tigers tend to be larger, both at birth and as fully grown adults. Kailash Sankhala
Kailash Sankhala
Kailash Sankhala was a renowned naturalist and conservationist of India. He was the director of Delhi Zoological Park and Chief Wildlife Warden of Rajasthan. Born on 30 January 1925 he is best known for his work in preserving tigers...

, the director of the New Delhi
New Delhi
New Delhi is the capital city of India. It serves as the centre of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi. It is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory. The total area of the city is...

 Zoo in the 1960s, said "one of the functions of the white gene may have been to keep a size gene in the population, in case it's ever needed."

Dark-striped white individuals are well-documented in the Bengal Tiger subspecies
Subspecies
Subspecies in biological classification, is either a taxonomic rank subordinate to species, ora taxonomic unit in that rank . A subspecies cannot be recognized in isolation: a species will either be recognized as having no subspecies at all or two or more, never just one...

, also known as the Royal Bengal or Indian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris or P. t. bengalensis), and may also have occurred in captive Siberian Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), as well as having been reported historically in several other subspecies.

Currently, several hundred white tigers are in captivity worldwide, with about one hundred being found in India. Nevertheless, their population is on the increase. The modern white tiger population includes both pure Bengals and hybrid Bengal–Siberians, however, it is unclear whether the recessive white gene came only from Bengals, or if it also originated from Siberian ancestors.

The unusual coloration of white tigers has made them popular in zoos and entertainment showcasing exotic animals. German-American magicians Siegfried & Roy
Siegfried & Roy
Siegfried & Roy are two German-American former entertainers who became known for their appearances with white lions and white tigers....

 became famous for breeding and training two white tigers for their performances, referring to them as "royal white tigers", the white tiger's association with the Maharaja
Maharaja
Mahārāja is a Sanskrit title for a "great king" or "high king". The female equivalent title Maharani denotes either the wife of a Maharaja or, in states where that was customary, a woman ruling in her own right. The widow of a Maharaja is known as a Rajamata...

 of Rewa
Rewa (princely state)
Rewa was a princely state of India, surrounding its eponymous capital, the town of Rewa.-Description:With an area of about 13,000 mi², Rewa was the largest princely state in the Bagelkhand Agency and the second largest in Central India Agency. The British political agent for Bagelkhand resided...

.

Rewa Maharaja Martand Singh first observed male white tiger Mohan during his visit to Govindgarh jungle at Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India. After hunting for months, he was able to capture the first living white tiger seen in nature. With help from official veterinary experts, he unsuccessfully tried to breed the white tiger with colored female tigers. Eventually, however, he succeeded in creating a second generation of white tigers. In time, it expanded around the world.

White Siberian Tigers



The existence of white Siberian tigers has not been scientifically documented, despite occasional unsubstantiated reports of sightings of white tigers in the regions where wild Siberian tigers live. Some believe that that the gene for white coating does not exist in the Siberian tiger population as no white Siberian tigers have been born in captivity despite the fact that the Siberian tiger has been extensively bred during the last few decades.

The famous white Siberian tigers found in captivity are actually not pure Siberian tigers. They are instead the result of Siberian tigers breeding with Bengal tiger
Bengal Tiger
The Bengal tiger is a tiger subspecies native to the Indian subcontinent that in 2010 has been classified as endangered by IUCN...

s. The gene for white coating is quite common among Bengal tigers, but the natural birth of a white Bengal tiger is still a very rare occasion in the wild, where white tigers are not bred selectively. A white tiger is caused by the occurrence of a double recessive allele in the genome
Genome
In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the entirety of an organism's hereditary information. It is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of virus, in RNA. The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA/RNA....

. Estimations show that around one in 10,000 wild tiger births will result in a white tiger.

The white tiger is not considered a tiger subspecies, but rather a mutant
Mutant
In biology and especially genetics, a mutant is an individual, organism, or new genetic character, arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is a base-pair sequence change within the DNA of a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not...

 variant of the existing tiger subspecies. If a pure white Siberian tiger were to be born, it would therefore not be selectively bred within the tiger conservation programs. It would, however, probably still be selectively bred outside the program in an effort to create more white Siberian tigers. Due to the popularity of white tigers, they are used to attract visitors to zoos.

Stripeless white tigers and golden tabby tiger



An additional genetic condition can remove most of the stripping of a white tiger, making the animal almost pure white. One such specimen was exhibited at Exeter Change in England in 1820, and described by Georges Cuvier as "A white variety of Tiger is sometimes seen, with the stripes very opaque, and not to be observed except in certain angles of light." Naturalist Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker was an English naturalist, geologist and writer of numerous books on natural history.-Biography:...

 said that, "a white tiger, in which the fur was of a creamy tint, with the usual stripes faintly visible in certain parts, was exhibited at the old menagerie at Exeter Change about the year 1820." Hamilton Smith said, "A wholly white tiger, with the stripe-pattern visible only under reflected light, like the pattern of a white tabby cat, was exhibited in the Exeter Change Menagerie in 1820.", and John George Wood
John George Wood
John George Wood, or Rev J. G. Wood, , was a popular English writer on natural history.Wood was born in London, son of surgeon John Freeman Wood and Juliana Lisetta, and educated at home, at Ashbourne grammar school and Merton College, Oxford ; also at Christ Church, where he worked for some time...

 stated that, "a creamy white, with the ordinary tigerine stripes so faintly marked that they were only visible in certain lights." Edwin Henry Landseer
Edwin Henry Landseer
Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, RA was an English painter, well known for his paintings of animals—particularly horses, dogs and stags...

 also drew this tigress in 1824.

