Voyager 1

Voyager 1

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{{about|the spacecraft|the album by The Verve|Voyager 1 (album)|fictional Voyager One from Space: 1999|Voyager One (Space: 1999)}} The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram (1,592 [[Pound (mass)|lb]]) [[space probe]] launched by [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration|NASA]] in 1977, to study the outer [[Solar System]] and eventually interstellar space. Operating for {{For year month day| year=1977| month=09| day=05}} as of today ({{date}}), the spacecraft receives routine commands and transmits data back to the [[Deep Space Network]]. At a distance of {{Convert|119|AU|km}} as of October 2011, it is the farthest man-made object from [[Earth]]. Voyager 1 is now in the [[heliosheath]], which is the outermost layer of the [[heliosphere]]. It will most likely be the first probe to leave the Solar System. Being a part of the [[Voyager program]] with its sister craft [[Voyager 2]], the spacecraft is currently in extended mission, tasked with locating and studying the boundaries of the Solar System, including the [[Kuiper belt]], the heliosphere and interstellar space. The primary mission ended November 20, 1980, after encountering the [[Exploration of Jupiter|Jovian system]] in 1979 and the [[Exploration of Saturn|Saturnian system]] in 1980. It was the first probe to provide detailed images of the two largest planets and their [[Natural satellite|moons]].

History

In the 1960s, a [[Planetary Grand Tour|Grand Tour]] to study the outer planets was proposed. This prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s. The development of the interplanetary probes coincided with a favorable alignment of the planets, which would allow a probe to reach the outer Solar System by means of the then-new [[gravity assist]] technique. Gravity assists would enable a single probe to visit the four [[gas giant]]s ([[Jupiter]], [[Saturn]], [[Uranus]], and [[Neptune]]) while requiring a minimal amount of propellant and a shorter transit duration between planets. Originally, Voyager 1 was planned as Mariner 11 of the [[Mariner program]]. However, due to budget cuts, the mission was scaled back to be a flyby of Jupiter and Saturn, and renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was later changed to Voyager as the probe designs began to differ greatly from previous Mariner missions.

Golden record

[[Image:Voyager Golden Record fx.png|75px|right|Voyager Golden Record]] {{main | Voyager Golden Record}} Each Voyager space probe carries a [[Voyager Golden Disc|gold-plated audio-visual disc]] in the event that either spacecraft is ever found by intelligent life-forms from other planetary systems. The discs carry photos of the Earth and its lifeforms, a range of scientific information, spoken greetings from people (e.g. the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the President of the United States, and the children of the Planet Earth) and a medley, "Sounds of Earth", that includes the sounds of whales, a baby crying, waves breaking on a shore, and a collection of Earth music, including works by [[Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart|Mozart]] and [[Chuck Berry]]'s "[[Johnny B. Goode]]".

Spacecraft design

Voyager 1 was constructed by the [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]]. It has 16 [[hydrazine]] thrusters, [[three-axis stabilization]] [[gyroscopes]], and celestial referencing instruments (sun sensor/Canopus Star Tracker) to keep the probe's's radio antenna pointed toward Earth. Collectively these instruments are part of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) along with redundant units of most instruments and 8 backup thrusters. The spacecraft also included 11 scientific instruments to study celestial objects as it traveled through space.

Communications

Voyager 1s radio communication system was designed for the probe's ultimate journey beyond the solar system. It includes a large (3.7-meter) parabolic [[high-gain antenna]] ([[:File:Voyager Program - High-gain antenna diagram.png|see diagram]]) to communicate with the [[Deep Space Network]] on Earth. Communications are conducted over the S-band (13 cm wavelength) and X-band (3.6 cm wavelength) providing bandwidth as high as 115.2 kilobits per second. When the spacecraft is unable to communicate with Earth, the Digital Tape Recorder (DTR) can record up to 62,500 [[kilobyte]]s of data for transmission when communication is reestablished.

Power

[[File:Voyager Program - RTG upclose.png|x75px|right|Voyager 1 RTG unit]] Voyager 1 has three Multihundred-Watt [[radioisotope thermoelectric generator]]s (MHW RTG). Each RTG has 24 pressed [[plutonium]] oxide spheres; the heat from the spheres generates approximately 157 watts of power (at launch) - 470 watts total from the three RTGs. The power output of the RTGs declines over time, but Voyager 1s RTGs will allow operations to continue until at least 2025. ([[:File:Voyager Program - RTG diagram 1.png|see diagram 1]], [[:File:Voyager Program - RTG diagram 2.png|2]])

Scientific instruments

{| class="wikitable collapsible" |- ! colspan="3" scope="col" style="width:135px;"| Expand |- | {| class="wikitable" |- ! scope="col" style="width:135px;"| Instrument Name ! scope="col" style="width:50px;"| Abr. ! Description |- |
Imaging Science System
(disabled)
|
(ISS)
{{about|the spacecraft|the album by The Verve|Voyager 1 (album)|fictional Voyager One from Space: 1999|Voyager One (Space: 1999)}} The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram (1,592 [[Pound (mass)|lb]]) [[space probe]] launched by [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration|NASA]] in 1977, to study the outer [[Solar System]] and eventually interstellar space. Operating for {{For year month day| year=1977| month=09| day=05}} as of today ({{date}}), the spacecraft receives routine commands and transmits data back to the [[Deep Space Network]]. At a distance of {{Convert|119|AU|km}} as of October 2011, it is the farthest man-made object from [[Earth]]. Voyager 1 is now in the [[heliosheath]], which is the outermost layer of the [[heliosphere]]. It will most likely be the first probe to leave the Solar System. Being a part of the [[Voyager program]] with its sister craft [[Voyager 2]], the spacecraft is currently in extended mission, tasked with locating and studying the boundaries of the Solar System, including the [[Kuiper belt]], the heliosphere and interstellar space. The primary mission ended November 20, 1980, after encountering the [[Exploration of Jupiter|Jovian system]] in 1979 and the [[Exploration of Saturn|Saturnian system]] in 1980. It was the first probe to provide detailed images of the two largest planets and their [[Natural satellite|moons]].

