Volhynia

Volhynia

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{{Redirect|Wołyń|the Polish village|Wołyń, Łódź Voivodeship}} [[File:Ukraine-Volhyn-en.png|thumb|325px|Volhynia]] [[File:Luchesk.JPG|thumb|325px|[[Lubart's Castle]] was the seat of the medieval princes of Volhynia.]] '''Volhynia''', '''Volynia''', or '''Volyn''' ({{lang-uk|Волинь}}, {{lang-ru|Волы́нь}}, {{lang-pl|Wołyń}}, {{lang-lt|Voluinė}} or ''Volynė'', {{lang-de|Wolhynien}} or ''Wolynien'', {{lang-yi|װאָהלין, ''Vohlin''}}) is a historic region in western [[Ukraine]] located between the rivers [[Pripyat River|Prypiat]] and [[Southern Bug|Southern Bug River]], to the north of [[Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] and [[Podolia]]; the region is named for the former city of ''Volyn'' or ''Velyn'', said to have been located on the [[Southern Bug|Southern Bug River]], whose name may come from the [[Proto-Slavic language|Proto-Slavic]] root *''vol/vel''- 'wet.' The area has some of the oldest [[Slavic peoples|Slavic]] settlements in Europe. Part of historical Volhynia now form the [[Volyn Oblast|Volyn]], [[Rivne Oblast|Rivne]], and parts of [[Zhytomyr Oblast|Zhytomyr]], [[Ternopil Oblast|Ternopil]] and [[Khmelnytskyi Oblast]]s of [[Ukraine]], as well as parts of [[Poland]] (see [[Chełm]]). Other major cities include [[Lutsk]], [[Kovel]], [[Kremenets]], [[Volodymyr-Volynskyi]], and [[Starokostiantyniv]] ([[Khmelnytskyi Oblast]]). Many Jewish ''[[shtetl]]s'' (villages) like [[Trochenbrod]] and [[Lozisht]] were once an integral part of the region. == History == The ancient city of [[Halych]] first appears in history in 981 when taken over by [[Vladimir the Great]] of the [[Kievan Rus]]. Volhynia's early history coincides with that of the duchies or principalities of Halych and [[Volodymyr-Volynsky]]. These two successor states of the Kievan Rus formed [[Halych-Volhynia]] between the 12th and the 14th centuries. [[Image:Pochaev.jpg|thumb|325px|[[Pochayiv Lavra]], the spiritual heart of the [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox]] in Volhynia.]] After the disintegration of the [[Grand Duchy]] of Halych-Volhynia (also called Galich-Vladimir Rus) circa 1340, the [[Kingdom of Poland (1320–1385)|Kingdom of Poland]] and the [[Grand Duchy of Lithuania]] divided up the region between them, Poland taking Western Volhynia and Lithuania Eastern Volhynia (1352–1366). After 1569 Volhynia formed a province of the [[Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]]. During this period [[Poles]] and [[Jew]]s settled in the area. The [[Roman Catholic|Roman]] and [[Greek Catholic]] churches became established in the province, and many Orthodox churches were forcibly annexed by the latter. Records of the first agricultural colonies of [[Mennonite]]s date from 1783. After the [[Third Partition of Poland]] in 1795 Volhynia became the [[Volhynian Governorate]] of the [[Russian Empire]] and covered an area of 71,852.7 square kilometers. In the year of 1897 its population amounted to 2,989,482 souls (41.7 per square kilometer) and consisted of 73.7 percent [[ethnic Russians|Russians]] (predominantly [[Ukrainians]]), 13.2 percent [[ethnic Jew|Jews]], 6.2 percent [[ethnic Poles|Poles]], and 5.7 percent [[ethnic German|Germans]]. Most of the German settlers had immigrated from [[Congress Poland]]. A small number of [[Czechs|Czech]] settlers also had arrived. Although economically the area was developing rather quickly, upon the eve of the [[First World War]] it was still the most rural province in Western Russia. [[Image:Mezhirich.jpg|325px|thumb|Mezhyrich Abbey in [[Ostroh]] was endowed by the [[Ostrogski]] princes in the 15th century.]] In 1921, after the end of the [[Polish-Soviet war]], the treaty known as the [[Peace of Riga]] divided Volhynia between Poland and the [[Soviet Union]]. Poland took the larger part and established a [[Wołyń Voivodeship (1921–1939)|Volhynian Voivodeship]]. Most of eastern Volhynia became part of the [[Zhytomyr Oblast]]. From 1935-38 [[Joseph Stalin]] had the Poles of Eastern Volhynia deported — the first ethnic deportation in the history of the Soviet Union (see [[Polish minority in Soviet Union]]). Following the signing of the [[Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact]] in 1939, and the subsequent invasion and division of Polish territories between the Reich and the USSR, Volhynia was occupied by the Soviet Union. In the course of the [[Nazi-Soviet population transfers]] which followed this German-Soviet reconciliation, most of the German minority population of Volhynia were transferred to [[Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany]]. During the war the Ukrainians exterminated a large part of the local Polish population (see [[Massacre of Poles in Volhynia]]). Ethnic Germans in these areas were expelled from these areas starting in 1945. Volhynia was annexed to Soviet Ukraine after the end of World War II. Most of the remaining ethnic Polish population were expelled to Poland in 1945 (see [[Recovered Territories]]). Since the [[dissolution of the Soviet Union]], Volhynia has been an integral part of Ukraine. ==See also== * [[Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia]] * [[Galicia (Eastern Europe)]] * [[Massacre of Poles in Volhynia]] * [[Polish Autonomous District]] ==Literature== * [http://www.polona.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=oai:www.polona.pl:12127&from=http://fbc.pionier.net.pl Jan Potocki Histoire anciènne du gouvernement de Volhynie : pour servir de suite à l'histoire primitive des peuples de la Russie, Sankt Petersbourg 1805] * ''Andriyashev Alexander'' (1887) (in Russian) [http://new.runivers.ru/lib/book4304/43447/ Essay of the History of Volyn land] (Очерк истории Волынской земли) at [[Runivers.ru]] in [[Djvu]] and [[PDF]] formats == External links == {{Wiktionary|Volyn}} {{commons category|Volhynia}} * [http://www.tal.yesh.net The Journey to Trochenbrod and Lozisht aug 2006] * [http://www.rollintl.com/roll/volhynia.htm Imperial Russian Volhynia District Map] * [http://www.swissmennonite.org/ Swiss-Volhynian Mennonites] * [http://www.sggee.org Germans in Volhynia - English] * [http://www.volhynia.com Germans in Volhynia - Another English site] * [http://www.wolhynien.de Germans in Volhynia - German] * [http://www.volhynia-galicia.pl/ Volhynia-Galicia] {{pl icon}} {{Ukrainian historical regions}} {{coord missing|Ukraine}}