The modern strain of snow white tigers came from repeated brother–sister matings of Bhim and Sumita at Cincinnati Zoo. The gene involved may have come from a Siberian tiger, via their part-Siberian ancestor Tony. Continued inbreeding appears to have caused a recessive gene for stripelessness to show up. About one fourth of Bhim and Sumita's offspring were stripeless. Their striped white offspring, which have been sold to zoos around the world, may also carry the stripeless gene. Because Tony's genome is present in many white tiger pedigrees, the gene may also be present in other captive white tigers. As a result, stripeless white tigers have appeared in zoos as far afield as the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 and Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

. Stage magicians Siegfried & Roy were the first to attempt to selectively breed tigers for stripelessness; they owned snow-white Bengal tigers taken from Cincinnati Zoo
Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden
The Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden is the second-oldest zoo in the United States and is located in Cincinnati, Ohio. It opened in 1875, just 14 months after the Philadelphia Zoo on July 1, 1874. The Reptile House is the oldest zoo building in the United States, dating from 1875.The Cincinnati...

 (Tsumura, Mantra, Mirage and Akbar-Kabul) and Guadalajara
Guadalajara, Jalisco
Guadalajara is the capital of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is located in the central region of Jalisco in the western-pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,564,514 it is Mexico's second most populous municipality...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 (Vishnu and Jahan), as well as a stripeless Siberian tiger called Apollo.

In 2004, a blue-eyed, stripeless white tiger was born in a wildlife refuge in Alicante
Alicante
Alicante or Alacant is a city in Spain, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community. It is also a historic Mediterranean port. The population of the city of Alicante proper was 334,418, estimated , ranking as the second-largest...

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

. Its parents are normal orange Bengals. The cub was named Artico ("Arctic").

Stripeless white tigers were thought to be sterile until Siegfried & Roy's stripeless white tigress Sitarra, a daughter of Bhim and Sumita, gave birth. Another variation which came out of the white strains were unusually light-orange tigers called "golden tabby tigers". These are probably orange tigers which carry the stripeless white gene as a recessive. Some white tigers in India are very dark, between white and orange.

Genetics



A white tiger's pale coloration is caused by the presence of a recessive gene. Another genetic
Genetics
Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

 characteristic makes the stripes of the tiger very pale; white tigers of this type are called snow-white or "pure white". White tigers do not constitute a separate subspecies of their own and can breed with orange ones. Although, assuming the orange parent is heterozygous
Zygosity
Zygosity refers to the similarity of alleles for a trait in an organism. If both alleles are the same, the organism is homozygous for the trait. If both alleles are different, the organism is heterozygous for that trait...

 dominant for the recessive gene, all of the resulting offspring will be heterozygous for the recessive white gene, and their fur will be orange. The only exception would be if the orange parent was itself already a heterozygous tiger, which would give each cub a 50% chance of being either double-recessive white or heterozygous orange. If two heterozygous tigers, or heterozygotes, breed on average 25% of their offspring will be white, 50% will be heterozygous orange (white gene carriers) and 25% will be homozygous orange, with no white genes. In the 1970s a pair of heterozygous orange tigers named Sashi and Ravi produced 13 cubs in Alipore Zoo
Alipore Zoological Gardens
The Alipore Zoological Gardens is India's oldest formally stated zoological park and a big tourist attraction in Kolkata, West Bengal. It has been open as a zoo since 1876, and covers...

, of which 3 were white. If two white tigers breed, 100% of their cubs will be homozygous white tigers. A tiger which is homozygous for the white gene may also be heterozygous or homozygous for many different genes. The question of whether a tiger is heterozygous (a heterozygote) or homozygous (a homozygote) depends on the context of which gene is being discussed. Inbreeding
Inbreeding
Inbreeding is the reproduction from the mating of two genetically related parents. Inbreeding results in increased homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population, which is...

 promotes homozygosity and has been used as a strategy to produce white tigers.

White tigers are not albinos: true albino tigers would not have stripes. Even the "stripeless" white tigers have very pale stripes. Confusion has arisen due to the misidentification of the so-called chinchilla gene (for white) as an allele
Allele
An allele is one of two or more forms of a gene or a genetic locus . "Allel" is an abbreviation of allelomorph. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation...

 of the albino series: publications prior to the 1980s refer to it as an albino gene . The mutation is recessive to normal colour, which means that two orange tigers carrying the mutant gene may produce white offspring, and white tigers bred together will produce only white cubs. The stripe colour varies due to the influence and interaction of other genes.

While the inhibitor ("chinchilla") gene affects the colour of the hair shaft, there is a separate "wide-band" gene affecting the distance between the dark bands of colour on agouti
Agouti signalling peptide
Agouti signalling peptide, a product of the Agouti gene, is a peptide consisting of 131 amino acids. Its discovery was published in 1994 in the scientific journal Nature where its functional properties were described...

 hairs. An orange tiger who inherits two copies of this wide-band gene becomes a golden tabby
Golden tabby
A golden tabby tiger is one with an extremely rare color variation caused by a recessive gene and is currently only found in captive tigers. Like the white tiger, it is a color form and not a separate species. In the case of the golden tiger, this is the wide band gene; while the white tiger is...

; a white who inherits two copies becomes almost or completely stripeless. Inbreeding allows the effect of recessive genes to show up, hence the ground and stripe colour variations among white tigers.

As early as 1907, naturalist Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker was an English naturalist, geologist and writer of numerous books on natural history.-Biography:...

 doubted the existence of albino tigers. However, we do have a report of true albinism: in 1922, two pink-eyed albino cubs were shot along with their mother at Mica Camp, Tisri
Tishrei
Tishrei or Tishri , Tiberian: ; from Akkadian "Beginning", from "To begin") is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year in the Hebrew calendar. The name of the month is Babylonian. It is an autumn month of 30 days...