History

In the 1960s, a [[Planetary Grand Tour|Grand Tour]] to study the outer planets was proposed. This prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s. The development of the interplanetary probes coincided with a favorable alignment of the planets, which would allow a probe to reach the outer Solar System by means of the then-new [[gravity assist]] technique. Gravity assists would enable a single probe to visit the four [[gas giant]]s ([[Jupiter]], [[Saturn]], [[Uranus]], and [[Neptune]]) while requiring a minimal amount of propellant and a shorter transit duration between planets. Originally, Voyager 1 was planned as Mariner 11 of the [[Mariner program]]. However, due to budget cuts, the mission was scaled back to be a flyby of Jupiter and Saturn, and renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was later changed to Voyager as the probe designs began to differ greatly from previous Mariner missions.

Golden record

[[Image:Voyager Golden Record fx.png|75px|right|Voyager Golden Record]] {{main | Voyager Golden Record}} Each Voyager space probe carries a [[Voyager Golden Disc|gold-plated audio-visual disc]] in the event that either spacecraft is ever found by intelligent life-forms from other planetary systems. The discs carry photos of the Earth and its lifeforms, a range of scientific information, spoken greetings from people (e.g. the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the President of the United States, and the children of the Planet Earth) and a medley, "Sounds of Earth", that includes the sounds of whales, a baby crying, waves breaking on a shore, and a collection of Earth music, including works by [[Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart|Mozart]] and [[Chuck Berry]]'s "[[Johnny B. Goode]]".

Spacecraft design

Voyager 1 was constructed by the [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]]. It has 16 [[hydrazine]] thrusters, [[three-axis stabilization]] [[gyroscopes]], and celestial referencing instruments (sun sensor/Canopus Star Tracker) to keep the probe's's radio antenna pointed toward Earth. Collectively these instruments are part of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) along with redundant units of most instruments and 8 backup thrusters. The spacecraft also included 11 scientific instruments to study celestial objects as it traveled through space.

Communications

Voyager 1s radio communication system was designed for the probe's ultimate journey beyond the solar system. It includes a large (3.7-meter) parabolic [[high-gain antenna]] ([[:File:Voyager Program - High-gain antenna diagram.png|see diagram]]) to communicate with the [[Deep Space Network]] on Earth. Communications are conducted over the S-band (13 cm wavelength) and X-band (3.6 cm wavelength) providing bandwidth as high as 115.2 kilobits per second. When the spacecraft is unable to communicate with Earth, the Digital Tape Recorder (DTR) can record up to 62,500 [[kilobyte]]s of data for transmission when communication is reestablished.

Power

[[File:Voyager Program - RTG upclose.png|x75px|right|Voyager 1 RTG unit]] Voyager 1 has three Multihundred-Watt [[radioisotope thermoelectric generator]]s (MHW RTG). Each RTG has 24 pressed [[plutonium]] oxide spheres; the heat from the spheres generates approximately 157 watts of power (at launch) - 470 watts total from the three RTGs. The power output of the RTGs declines over time, but Voyager 1s RTGs will allow operations to continue until at least 2025. ([[:File:Voyager Program - RTG diagram 1.png|see diagram 1]], [[:File:Voyager Program - RTG diagram 2.png|2]])

Scientific instruments

{| class="wikitable collapsible" |- ! colspan="3" scope="col" style="width:135px;"| Expand |- | {| class="wikitable" |- ! scope="col" style="width:135px;"| Instrument Name ! scope="col" style="width:50px;"| Abr. ! Description |- |
Imaging Science System
(disabled)
|
(ISS)
{{about|the spacecraft|the album by The Verve|Voyager 1 (album)|fictional Voyager One from Space: 1999|Voyager One (Space: 1999)}} The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram (1,592 [[Pound (mass)|lb]]) [[space probe]] launched by [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration|NASA]] in 1977, to study the outer [[Solar System]] and eventually interstellar space. Operating for {{For year month day| year=1977| month=09| day=05}} as of today ({{date}}), the spacecraft receives routine commands and transmits data back to the [[Deep Space Network]]. At a distance of {{Convert|119|AU|km}} as of October 2011, it is the farthest man-made object from [[Earth]]. Voyager 1 is now in the [[heliosheath]], which is the outermost layer of the [[heliosphere]]. It will most likely be the first probe to leave the Solar System. Being a part of the [[Voyager program]] with its sister craft [[Voyager 2]], the spacecraft is currently in extended mission, tasked with locating and studying the boundaries of the Solar System, including the [[Kuiper belt]], the heliosphere and interstellar space. The primary mission ended November 20, 1980, after encountering the [[Exploration of Jupiter|Jovian system]] in 1979 and the [[Exploration of Saturn|Saturnian system]] in 1980. It was the first probe to provide detailed images of the two largest planets and their [[Natural satellite|moons]].

History

In the 1960s, a [[Planetary Grand Tour|Grand Tour]] to study the outer planets was proposed. This prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s. The development of the interplanetary probes coincided with a favorable alignment of the planets, which would allow a probe to reach the outer Solar System by means of the then-new [[gravity assist]] technique. Gravity assists would enable a single probe to visit the four [[gas giant]]s ([[Jupiter]], [[Saturn]], [[Uranus]], and [[Neptune]]) while requiring a minimal amount of propellant and a shorter transit duration between planets. Originally, Voyager 1 was planned as Mariner 11 of the [[Mariner program]]. However, due to budget cuts, the mission was scaled back to be a flyby of Jupiter and Saturn, and renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was later changed to Voyager as the probe designs began to differ greatly from previous Mariner missions.