, in the Cooch Behar district
Cooch Behar District
Cooch Behar district is a district of the state of West Bengal, India, as well as the district's namesake town. During the British Raj, the town of Cooch Behar was the seat of a princely state of Koch Bihar, ruled by the Koch dynasty....

, according to Victor N. Narayan in a "Miscellaneous Note" in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society
Bombay Natural History Society
The Bombay Natural History Society, founded on 15 September 1883, is one of the largest non-governmental organizations in India engaged in conservation and biodiversity research. It supports many research efforts through grants, and publishes the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Many...

. The albinos were described as sickly-looking sub-adults, with extended necks and pink eyes.

White tigers, Siamese cats, and Himalayan rabbits have enzyme
Enzyme
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates...

s in their fur which react to temperature, causing them to grow darker in the cold. A white tiger named Mohini was whiter than her relatives in the Bristol Zoo, who showed more cream tones. This may have been because she spent less time outdoors in the winter. White tigers produce a mutated form of tyrosinase
Tyrosinase
Tyrosinase also known as monophenol monooxygenase is an enzyme that catalyses the oxidation of phenols and is widespread in plants and animals...

, an enzyme used in the production of melanin
Melanin
Melanin is a pigment that is ubiquitous in nature, being found in most organisms . In animals melanin pigments are derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine. The most common form of biological melanin is eumelanin, a brown-black polymer of dihydroxyindole carboxylic acids, and their reduced forms...

, which only functions at certain temperatures, below 37 °C (98.6 °F). This is why Siamese cats and Himalayan rabbits are darker on their faces, ears, legs, and tails (the colour points), where the cold penetrates more easily. This is called acromelanism, and other cats breeds derived from the Siamese, such as the Himalayan and the snowshoe cat, also exhibit the condition. Kailash Sankhala
Kailash Sankhala
Kailash Sankhala was a renowned naturalist and conservationist of India. He was the director of Delhi Zoological Park and Chief Wildlife Warden of Rajasthan. Born on 30 January 1925 he is best known for his work in preserving tigers...

 observed that white tigers were always whiter in Rewa State, even when they were born in New Delhi and returned there. "In spite of living in a dusty courtyard, they were always snow white." A weakened immune system
Immune system
An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own...

 is directly linked to reduced pigmentation in white tigers.

Genetic defects



Outside of India, white tigers have been prone to crossed eyes, a condition known as strabismus
Strabismus
Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. It typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles, which prevents bringing the gaze of each eye to the same point in space and preventing proper binocular vision, which may adversely...

, an example of which is "Clarence the cross-eyed lion", due to incorrectly routed visual pathways
Visual system
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which enables organisms to process visual detail, as well as enabling several non-image forming photoresponse functions. It interprets information from visible light to build a representation of the surrounding world...

 in the brains of white tigers. When stressed or confused, all white tigers cross their eyes. Strabismus is associated with white tigers of mixed Bengal x Siberian ancestry. The only pure-Bengal white tiger reported to be cross-eyed was Mohini's daughter Rewati. Strabismus is directly linked to the white gene and is not a separate consequence of inbreeding. The orange littermates of white tigers are not prone to strabismus. Siamese cats and albinos of every species which have been studied all exhibit the same visual pathway abnormality found in white tigers. Siamese cats are also sometimes cross-eyed, as are some albino ferret
Ferret
The ferret is a domesticated mammal of the type Mustela putorius furo. Ferrets are sexually dimorphic predators with males being substantially larger than females. They typically have brown, black, white, or mixed fur...

s. The visual pathway abnormality was first documented in white tigers in the brain of a white tiger called Moni after he died, although his eyes were of normal alignment. The abnormality is that there is a disruption in the optic chiasm
Optic chiasm
The optic chiasm or optic chiasma is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross...

. The examination of Moni's brain suggested the disruption is less severe in white tigers than it is in Siamese cats. Because of the visual pathway abnormality, by which some of the optic nerve
Optic nerve
The optic nerve, also called cranial nerve 2, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. Derived from the embryonic retinal ganglion cell, a diverticulum located in the diencephalon, the optic nerve doesn't regenerate after transection.-Anatomy:The optic nerve is the second of...

s are routed to the wrong side of the brain, white tigers have a problem with spatial orientation, and bump into things until they learn to compensate. Some tigers compensate by crossing their eyes. When the neurons pass from the retina to the brain and reach the optic chiasma, some cross and some do not, so that visual images are projected to the wrong hemisphere of the brain. White tigers cannot see as well as normal tigers and suffer from photophobia, like albinos.

Other genetic problems include shortened tendons of the forelegs, club foot
Club foot
A club foot, or congenital talipes equinovarus , is a congenital deformity involving one foot or both. The affected foot appears rotated internally at the ankle. TEV is classified into 2 groups: Postural TEV or Structural TEV....

, kidney problems, arched or crooked backbone and twisted neck. Reduced fertility and miscarriages, noted by ”tiger man” Kailash Sankhala in pure-Bengal white tigers were attributed to inbreeding depression
Inbreeding depression
Inbreeding depression is the reduced fitness in a given population as a result of breeding of related individuals. It is often the result of a population bottleneck...

. A condition known as "star-gazing", which is associated with inbreeding in big cats, has also been reported in white tigers. Some of the white tigers born to North American lines have bulldog faces with a snub nose, jutting jaw, domed head and wide-set eyes with an indentation between the eyes. However, some of these traits may be linked to poor diet rather than inbreeding.

There is a 450 lb (204.1 kg) male cross-eyed white tiger at the Pana'ewa Rainforest Zoo
Pana'ewa Rainforest Zoo
Panaewa Rainforest Zoo is located in Hilo on the Big Island of Hawaii. This small zoo is the only one in the United States located in a rainforest...

 in Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

, which was donated to the zoo by Las Vegas
Las Vegas metropolitan area
The Las Vegas Valley is the heart of the Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA also known as the Las Vegas–Paradise–Henderson MSA which includes all of Clark County, Nevada, and is a metropolitan area in the southern part of the U.S. state of Nevada. The Valley is defined by the Las Vegas Valley landform, a ...

 magician Dirk Arthur
Dirk Arthur
Dirk Arthur is an American magician. He has starred in the Las Vegas show Xtreme Magic, at the Tropicana Resort & Casino. The show featured leopards, Bengali Tigers, and snow tigers. After a six year run, the show celebrated its final performance on March 12, 2010. Large objects such as a diesel...

. There is a picture of a white tiger which appears to be cross-eyed on just one side in Siegfried & Roy's book Mastering The Impossible. A white tiger, named Scarlett O'Hara, who was Tony's sister, was cross-eyed only on the right side.

A male white tiger named Cheytan, a son of Bhim and Sumita born at the Cincinnati Zoo, died at the San Antonio Zoo in 1992 from anaesthesia complications during a root canal. It appears that white tigers also react strangely to anaesthesia. The best drug for immobilizing a tiger is CI 744, but a few tigers, white ones in particular, undergo a re-sedation effect 24–36 hours later. This is due to their inability to produce normal tyrosinase, a trait they share with albinos, according to zoo veterinarian
Veterinarian
A veterinary physician, colloquially called a vet, shortened from veterinarian or veterinary surgeon , is a professional who treats disease, disorder and injury in animals....

 David Taylor
David Taylor (veterinarian)
David Taylor, BVMS, FRCVS, FZS, born in Rochdale, Lancashire in 1934, is a veterinary surgeon. He qualified at the University of Glasgow School of Veterinary Medicine in 1956 and was the first veterinary surgeon to specialise in Zoo and Wildlife medicine.Taylor has worked with zoo and wild animals...

. He treated a pair of white tigers from the Cincinnati Zoo at Fritz Wurm's safari park in Stukenbrock, Germany, for salmonella
Salmonella
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with diameters around 0.7 to 1.5 µm, lengths from 2 to 5 µm, and flagella which grade in all directions . They are chemoorganotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction...

 poisoning, which reacted strangely to the anaesthesia.
Mohini was checked for Chédiak-Higashi syndrome in 1960, but the results were inconclusive. This condition is similar to albino mutations and causes bluish lightening of the fur colour, crossed eyes, and prolonged bleeding after surgery. Also, in the event of an injury, the blood is slow to coagulate. This condition has been observed in domestic cats, but there has never been a case of a white tiger having Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. There has been a single case of a white tiger having central retinal degeneration
Progressive retinal atrophy
Progressive retinal atrophy is a group of genetic diseases seen in certain breeds of dogs and, more rarely, cats. Similar to retinitis pigmentosa in humans, it is characterized by the bilateral degeneration of the retina, causing progressive vision loss culminating in blindness...

, reported from the Milwaukee County Zoo, which could be related to reduced pigmentation in the eye. The white tiger in question was a male named Mota on loan from the Cincinnati Zoo.

There is a myth that white tigers have an 80% infant mortality rate. However, the infant mortality rate for white tigers is no higher than it is for normal orange tigers bred in captivity. Cincinnati Zoo director Ed Maruska said: "We have not experienced premature death among our white tigers. Forty-two animals born in our collection are still alive. Mohan, a large white tiger, died just short of his 20th birthday, an enviable age for a male of any subspecies, since most males live shorter captive lives. Premature deaths in other collections may be artifacts of captive environmental conditions... In 52 births we had four stillbirths, one of which was an unexplained loss. We lost two additional cubs from viral pneumonia, which is not excessive. Without data from non-inbred tiger lines, it is difficult to determine whether this number is high or low with any degree of accuracy." Ed Maruska also addressed the issue of deformities: "Other than a case of hip dysplasia that occurred in a male white tiger, we have not encountered any other body deformities or any physiological or neurological disorders. Some of these reported maladies in mutant tigers in other collections may be a direct result of inbreeding or improper rearing management of tigers generally."

Inbreeding and outcrossing



Because of the extreme rarity of the white tiger allele in the wild, the breeding pool was limited to the small number of white tigers in captivity. According to Kailash Sankhala, the last white tiger ever seen in the wild was shot in 1958. Today, there is such a large number of white tigers in captivity that inbreeding is no longer necessary. A white Amur tiger may have been born at Center Hill and has given rise to a strain of white Amur tigers. The white tiger pictured on the right is at the ZooParc de Beauval
ZooParc de Beauval
ZooParc de Bauval is a tourist attraction in Central France. It carries a firm conservation message, breeding endangered species to be sent to other zoos.-La Savane Africaine:...

 in France, and came from Center Hill. A man named Robert Baudy realized that his tigers had white genes when a tiger he sold to Marwell Zoo in England developed white spots, and bred them accordingly. The Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa Bay has four of these white Amur tigers, descended from Robert Baudy's stock.

It has also been possible to expand the white-gene pool by outcrossing
Outcrossing
Outcrossing is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line. It increases genetic diversity, thus reducing the probability of all individuals being subject to disease or reducing genetic abnormalities...

 white tigers with unrelated orange tigers and then using the cubs to produce more white tigers. The white tigers Ranjit, Bharat, Priya and Bhim were all outcrossed, in some instances to more than one tiger. Bharat was bred to an unrelated orange tiger named Jack from the San Francisco Zoo
San Francisco Zoo
The San Francisco Zoo, housing more than 260 animal species, is a zoo located in the southwestern corner of San Francisco, California, between Lake Merced and the Pacific Ocean along the Great Highway...

 and had an orange daughter named Kanchana. Bharat and Priya were also bred with an unrelated orange tiger from Knoxville Zoo
Knoxville Zoo
Knoxville Zoo is a zoo located just east of downtown Knoxville, Tennessee near exit 392 of Interstate 40. The zoo is home to about 800 animals and welcomes over 400,000 human visitors each year....