Golden record

[[Image:Voyager Golden Record fx.png|75px|right|Voyager Golden Record]] {{main | Voyager Golden Record}} Each Voyager space probe carries a [[Voyager Golden Disc|gold-plated audio-visual disc]] in the event that either spacecraft is ever found by intelligent life-forms from other planetary systems. The discs carry photos of the Earth and its lifeforms, a range of scientific information, spoken greetings from people (e.g. the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the President of the United States, and the children of the Planet Earth) and a medley, "Sounds of Earth", that includes the sounds of whales, a baby crying, waves breaking on a shore, and a collection of Earth music, including works by [[Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart|Mozart]] and [[Chuck Berry]]'s "[[Johnny B. Goode]]".

Spacecraft design

Voyager 1 was constructed by the [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]]. It has 16 [[hydrazine]] thrusters, [[three-axis stabilization]] [[gyroscopes]], and celestial referencing instruments (sun sensor/Canopus Star Tracker) to keep the probe's's radio antenna pointed toward Earth. Collectively these instruments are part of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) along with redundant units of most instruments and 8 backup thrusters. The spacecraft also included 11 scientific instruments to study celestial objects as it traveled through space.

Communications

Voyager 1s radio communication system was designed for the probe's ultimate journey beyond the solar system. It includes a large (3.7-meter) parabolic [[high-gain antenna]] ([[:File:Voyager Program - High-gain antenna diagram.png|see diagram]]) to communicate with the [[Deep Space Network]] on Earth. Communications are conducted over the S-band (13 cm wavelength) and X-band (3.6 cm wavelength) providing bandwidth as high as 115.2 kilobits per second. When the spacecraft is unable to communicate with Earth, the Digital Tape Recorder (DTR) can record up to 62,500 [[kilobyte]]s of data for transmission when communication is reestablished.

Power

[[File:Voyager Program - RTG upclose.png|x75px|right|Voyager 1 RTG unit]] Voyager 1 has three Multihundred-Watt [[radioisotope thermoelectric generator]]s (MHW RTG). Each RTG has 24 pressed [[plutonium]] oxide spheres; the heat from the spheres generates approximately 157 watts of power (at launch) - 470 watts total from the three RTGs. The power output of the RTGs declines over time, but Voyager 1s RTGs will allow operations to continue until at least 2025. ([[:File:Voyager Program - RTG diagram 1.png|see diagram 1]], [[:File:Voyager Program - RTG diagram 2.png|2]])