, and Ranjit was bred to this tiger's sister, also from Knoxville Zoo. Bhim fathered several litters with an unrelated orange tigress named Kimanthi at the Cincinnati Zoo. Ranjit had several mates at the Omaha Zoo.

The last descendants of Bristol Zoo
Bristol Zoo
Bristol Zoo is a zoo in the city of Bristol in South West England. The zoo's stated mission is "Bristol Zoo Gardens maintains and defends biodiversity through breeding endangered species, conserving threatened species and habitats and promoting a wider understanding of the natural...

's white tigers were a group of orange tigers from outcrosses which were bought by a Pakistani senator and shipped to Pakistan. Rajiv, Pretoria Zoo's white tiger, who was born in the Cincinnati Zoo, was also outcrossed and sired at least two litters of orange cubs at Pretoria Zoo. Outcrossing is not necessarily done with the intent of producing more white cubs by resuming inbreeding further down the line.

Outcrossing is a way of bringing fresh blood into the white strain. The New Delhi Zoo loaned out white tigers to some of India's better zoos for outcrossing, and the government had to impose a whip
Whip
A whip is a tool traditionally used by humans to exert control over animals or other people, through pain compliance or fear of pain, although in some activities whips can be used without use of pain, such as an additional pressure aid in dressage...

 to force zoos to return either the white tigers or their orange offspring.

Siegfried & Roy performed at least one outcross. In the mid-1980s they offered to work with the Indian government in the creation of a healthier strain of white tigers. The Indian government reportedly considered the offer; however, India had a moratorium
Moratorium (law)
A moratorium is a delay or suspension of an activity or a law. In a legal context, it may refer to the temporary suspension of a law to allow a legal challenge to be carried out....

 on breeding white tigers after cubs were born at New Delhi Zoo with arched backs and clubbed feet, necessitating euthanasia
Euthanasia
Euthanasia refers to the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering....

. Siegfried & Roy
Siegfried & Roy
Siegfried & Roy are two German-American former entertainers who became known for their appearances with white lions and white tigers....

 have bred white tigers in collaboration with the Nashville Zoo.

Popular culture


White tigers appear frequently in literature, video games, television and comic books. Such examples include the Swedish
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 rock band Kent
Kent (band)
Kent is a Swedish alternative rock band founded in Eskilstuna in 1990, with the name Coca-Cola Kids, later Jones & Giftet , and Havsänglar...

, which featured a white tiger on the cover of their best-selling album Vapen & ammunition
Vapen & ammunition
Vapen & ammunition is a 2002 album by the Swedish band Kent. Absent from this record is a long, mostly-instrumental song, rounding the album off, as had been a characteristic of the band ever since their second record Verkligen...

in 2002. This was a tribute to the band's home town Eskilstuna
Eskilstuna
Eskilstuna is a city and the seat of Eskilstuna Municipality, Södermanland County, Sweden with 60,185 inhabitants in 2005. Eskilstuna has a large Sweden Finn population....

, as the local zoo in town had white tigers from the Hawthorn Circus as its main attraction. The white tiger has also been featured in the video for the song "Human
Human (The Killers song)
"Human" is a song by American rock band The Killers, and was released as the first single from the band's third studio album Day & Age. It premiered on Zane Lowe's evening show on BBC Radio 1 on September 22, 2008, with a digital release on September 30, 2008. It became the third song by the band...

" by the popular American synth-rock band The Killers. White Tiger
White Tiger (Band)
White Tiger was an American glam metal band.-Biography:The band was formed by former Kiss guitarist Mark St. John. St. John wanted to start a project with musicians who were previously unheard of in the music business and along with St...

 is also the name of an American glam metal
Glam metal
Glam metal is a subgenre of hard rock and heavy metal that arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States, particularly on the Los Angeles Sunset Strip music scene...

 band from the 1980s.

Aravind Adiga
Aravind Adiga
Aravind Adiga is an Indian writer and journalist. His debut novel, The White Tiger, won the 2008 Man Booker Prize.-Early life and education:...

's novel The White Tiger won the Man Booker Prize
Man Booker Prize
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original full-length novel, written in the English language, by a citizen of the Commonwealth of Nations, Ireland, or Zimbabwe. The winner of the Man Booker Prize is generally assured of international renown and...

 in 2008. The central character and narrator refers to himself as "The White Tiger". It was a nickname given to him as a child to denote that he was unique in the "jungle" (his hometown), that he was smarter than the others.

Games including white tigers include Zoo Tycoon
Zoo Tycoon
Zoo Tycoon is a business simulation developed by Blue Fang Games and released by Microsoft Game Studios. It is a tycoon game in which the player must run a zoo and try to make a profit. Although first released for Microsoft Windows and Macintosh in 2001, it was ported to the Nintendo DS in 2005...

and the Warcraft universe
Warcraft
Warcraft: Orcs & Humans is a real-time strategy game , developed by Blizzard Entertainment and published by Blizzard and Interplay Entertainment. The MS-DOS version was released in November 1994 and the Macintosh version in late 1996. Sales were fairly high, reviewers were mostly impressed, and the...

. The popularity of white tigers has led private users to create mods or game patches for Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion which changes the Khajit species to possess white tiger aspects, including realistic height and body sizes in relation to the standard orange Khajit. White Tigers are featured as a wild, tamable "pet" companion in Guild Wars Factions
Guild Wars Factions
Guild Wars Factions is an Action RPG released in 2006 by ArenaNet, the second in the Guild Wars series. Factions introduces the continent of Cantha where two warring factions, the Luxons and the Kurzicks, are locked in a global persistent war...

. White Tigers are also seen in Heroes of Might and Magic IV, where they are a level 2 unit for the nature alignment.

Both the Power Rangers
Power Rangers
Power Rangers is a long-running American entertainment and merchandising franchise built around a live action children's television series featuring teams of costumed heroes...

, and the Japanese Super Sentai
Super Sentai
The is the name given to the long-running Japanese superhero team genre of shows produced by Toei Co., Ltd., Toei Agency and Bandai, and aired by TV Asahi...

series from which the Power Rangers series are based have used White Tiger themed mecha
Mecha
A mech , is a science fiction term for a large walking bipedal tank or robot, including ones on treads and animal shapes.-Characteristics:...

. The White Ranger from Power Rangers: Wild Force
Power Rangers: Wild Force
Power Rangers Wild Force is the tenth anniversary of the Power Rangers franchise, based on the Super Sentai series Hyakujuu Sentai Gaoranger, which itself was the 25th anniversary of Super Sentai.Power Rangers Wild Force takes place in 2002...

and its Sentai counterpart also has the powers of the White Tiger, as well as the White Tiger-themed mecha. A trained white tiger from the Bowmanville Zoo in Ontario, Canada
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

, was used in the Animorphs
Animorphs
Animorphs is an English language science fiction series of young adult books written by K. A. Applegate and published by Scholastic. Five humans, Jake, Marco, Cassie, Rachel, and Tobias, and one alien, Aximili-Esgarrouth-Isthill , obtain the ability to morph into any animal they touch. They name...

TV series. A superhero
Superhero
A superhero is a type of stock character, possessing "extraordinary or superhuman powers", dedicated to protecting the public. Since the debut of the prototypical superhero Superman in 1938, stories of superheroes — ranging from brief episodic adventures to continuing years-long sagas —...

 named White Tiger appears in "The Justice Friends" on Dexter's Laboratory
Dexter's Laboratory
Dexter's Laboratory is an American animated television series created by Genndy Tartakovsky and produced by Cartoon Network Studios . The show is about a boy named Dexter who has an enormous secret laboratory filled with an endless collection of his inventions...

. A white tiger named White Blaze is frequently shown in the anime Ronin Warriors
Ronin Warriors
Ronin Warriors, known in Japan as , is a Japanese anime series and manga adaptation created by Hajime Yatate. The anime was produced and animated by Sunrise, and aired across Japan on Nagoya Television from April 30, 1988 to March 4, 1989 and has a total of 39 episodes.Ronin Warriors was produced...

.

Kylie Chan
Kylie Chan
Kylie Chan is a bestselling Australian author, best known for The Dark Heavens trilogy, set in modern day Hong Kong.The first novel in the trilogy, White Tiger, was published in July 2006, followed by Red Phoenix in January 2007...

's 'Dark Heavens' series incorporates the four winds of Chinese mythology
Chinese mythology
Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written tradition. These include creation myths and legends and myths concerning the founding of Chinese culture and the Chinese state...

 - including the The White Tiger.

See also

  • Captive white tigers
    Captive white tigers
    Captive white tigers are of unknown lineage and likely of mixed ancestry. The Tiger Species Survival Plan devised by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums has condemned the breeding of white tigers. The genes responsible for white colour are represented by 0.001% of the population...

  • Outbreeding depression
    Outbreeding depression
    A concept in selective breeding and zoology, outbreeding depression refers to cases when offspring from crosses between individuals from different populations have lower fitness than progeny from crosses between individuals from the same population....

  • Visiting A White Tiger

Further reading

  • Park, Edwards "Around The Mall And Beyond." Smithsonian September 1979
  • Reed, Elizabeth C., "White Tiger In My House." National Geographic
    National Geographic Society
    The National Geographic Society , headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world. Its interests include geography, archaeology and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical...

    May 1970
  • "Genetic abnormality of the visual pathways in a "white" tiger" R.W. Guillery and J.H. Kaas Science
    Science (journal)
    Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is one of the world's top scientific journals....

    June 22, 1973
  • "Now He's The Cat's Meow" Dan Geringer Sports Illustrated
    Sports Illustrated
    Sports Illustrated is an American sports media company owned by media conglomerate Time Warner. Its self titled magazine has over 3.5 million subscribers and is read by 23 million adults each week, including over 18 million men. It was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the...

    Vol. 65 No. July 3, 21, 1986
  • "Here Kitty Kitty: Cincinnati Zoo Breeds Five Rare White Tigers" People
    People (magazine)
    In 1998, the magazine introduced a version targeted at teens called Teen People. However, on July 27, 2006, the company announced it would shut down publication of Teen People immediately. The last issue to be released was scheduled for September 2006. Subscribers to this magazine received...

    Weekly 21:97-9 January 23, 1984
  • "White Tiger: An Indian Maharaja Is Trying To Sell His Rare Cub To A U.S. Zoo." Life
    Life (magazine)
    Life generally refers to three American magazines:*A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936. Time founder Henry Luce bought the magazine in 1936 solely so that he could acquire the rights to its name....