Scientific instruments

{| class="wikitable collapsible" |- ! colspan="3" scope="col" style="width:135px;"| Expand |- | {| class="wikitable" |- ! scope="col" style="width:135px;"| Instrument Name ! scope="col" style="width:50px;"| Abr. ! Description |- |
Imaging Science System
(disabled)
|
(ISS)
| Utilized a two-camera system (narrow-angle/wide-angle) to provide imagery of Jupiter, Saturn and other objects along the trajectory. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-01 More] {| class="wikitable collapsible" |- ! colspan="2" | Filters |- | {| ! colspan="4" scope="col" style="width:320px;"| Narrow Angle Camera Filters |- ! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5; width:60px;"| Name ! style="background: #e5e5e5" | Wavelength ! style="background: #e5e5e5" | Spectrum ! style="background: #e5e5e5" | Sensitivity |- |
Clear
|
280–640 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Clear.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background:#fff;"| |- |
[[Ultraviolet|UV]]
|
280–370 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - UV.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #1d0036" | |- |
Violet
|
350–450 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Violet.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #8300b5" | |- |
Blue
|
430–530 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Blue.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #00d5ff" | |- |
'
|
'
|
[[File:Clear.png|50px | center |]]
|
'
|- |
Green
|
530–640 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Green.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #ffef00" | |- |
'
|
'
|
[[File:Clear.png|50px | center |]]
|
'
|- |
Orange
|
590–640 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Orange.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #ff8900" | |- |
'
|
'
|
[[File:Clear.png|50px | center |]]
|
'
|} | {| ! colspan="4" scope="col" style="width:320px;"| Wide Angle Camera Filters |- ! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5; width:60px;"| Name ! style="background: #e5e5e5" | Wavelength ! style="background: #e5e5e5" | Spectrum ! style="background: #e5e5e5" | Sensitivity |- |
Clear
|
280–640 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Clear.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background:#fff;"| |- |
'
|
'
|
[[File:Clear.png|50px | center |]]
|
'
|- |
Violet
|
350–450 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Violet.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #8300b5" | |- |
Blue
|
430–530 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Blue.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #00d5ff" | |- |
[[Methane|CH4]]-U
|
536–546 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - CH4U.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #81ff00" | |- |
Green
|
530–640 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Green.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #ffef00" | |- |
[[Sodium|Na]]-D
|
588–590 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - NaD.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #ffe200" | |- |
Orange
|
590–640 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - Orange.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #ff8900" | |- |
[[Methane|CH4]]-JST
|
614–624 nm
|
[[File:Voyager - Filters - CH4JST.png|50px | center |]]
| style="background: #ff7b00" | |} |} *Principal investigator: Bradford Smith / University of Arizona ([http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/iss/index.html PDS/PRN website]) *Data: [http://pds-imaging.jpl.nasa.gov/Admin/resources/cd_voyager.html PDS/PDI data catalog], [http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/iss/raw_images.html PDS/PRN data catalog] |- |
Radio Science System
(disabled)
|
(RSS)
| Utilized the telecommunications system of the Voyager spacecraft to determine the physical properties of planets and satellites (ionospheres, atmospheres, masses, gravity fields, densities) and the amount and size distribution of material in Saturn's rings and the ring dimensions. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-02 More] *Principal investigator: G. Tyler / Stanford University [http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/iss/instrument.html PDS/PRN overview] *Data: [http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/search/?filter=VG_230,VG_231,VG_232,VG_233&title=Voyager_1_Radio_Science_Investigation PDS/PPI data catalog], [http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/rss/index.html PDS/PRN data catalog] ([http://pds-rings.seti.org/vol/VG_2803_peer_review/ VG_2803]), [http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft_data/voyager/voyager1/radio_science_rss/ NSSDC data archive] |- |
Infrared [[Interferometer]] [[Spectrometer]]
(disabled)
|
(IRIS)
| Investigates both global and local energy balance and atmospheric composition. Vertical temperature profiles are also obtained from the planets and satellites as well as the composition, thermal properties, and size of particles in [[Saturn's rings]]. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-03 More] *Principal investigator: Rudolf Hanel / NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ([http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/iris/instrument.html PDS/PRN website]) *Data: [http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/iris/original_volume.html PDS/PRN data catalog], [http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/iris/expanded_volumes.html PDS/PRN expanded data catalog] ([http://pds-rings.seti.org/vol/VGIRIS_0001_peer_review/ VGIRIS_0001], [http://pds-rings.seti.org/vol/VGIRIS_0002_peer_review/ VGIRIS_002]), [http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft_data/voyager/voyager1/infrared_interferometer_spectrometer_iris/ NSSDC Jupiter data archive] |- |
Ultraviolet [[Spectrometer]]
(active)
|
(UVS)
| Designed to measure atmospheric properties, and to measure radiation. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-04 More] *Principal investigator: A. Broadfoot / University of Southern California ([http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/uvs/instrument.html PDS/PRN website]) *Data: [http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/uvs/data.html PDS/PRN data catalog] |- |
Triaxial Fluxgate [[Magnetometer]]
(active)
|
(MAG)
| Designed to investigate the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn, the solar-wind interaction with the magnetospheres of these planets, and the interplanetary magnetic field out to the solar wind boundary with the [[interstellar magnetic field]] and beyond, if crossed. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-05 More] *Principal investigator: Norman Ness / NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ([http://vgrmag.gsfc.nasa.gov/ website]) *Data: [http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/search/?filter=VG_1501,VG_1601,VGMA_1&title=Voyager_1_Magnetometer_Investigation PDS/PPI data catalog], [http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft_data/voyager/voyager1/magnetic_fields/ NSSDC data archive] |- |
[[Plasma (physics)|Plasma]] [[Spectrometer]]
(defective)
|
(PLS)
| Investigates the macroscopic properties of the plasma ions and measures electrons in the energy range from 5 eV to 1 keV. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-06 More] *Principal investigator: John Richardson / MIT ([http://web.mit.edu/space/www/voyager/voyager.html website]) *Data: [http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/search/?filter=VG_1501,VG_1601,VG_PLS&title=Voyager_1_Plasma_Science_Investigation PDS/PPI data catalog], [http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft_data/voyager/voyager1/plasma/ NSSDC data archive] |- |
Low Energy [[Charged Particle]] Instrument
(active)
|
(LECP)
| Measures the differential in energy fluxes and angular distributions of ions, electrons and the differential in energy ion composition. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-07 More] *Principal investigator: Stamatios Krimigis / JHU/APL / University of Maryland ([http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/VOYAGER/ JHU/APL website] / [http://space.umd.edu/Voyager/ UMD website] / [http://voyager.ftecs.com/default.htm KU website]) *Data: [http://voyager-mac.umd.edu/ UMD data plotting], [http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/search/?filter=VG_1501,VG_1601,VGLE_&title=Voyager_1_Low-Energy_Charge_Particle_Investigation_at_Saturn PDS/PPI data catalog], [http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft_data/voyager/voyager1/particle/lecp/ NSSDC data archive] |- |
[[Cosmic Ray]] System
(active)
|
(CRS)
| Determines the origin and acceleration process, life history, and dynamic contribution of interstellar cosmic rays, the nucleosynthesis of elements in cosmic-ray sources, the behavior of cosmic rays in the interplanetary medium, and the trapped planetary energetic-particle environment. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-08 More] *Principal investigator: [[Edward C. Stone|Edward Stone]] / CalTech / NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ([http://voyager.gsfc.nasa.gov/ website]) *Data: [http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/search/?filter=VG_1501,VG_1601&title=Voyager_1_Cosmic_Ray_Investigation PDS/PPI data catalog], [http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft_data/voyager/voyager1/particle/crs/ NSSDC data archive] |- |
Planetary [[Radio Astronomy]] Investigation
(disabled)
|
(PRA)
| Utilizes a sweep-frequency radio receiver to study the radio-emission signals from Jupiter and Saturn. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-10 More] *Principal investigator: James Warwick / University of Colorado *Data: [http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/search/?filter=VG_1501,VG_1601,VGPR_1201&title=Voyager_1_Planetary_Radio_Astronomy_Investigation PDS/PPI data catalog], [http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft_data/voyager/voyager1/planet_radio_ast_pra/planetary_radio_%20astronomy_data/ NSSDC data archive] |- |
[[Polarimeter|Photopolarimeter]] System
(defective)
|
(PPS)
| Utilized a telescope with a [[polarizer]] to gather information on surface texture and composition of Jupiter and Saturn and information on atmospheric scattering properties and density for both planets. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-11 More] *Principal investigator: Arthur Lane / JPL ([http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/pps/instrument.html PDS/PRN website]) *Data: [http://pds-rings.seti.org/voyager/pps/data.html PDS/PRN data catalog] |- |
[[Plasma (physics)|Plasma]] Wave System
(active)
|
(PWS)
| Provides continuous, sheath-independent measurements of the electron-density profiles at Jupiter and Saturn as well as basic information on local wave-particle interaction, useful in studying the magnetospheres. [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/experimentDisplay.do?id=1977-084A-13 More] *Principal investigator: Donald Gurnett / University of Iowa ([http://www-pw.physics.uiowa.edu/plasma-wave/voyager/ website]) *Data: [http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/search/voyager1/voyager1_pws.jsp PDS/PPI data catalog] |} |} For more details on the Voyager space probes' identical instrument packages, see the separate article on the overall [[Voyager Program#Spacecraft design|Voyager Program]].
{{Image gallery |title=Images of the spacecraft |width=175 |lines=2 |Voyager Program - spacecraft diagram.png|Voyager [[spacecraft]] diagram|[[Voyager Program|Voyager]] spacecraft diagram. |Voyager1 Space simulator.gif|Voyager 1 in the Space Simulator chamber|Voyager 1 in a [[space simulator]] chamber. |Record is attached to Voyager 1.jpg|Gold-Plated Record is attached to Voyager 1|[[Voyager Golden Record|Gold-Plated Record]] is attached to Voyager 1. |Voyager 1 reencapsulated.jpg|Voyager 1 awaiting payload entry into a Titan/Centaur-6 rocket|Voyager 1 awaiting payload entry into a [[Titan (rocket)|Titan]]/[[Centaur|Centaur-6]] rocket. }} {{commons-inline|bullet=none|Category:Voyager spacecraft|the Voyager spacecraft}}

Mission profile

{| style="float:right;" |- ! colspan="2" | Timeline of travel |- | {| class="wikitable" |- ! scope="col" style="width:100px;"| Date ! Event |- |
1977-09-05
| Spacecraft launched at 12:56:00 UTC. |- |
1977-12-10
| Entered [[asteroid belt]]. |- |
1977-12-19
| Voyager 1 overtakes [[Voyager 2]]. ([[:File:Voyager 1 - Voyager 2 - Voyager 1 overtakes Voyager 2.png|see diagram]]) |- |
1978-09-08
| Exited asteroid belt. |- |
1979-01-06
| Start Jupiter observation phase. {| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed" |- ! scope="col" style="width:100px;"| Time ! scope="col" style="width:230px;"| Event |- |
1979-03-05
| Encounter with [[Jovian system]]. |- |
06:54:00
| [[Amalthea (moon)|Amalthea]] flyby at 420,200 km. |- |
12:05:26
| [[Jupiter]] closest approach at 348,890 km from the center of mass. |- |
15:14:00
| [[Io (moon)|Io]] flyby at 20,570 km. |- |
18:19:00
| [[Europa (moon)|Europa]] flyby at 733,760 km. |- |
1979-03-06
| |- |
02:15:00
| [[Ganymede (moon)|Ganymede]] flyby at 114,710 km. |- |
17:08:00
| [[Callisto (moon)|Callisto]] flyby at 126,400 km. |- |
1979-04-13
| Phase Stop |} |- |
1980-08-22
| Start Saturn observation phase. {| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed" |- ! scope="col" style="width:100px;"| Time ! scope="col" style="width:230px;"| Event |- |
1980-11-12
| Encounter with [[Saturnian system]]. |- |
05:41:21
| [[Titan (moon)|Titan]] flyby at 6,490 km. |- |
22:16:32
| [[Tethys (moon)|Tethys]] flyby at 415,670 km. |- |
23:46:30
| [[Saturn]] closest approach at 184,300 km from the center of mass. |- |
1980-11-13
| |- |
01:43:12
| [[Mimas (moon)|Mimas]] flyby at 88,440 km. |- |
01:51:16
| [[Enceladus (moon)|Enceladus]] flyby at 202,040 km. |- |
06:21:53
| [[Rhea (moon)|Rhea]] flyby at 73,980 km. |- |
16:44:41
| [[Hyperion (moon)|Hyperion]] flyby at 880,440 km. |- |
1980-12-14
| Phase Stop |} |- |
1980-12-14
| Begin Voyager Interstellar Mission. |} {| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed" |- ! colspan="2" scope="col" style="width:460px;"| More |- | scope="col" style="width:100px;" |
1990-02-14
| scope="col" style="width:350px;"| Final images of the [[Voyager Program]] acquired by Voyager 1 to create the [[Family Portrait (Voyager)|Solar System "Family Portrait"]]. |- |
1997-09-05
| 20 years of continuous flight and operation at 12:56:00 UTC. |- |
1998-02-17
| Voyager 1 overtakes [[Pioneer 10]] as the most distant man-made object from the Sun, at 69.419[[Astronomical Unit|AU]]. Voyager 1 is moving away from the Sun over 1 AU per year faster than Pioneer 10 |- |
2003-05-11
| First spacecraft to reach a distance of 90AU from the Sun. |- |
2004-12-17
| Passed the [[termination shock]] and began exploration of the inner heliosheath. |- |
2007-02-02
| Terminated Plasma subsystem operations. |- |
2007-04-11
| Terminated plasma subsystem heater. |- |
2007-09-05
| 30 years of continuous flight and operation at 12:56:00 UTC. |- |
2008-01-16
| Terminated planetary radio astronomy experiment operations. |} |}