    31:69 October 15, 1951
  • "White Tiger From India" Life 49: 47-8 December 19, 1960
  • "Grrr! Ownership of a rare white tiger disputed." The Detroit News February 11, 1975 Section A pg. 3;
  • Sankhala, Kailash, "Tiger !: The story of the Indian tiger/Kailash Sankhala New York Simon & Schuster c1977. (see above references)
  • Bernays, M.E., Smith, Rie "Convergent strabismus in a white tiger." Australian Vet. J. Vol. 77, No. 3, March 1999;
  • "Indian rajah offers to sell rare white cub", N.Y. Times and The Times ads June 22, 1951;
  • "White tiger exports banned, India, N.Y. Times D. 4, 1960 12:2;
  • "'White' Tigress Arrives by Air On Way to Zoo in Washington." N.Y. Times Dec. 1, 1960 pg. 37 L+;
  • "Eisenhower Is Wary as He meets a 'White' Tiger." N.Y. Times Dec. 6, 1960 pg. 47 L+;
  • Husain, Dawar "Breeding And Hand-Rearing Of White Tiger Cubs Panthera tigris At Delhi Zoo." The International Zoo Yearbook Vol VI 1966
  • Bruning, Fred, "Hall Has A White Tiger by the Handle." The Miami Herald Jan. 14, 1968;
  • "Lady Is A Tiger." The Miami Herald Jan. 19, 1968;
  • Roychoudhury, A.K., The Indian White Tiger Studbook (1989);\
  • "2 tiger cubs, rare Siberian, born at fair" The Baltimore Sun, Monday, June 28, 1976 page C.1;
  • "President Gets White Tiger for National Zoo" The Philadelphia Inquirer Tuesday Morning Dec. 6, 1960
  • "Death of white tiger" Washington Post July 9, 1971 pgs. B1, B5
  • Greenberg, Robert I, "White Tigress Visits Zoo for 3 Days And Monkeys See Red" The Philadelphia Inquirer Saturday Morning Dec. 3, 1960
  • "White Tiger At Zoo For Three-Day Visit" The Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia, Friday Dec. 2, 1960
  • "He's Not Enchanted: Eisenhower Accepts Tigress-Distantly" The Bulletin, Philadelphia, Dec. 6, 1960
  • "20 year old Mohini Rewa put to death at National Zoo" Washington Post April 3, 1979 pg. B1
  • D.C. born white tiger killed by mate in Columbus (Ohio) zoo" Washington Post July 8, 1983 pg. B3
  • Greed, R.E., "White Tigers, Panthera tigris, At Bristol Zoo" The International Zoo Yearbook Vol. V 1965
  • Sankhala, Kailash "Breeding Behavior of The Tiger Panthera tigris In Rajasthan" International Zoo Yearbook Vol. VII 1967 pg. 133
  • "White Bengal tiger imported for Longleat safari park" The Times March 22, 1989 pg. 3d
  • "White tigers at Bristol Zoo" The Times August 17, 1963 pg. 8b.
  • "Siberian tiger cubs born at Como Zoo" The New York Times July 23, 1958 pg. 40:2
  • Hanna, Jack "Monkeys On The Interstate" Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc. 666 Fifth Ave. New York New York 10103 1989 pgs. 206-209, 211, 216-217
  • Maruska, Edward J., 33. "White Tiger Phantom or Freak?", Part VI White Tiger Politics, Tigers of The World The Biology, Biopolitics, Management, and Conservation of an Endangered, Species Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey USA 1987
  • Roychoudhury, A.K., 34. "White Tigers and Their Conservation" White Tiger Politics 1987
  • Simmons, Lee G., 35. "White Tigers The Realities" White Tiger Politics 1987
  • Latinen, Catherine, 36. "White Tigers and Species Survival Plans" White Tiger Politics 1987
  • Isaac, J., 1984 Tiger Tale. Geo 6 (August) 82-86
  • Gee, E.P., 1964 "The White Tigers" Animals 3:282-286
  • Gee, E.P., 1964 "The Wildlife of India" London: Collins.
  • Stracey, P.D., "Tigers" London: Barker; New York: Golden P., 1968
  • Mazak, Vratislav, Der Tiger, Wittenberg Lutherstadt: Ziemensen, 1983
  • Gee, E.P., "Albinism And Partial Albinism In Tigers", Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 1959, Vol. 56, pages. 581-587
  • Van Nostrand, Mary L., "Mohan The Ghost Tiger of Rewa", Zoonooz May 1984 pgs. 4-7
  • Sunquist, Fiona "The Secret Of The White Tiger" National Geographic World Dec. 2000 pg. 26
  • "Verdict upheld in cubs case", The Baton Rouge Advocate, Nov. 16, 1986 (story concerning the theft of five white tiger cubs by a veterinarian from the Hawthorn Circus in 1984. Two died. The cubs were taken to Louisiana.)
  • "Rewati", Columbus ZooViews, Autumn 1981
  • Sayler, H. L., The White Tiger Of Nepal, Reilly & Britton Co. 1912
  • Culver, Lynn, White Tigers; History, Breeding, And Genetics Exoticcatz.com
  • An Albino Tiger From The Central Provinces, Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society, Miscellaneous Notes. Vol. XXIV No. 4 pg. 819 1916 Messybeast.com
  • Miscellaneous Notes. No. I-A White tigress in Orissa, The Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. XIX Nov. 15, 1909 pg. 744 Messybeast.com
  • Guggisberg, C.A.W., Wild Cats Of The World, Taplinger Publishing Co. INC. New York, New York 1975 pg. 186
  • Rare tigers born at fair, The New York Times June 28, 1976
  • First white tiger in Africa, Zoon No.29 1988-4