Launch and trajectory

The Voyager 1 probe was launched on September 5, 1977, from [[Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41|Space Launch Complex 41]] at [[Cape Canaveral Air Force Station|Cape Canaveral, Florida]], aboard a [[Titan IIIE]]/[[Centaur (rocket stage)|Centaur]] [[carrier rocket|launch vehicle]]. The twin [[Voyager 2]] probe had been launched two weeks earlier, on August 20, 1977. Despite being launched later, Voyager 1 reached both Jupiter and Saturn sooner, following a shorter trajectory.
{{Image gallery |width=200 |lines=2 |Titan 3E with Voyager 1.jpg|Voyager 1 lifted off with a Titan IIIE/Centaur|Voyager 1 lifted off with a [[Titan IIIE]]/[[Centaur (rocket stage)|Centaur]] |Tour-v1-2.svg|Trajectory of Voyager 1 primary mission|Trajectory of Voyager 1 primary mission. }}
{{-}}

Encounter with Jupiter

{{main|Exploration of Jupiter}} Voyager 1 began photographing [[Jupiter]] in January 1979. Its closest approach to Jupiter was on March 5, 1979, at a distance of about 349,000 kilometers (217,000 mi) from the planet's center. Due to the greater photographic resolution allowed by a closer approach, most observations of the moons, rings, magnetic fields, and the [[radiation belt]] environment of the Jovian system were made during the 48-hour period that bracketed the closest approach. Voyager 1 finished photographing the Jovian system in April 1979. The two Voyager space probes made a number of important discoveries about Jupiter, its satellites, its radiation belts, and its never-before-seen [[planetary ring]]s. The most surprising discovery in the Jovian system was the existence of [[volcanic activity]] on the [[Io (moon)|moon Io]], which had not been observed either from the ground, or by [[Pioneer 10]] or [[Pioneer 11]].
{{Image gallery |width=175 |lines=2 |Great Red Spot From Voyager 1.jpg|The Great Red Spot as seen from Voyager 1.|The [[Great Red Spot]] as seen from Voyager 1. |Jupiter from Voyager 1.jpg|False color detail of Jupiter's atmosphere, as imaged by Voyager 1.|False color detail of [[Jupiter]]'s atmosphere. |Volcanic crater with radiating lava flows on Io.jpg|View of lava flows radiating from the volcano Ra Patera on Io.|View of lava flows radiating from the volcano [[Ra Patera]] on [[Io (moon)|Io]]. |Vulcanic Explosion on Io.jpg|Volcanic eruption on Io photographed from Voyager 1|Volcanic eruption on [[Io (moon)|Io]] photographed from Voyager 1. }} {{Image gallery |width=175 |lines=2 |PIA01970.jpg|Europa as seen from Voyager 1 at a distance of 2.8 million km|[[Europa (moon)|Europa]] as seen from Voyager 1 at a distance of 2.8 million km. |Ganymede - PIA02278.jpg|Icy surface of Ganymede as photographed from 253,000 km|Icy surface of [[Ganymede (moon)|Ganymede]] as photographed from 253,000 km. |Valhalla crater on Callisto.jpg|Valhalla crater on Callisto as imaged by Voyager 1 in 1979.|[[Valhalla crater]] on [[Callisto (moon)|Callisto]] as imaged by Voyager 1 in 1979. |Jupiter_from_Voyager_1_PIA02855_thumbnail_300px_max_quality.ogv|Voyager 1 time lapse movie of Jupiter approach.|Voyager 1 time lapse movie of Jupiter approach. [[:File:Jupiter from Voyager 1 PIA02855 max quality.ogv|Full size video here]] }} {{commons-inline|bullet=none|Category:Photos of Jupiter system by Voyager 1|the Voyager 1 Jupiter encounter}}

Encounter with Saturn

{{main|Exploration of Saturn}} The gravitational assist trajectories at Jupiter were successfully carried out by both Voyagers, and the two spacecraft went on to visit [[Saturn]] and its system of moons and rings. Voyager 1s Saturnian flyby occurred in November 1980, with the closest approach on November 12, 1980, when the space probe came within {{convert|124000|km|mi|-3|sp=us}} of Saturn's cloud-tops. The space probe's cameras detected complex structures in the rings of Saturn, and its [[remote sensing]] instruments studied the atmospheres of Saturn and its giant moon [[Titan (moon)|Titan]]. Because [[Pioneer 11]] had one year earlier detected a thick, gaseous atmosphere over Titan, the Voyager space probes' controllers at the [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]] elected for Voyager 1 to make a close approach of Titan, and of necessity end its Grand Tour there. (For the continuation of the Grand Tour, see the Uranus and Neptune sections of the article on [[Voyager 2]].) Its trajectory with a close fly-by of Titan caused an extra gravitational deflection that sent Voyager 1 out of the plane of the [[ecliptic]], thus ending its planetary science mission. Voyager 1 could have been commanded onto a different trajectory, whereby the gravitational slingshot effect of Saturn's mass would have steered and boosted Voyager 1 out to a fly-by of [[Pluto]]. However, this plutonian option was not exercised, because the other trajectory that led to the close fly-by of Titan was decided to have more scientific value and less risk.
{{Image gallery |width=175 |lines=2 |Vg1_p23254_hires.jpg|View of Saturn lit from the right. Saturn's globe casts its shadow over the rings to the left. Part of the lower hemisphere can be seen through the rings. Some of the spoke-like ring features are visible as bright patches.|[[Saturn]] from 5.3 million km, four days after its closest approach. |Voyager 1 - view of Saturn's moon Mimas.jpg|Mimas at a range of 425,000 km from Voyager 1|[[Mimas (moon)|Mimas]] at a range of 425,000 km from Voyager 1. |Tethys - PIA01974.jpg|Tethys photographed by Voyager 1 from 1.2 million km|[[Tethys (moon)|Tethys]] photographed by Voyager 1 from 1.2 million km. |Dione from Voyager 1.jpg|Fractured terrain on Dione imaged from a distance of 240,000 km from Voyager 1|Fractured terrain on [[Dione (moon)|Dione]]. }} {{Image gallery |width=175 |lines=2 |Rhea - PIA02270.jpg|Impact craters on the surface of Rhea appear similar to Earth's Moon|Impact craters on the surface of [[Rhea (moon)|Rhea]] appear similar to [[Mercury (planet)|Mercury]]. |Titan's thick haze layer-picture from voyager1.jpg|Cream-colored section of a disk is separated from the black space above by a fuzzy blue curve|[[Titan (moon)|Titan's]] thick haze layer is shown in this enhanced Voyager 1 image. |Titan Harze.jpg|orange coloured area at bottom right is separated from black space at upper left by diagonal series of blue bands|Layers of [[haze]] covering Saturn's satellite [[Titan (moon)|Titan]]. |Voyager1-saturn-f-ring.jpg|Voyager 1 image of Saturn's F Ring|Voyager 1 image of [[Saturn|Saturn's]] [[F Ring]]. }} {{commons-inline|bullet=none|Category:Photos of Saturn system by Voyager 1|the Voyager 1 Saturn encounter}}

Interstellar mission

[[File:Family portrait (Voyager 1).png|400px|thumb|alt=a set of grey squares trace roughly left to right. A few are labeled with single letters associated with a nearby coloured square. J is near to a square labeled Jupiter; E to Earth; V to Venus; S to Saturn; U to Uranus; N to Neptune. A small spot appears at the centre of each coloured square|The "[[Family Portrait (Voyager)|family portrait]]" of the Solar System taken by Voyager 1]] On February 14, 1990, Voyager 1 took the first ever "[[Family Portrait (Voyager)|family portrait]]" of our Solar System as seen from outside, which includes the famous image known as "[[Pale Blue Dot]]". It is estimated that both Voyager craft have sufficient electrical power to operate their radio transmitters until at least 2025, which will be over 48 years after launch. On November 17, 1998, Voyager 1 overtook [[Pioneer 10]] as the most distant man-made object from Earth, at a distance of {{convert|69.419|AU|km|abbr=on}}. It is currently the most distant functioning space probe to receive commands and transmit information to Earth. The spacecraft's mission now is its eternal mission, to study and wander the [[interstellar medium]]. Scientists expect it to cross the [[heliopause]] sometime between 2012–2015. At 17.26 km/s (10.72 mi/s) it is still the fastest probe in the Solar System.{{citation needed|date=December 2010}} Provided Voyager 1 does not collide with any stellar objects, the [[New Horizons]] [[space probe]] will never pass it, despite being launched from Earth at a faster speed than either Voyager spacecraft. New Horizons is traveling at about 15 km/s, 2 km/s slower than Voyager 1, and is still slowing down. When New Horizons reaches the same distance from the sun as Voyager 1 is now, its speed will be about 13 km/s (8 mi/s). The close flyby of Saturn and Titan gave Voyager 1 a massive advantage with its extra [[gravity assist]]. {| class="wikitable" |- ! Year || End of specific capabilities as a result of the available electrical power limitations |- | 2007 || Termination of plasma subsystem (PLS) |- | 2008 || Power off Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiment (PRA) |- | 2010 || Terminate scan platform and Ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) observations |- | 2015 || Termination of Data Tape Recorder (DTR) operations (limited by ability to capture 1.4 kbit/s data using a 70 m/34 m antenna array. This is the minimum rate at which the DTS can read-out data.) |- | 2016 approx || Termination of [[gyroscope|gyroscopic]] operations |- | 2020 || Start shutdown of science instruments ({{as of|2010|10|18|lc=y|df=US}} the order is undecided but the Low-Energy Charged Particles, Cosmic Ray Subsystem, Magnetometer, and Plasma Wave Subsystem instruments are expected to still be operating) |- | 2025–2030 || Can no longer power any single instrument. |}

Heliopause

[[File:PIA12375.jpg|thumb|200px|alt=a Bow Shock appears to wrap around the heliosphere that encompasses the Solar System|Voyager 1 is currently within the [[heliosheath]] and approaching interstellar space.]] As Voyager 1 heads for interstellar space, its instruments continue to study the Solar System; [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]] scientists are using the [[plasma wave]] experiments aboard Voyager 1 and 2 to look for the [[heliopause]], the boundary at which the [[solar wind]] transitions into the [[interstellar medium]]. Scientists at the [[Johns Hopkins University]] [[Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory|Applied Physics Laboratory]] believe that Voyager 1 entered the [[termination shock]] in February 2003. Some other scientists have expressed doubt, discussed in the journal [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] of November 6, 2003. In a scientific session at the [[American Geophysical Union]] meeting in [[New Orleans]] on the morning of May 25, 2005, Dr. [[Ed Stone]] presented evidence that Voyager 1 crossed the termination shock in December 2004. The issue will not be resolved until other data becomes available, since Voyager 1s solar-wind detector ceased functioning in 1990. This failure has meant that termination shock detection must be inferred from the data from the other instruments on board.{{citation needed|date=December 2010}} However, in May 2005 a NASA press release said that consensus was that Voyager 1 was now in the [[heliosheath]]. Scientists anticipate that the craft will reach the [[heliopause]] in 2015. Voyager 1 is the farthest human-made object from [[Earth]] in the Universe, traveling away from both the Earth and the [[Sun]] at a relative speed faster than any other [[space probe|probe]].