  • How to breed a white tiger, Zoon No.29 1988-4
  • Tahir, Zulqernain, Virus claims lives of two zoo tigers, Dawn April 20, 2006 Dawn.com
  • Ahmed, Shoaib, Another zoo tiger dies, Dawn Monday March 19, 2007 Dawn.com
  • Das, Prafulla, Ten tigers die at Nandankanan Zoo, The Hindu Thursday July 6, 2000 Hindu.com
  • Chattopadhayay, Suhrid Sankar, in Bhubaneswar, The Nandankanan tragedy: The death of 12 tigers in an Orissa zoo raises important questions about the care and management of wild animals in captivity, Frontline Vol. 17 issue 15, July 22- Aug. 04, 2000 Hindu.com
  • Photo News: White tigers at Nandankanan Zoo Newkerala.com
  • Roychoudhury, A.K., 1978 A study of inbreeding in white tigers. Sci. Cul. 44:371-72
  • Roychoudhury, A.K., & L.N. Acharjyo. 1983. Origin of white tigers at Nandankanan Biological Park, Orissa. Indian J. Exper. Biol. 21:350-52
  • Roychoudhury, A.K., & K.S. Sankhala. 1979. Inbreeding in white tigers. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 88:311-23.
  • Simmons, J. 1981. White tiger enchantment. American Way Oct.: 82-84
  • Anonymous. 1983 The rare propagating white tigers of the Cincinnati Zoo. Marathon World No. 2:18-21
  • Geringer, Dan, Now He's The Cat's Meow, Sports Illustrated Vol. 65 No. July 3, 21, 1986
  • Bhadura, R.S., 1987 An enigma birth of white tiger at Kanpur Zoological Park, Zoo's Print 2(8): 9-10
  • Roychoudhury, A.K., White Tigers Their Roots and Branches, Centre of Demographic and Population Genetics, University of Texas, Health Science Centre, Houston, Texas 77025
  • Sharma, K.K., 1988 Birth of a White Tiger in Jaipur Zoo, Zoo's Print 3(11):6
  • Roychoudhury, A.K., 1980 Is There Any Lethal Gene In The White Tiger Of Rewa? Current Science 49:518-520
  • Divyabhanusinh, 1980 The Earliest Record Of A White Tiger (Panthera tigris), Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society. 83 (Supplement):163-165
  • Mishra, C.G., Acharjo, L.N., Choudhury L.N., 1982 Birth Of A White Tiger Cub (Panthera tigris) To Normal-Coloured Tigers In Captivity Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society, 79:404-406
  • Roychoudhury, A.K., 1980 White Tigers Threat To Their Survival, Probe (India) Issue March 1980 pgs. 10-11
  • Murtaugh, J.,1980, A Genetic Analysis Of The North American Population Of White Tigers with Recommendations for Future Management. Natl. Zool. Park Rep. Washington D.C.
  • Fay, J. 1983 White tigers, A rare cat makes zoo news. 3-2-1-Contact, Feb. :4-8.
  • Acus, D., The coming of the white tiger. Anim. Keeper's Forum 13(2):43
  • Roychoudhury A.K. 1985 Tiger! Tiger! Burning white, Sci Today 19(3):16-8
  • Roychoudhury A.K. 1988 Origin of white tiger at Patna Zoo, Zoo's Print 4:8-9
  • Ross, J. 1983 El tigre blanco: El "Tiger Fantasma" de la India, Geo Mundo 466-473
  • Kelly, D.F., H. Pearson, A.I. Wright & L.W. Greenham. 1980 Morbidity in captive white tigers. In: The Comparative Pathology of Zoo Animals, eds. R.J. Montali & G.M. Migaki pp. 183–8 Smithsonian Institution Pr. Washington DC
  • Oswald, A. 1960 The White Tigers of Rewa, Cheetal 2(2):63-7
  • Sandhu, J.S., & Dhindsa, M.S. 1986 On breeding and conservation of White Tiger. Tiger Paper. 13(4):25-7
  • Pant, M.M., & I.D. Dhariya. 1979 White tiger progeny-its economic potentialities. In International Symposium on Tiger, pp. 294–7. Project Tiger, Govt. India. Dept. Environ. New Delhi
  • Naidu, M.K., 1987 White tiger at National Zoo, New Delhi. Zoo's Print 2(10):13-4
  • Anonymous. 1987. White tigers weak in sex. Hindustan Times (New Delhi) July 9
  • Anonymous. 1979 Brown cubs to white tigress. Times of India (new Delhi) Oct. 10
  • Anonymous. 1989. White tigers for Texas. Zoo's Print 4(3):3-4
  • Naidu, M.K., 1978. White tigress of Nehru Zoological Park, Wild News 6(1):7
  • Robinson, R. 1969 The white tigers of Rewa and Gene Homology in the Felidae, Genetica 40:198-200
  • Robinson, R. 1969 The white tigers of Rewa, Carnivore Genetics Newsletter 8:192-3
  • Ross, J. 1982 The white tiger enigma, Your Cincinnati Zoo News Spring 10-4
  • Sankhala, K.S., 1969 The white tigers, Cheetal 12(1):78-81.
  • Street, P. 1964 The fabulous white tigers. Animal Life Jul: 36-7
  • Thomas, W.D., 1982 The ghost tigers of Asia, Zooview 16(3):15
  • Walker, S., 1984 Gnu's Letter 2(11):8-12.
  • Tilson, R.L., 1992 No stamp of approval for white tiger postage stamp. Zoo Biology 11:71-3.
  • Anonymous 1979 White tigers paralyzed. Hindustan Times (New Delhi) December 6.
  • Anonymous 1980 White tigress dead. Times of India (New Delhi) September 19.
  • Saharia, V.B., 1979 Population dynamics in captive tigers. Wild News 7:37-40.
  • Wallace, J., 1987 Tiger, Tiger, Safari: The Magazine of the Toledo Zoo. 3(2):13.
  • Brandon M., 2010, Niko, Fablehaven 5, Roon's shapeshifter

External links