Current status

[[image:Outersolarsystem-probes-4407b.svg|thumb|400px|right|alt=yellow spot surrounded by three concentric light-blue ellipses labeled from inside to out: Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. A grey ellipse labeled Pluto overlaps Neptune's ellipse. Four colored lines trails outwards from the central spot: a short red line labeled Voyager 2 traces to the right and up; a green and longer line labeled Pioneer 11 traces to the right; a purple line labeled Voyager traces to the bottom right corner; and a dark blue line labeled Pioneer 10 traces left|Location and trajectories of Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, as of July 7, 2007. Note Voyager 2 is farther than Pioneer 11 and only appears closer here due to its −55 degree declination, and that Voyager 1s position is drawn too far away.]] {{As of|2011|11|30|alt=As of November 30, 2011}}, Voyager 1 is about {{Convert|119.81911|AU|km}} from the Earth and about {{Convert|119.0165|AU|km}} from the Sun. The magnitude of the Sun from Voyager 1 is −16.4, or the dimmest as seen from any of the five space probes leaving the Solar System. [[Radio]] signals traveling at the [[speed of light]] between Voyager 1 and Earth take 16.12 hours to cross the distance between the two. (To compare, [[Proxima Centauri]], the closest star to our Sun, is about 4.2 light-years distant or {{val|2.65|e=5|u=AU}}.) Voyager 1's current relative velocity to the sun is {{convert|17,060|m/s|km/h mph|abbr=on}}. This calculates as 3.599 AU per year, about 10% faster than Voyager 2. At this velocity, 73,600 years would pass before reaching the nearest star, [[Proxima Centauri]], were the spacecraft traveling in the direction of that star. Voyager 1 will need about 14,000 years at its current velocity to travel one light year, therefore 40,000 years will pass before coming anywhere near other stars or planets. Voyager 1 is predicted to enter the interstellar medium between 2012–15, though some scientists say it will be in 2014. Voyager 1 is still the farthest man made object in the universe from Earth. {{As of|2011|05|21|alt=As of May 21, 2011}}, the spacecraft is at 12.44° declination and 17.163 hours right ascension, and is at an ecliptic latitude of 34.9° (the ecliptic latitude changes very slowly), placing it in the constellation [[Ophiuchus]] as observed from the Earth. NASA continues its daily tracking of Voyager 1 with its [[Deep Space Network]]. This network measures both the elevation and azimuth angles of the incoming radio waves from Voyager 1, and it also measures the distance from the Earth to Voyager 1. Voyager 1 is not heading towards any particular star, but in about [[Timeline of the far future#Spacecraft and space exploration|40,000 years]] it will pass within 1.6 light years of the star [[AC+79 3888]], which is at present in the [[constellation]] [[Camelopardalis]]. That star is generally moving towards our [[Solar System]] at about {{convert|119|km/s|km/h mph|abbr=on}}.

Events

February 17, 1998, Voyager 1 became the farthest man made object from Earth, passing [[Pioneer 10]] at 69 AU from the sun. From this day onwards to the present, Voyager 1 has been the farthest man made object from Earth, and no probe has passed its distance and there are no probes predicted to be launched in the next 20 years that will pass the probe. December 18, 2004, Voyager 1 passed the [[termination shock]]. This marks the point where the solar wind slows to subsonic speeds. This is the unofficial date of departure from the Solar System. While the spacecraft still remains under the sun's influence, at the termination shock particles from the interstellar medium interact with solar particles, signaling that the hypothetical [[heliopause]] is not far from this point. Six years later in 2010 Voyager 1 entered an area of the heliosheath where the solar wind outward speed is 0, or flowing sideways relative to the sun. This signals that Voyager 1 is getting very close to entering the [[interstellar medium]]. On March 31, 2006, the [[amateur radio operator]]s from [[AMSAT]] in Germany tracked and received radio waves from Voyager 1 using the {{convert|20|m|ft|0|sing=on|sp=us}} dish at [[Bochum]] with a long integration technique. Retrieved data was checked and verified against data from the [[Deep Space Network]] station at Madrid, Spain. This is believed to be the first such tracking of Voyager 1. On December 13, 2010, it was confirmed that Voyager 1 passed the reach of the [[solar wind]] emanating from the Sun. It is suspected that solar wind at this distance turns sideways due to interstellar wind pushing against the heliosphere. Since June 2010, detection of solar wind has been consistently at zero, providing conclusive evidence of the event. The meridional (north-south) speed of the solar wind, which is suspected to have increased, cannot be inferred in Voyager 1s current configuration.{{citation needed|date=January 2011}} On this date, the spacecraft was approximately {{convert|17.3|e9km|AU|sp=us|disp=x| (| or 10.8 billion miles)}} from the Sun On March 8, 2011, Voyager 1 was commanded to change its position to detect the current direction of the solar wind. A test roll done in February confirmed the spacecraft's ability to maneuver and reorient itself. The course of the spacecraft was not changed. It rotated 70 degrees counterclockwise with respect to Earth to detect the solar wind. This was the first time the spacecraft had done any major maneuvering since the [[Family Portrait (Voyager)|family portrait photograph]] of the planets was taken in 1990. The spacecraft will be maneuvered again in the coming months to further analyze the solar wind. The spacecraft after the first roll had no problem in reorienting itself with [[Alpha Centauri]], Voyager 1s guide star, to begin sending transmissions back to Earth. This is a major milestone in the Voyager interstellar program. Voyager 2 is still detecting outward flow of solar wind but it is estimated that in the coming months or years it will experience the same conditions as Voyager 1. On June 15, 2011, the distance to the interstellar medium was recalculated, which is now believed to be much less than previously thought. NASA believes that Voyager 1 may cross into the space between the stars sometime in the next year or so. The Low Energy Charged Particle device on Voyager 1 has detected the outward flow of the solar wind to be at zero. This means it is flowing parallel up and down to the sun, signaling that the interstellar medium is very close. Voyager 2 still has more travel time before it reaches the interstellar medium, while scientists believed Voyager 1 will enter interstellar space "at any time".

External links

{{Sister project links}} {{commons category-inline|bullet=none}} * [http:/voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/index.html Explanation of VIM] {{Jupiter spacecraft}} {{Saturn spacecraft}}